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Nos. 163 to 168. 


It will flourish, if naturalists, cheiM^ v &A&<£iwHeS, philologers, and men of science, in different 
parts of Asia will commit their observations "to writing, and send them to the Asiatic Society, 
in Calcutta; it will languish if such communications shall be long intermitted ; and will die away 
if they shall entirely cease."— Sir Wm, Jones. 






No. 163. 


I.— Notes on the Pokree and Dhanpoor Copper mines in Gherwal. By Sieg- 

mund Reckendorf, Esq., Mining Engineer. .. .. .. .. 471 

II.— -Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills to the north-east of Sudyah. 
By Lieut. E. A. Rowlatt, 21st Regt. N.I. In a letter to Major F. Jenkins, 
Governor General's Agent, N.E. Frontier, dated Saikwah, 1st January 
1845. Communicated by the Government of India. .. .. .. 477 

III.— Note on a curious Sandstone formation at Sasseram, Zillah Shahabad. 

By Lieut. W. S. Sherwill, 66th B.N.I. With a plate. .. .. 495 

IV. — Notes, chiefly Geological, across the Peninsula of Southern India, from 
Madras (Lat. N. 13° 5') to Goa (Lat. N. 15° 30') by the Baulpilly Pass 
and Ruins of Bijanugger. By Capt. Newbold, F.R.S., M.N.I. Assistant 
Commissioner Kurnool, Madras Territory. With a plate. .. .. 497 

V.— On the Invention of the Armenian Alphabet. By Johannes Avdall, M. A.S. 522 

VI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the months of July and August, 1845. lxvii 

No. 164. 

I.— On the Tenures and fiscal relations of the Owners and Occupants of the soil 

in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. By James Alexander, Esq., B.C. S. .. 527 

II- — Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known Species of 
Birds. By Ed. Blylh, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. (Con- 
tinued from p. 212, ante.) .. .. .. .. .. .. 546 

III.— A notice of the Alphabets of the Philippine Islands. Translated from 
the " Informe sobre el Estado de las Islas Filipinas," of Don Sinibaldo de 
Mas, Madrid, January 1843, Vol. 1. p. 25. By Henry Piddington, Sub- 
Secretary Asiatic Society, &c. &c. With a plate. .. .. .. 603 

IV. — Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes for the year 1843. By 

Lieut R. Baird Smith, F.G.S., Bengal Engineers. .. .. ..604 

No. 165. 

I.— On the Buddhist Emblems of Architecture. By Capt. T. Latter, B.N.I. 

Assistant Commissioner, Arracan. With two plates. .. •• .. 623 

iv Contents. 


II. — Notes, chiefly Geological, across the Peninsula from Mangalore, in Lat. 
N. 12° 49', by the Bisly Pass to Madras, in Lat. N. 13° 4'. By Captain 
Newbold, F.R.S., M.N. I., Assistant Commissioner, Kurnool 641 

III. — Account (Part II.) of parts of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, and 
of Sama, Sudoom, Bunher, Swat, Deer and Bajour, visited by Mulla 
Aleem-ulla of Peshawar, in the latter part of the year 1837. Arranged and 
translated by Major R. Leech, C.B. Late Political Agent, Candahar, un- 
der whose instructions the Tour was made. . . . . . . . . 660 

IV. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of October, 1845. .. lxxxix 

No. 166. 

I.-— A Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in the Indian and China Seas ; 
being the Charles Heddle's Hurricane in the Southern Indian Ocean, 
22nd to 27th February, 1845. By Henry Piddington. With two plates. ., 703 

II. — Account of the Esafzai-Affghans inhabiting Sama (the Plains,) Swat, 
Bunher and the Chamla valley, being a detail of their clans, villages, chiefs 
and force, and the tribute they pay to the Sikhs. By Shekh Khash Alee, 
a follower of the fanatic Syud Ahmed. Prepared in 1837, under the in- 
structions of Major R. Leech, C. B., late Political Agent, Candahar. .. 736 

III.— Report of a Trial for Rebellion, held at Moulmein by the Commissioner 
of Tenasserim. Communicated by the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. With 
a plate. 747 

IV. — On the Iron works of Beerbhoom. 754 

V.— Account of certain Agate Splinters found in the clay stratum bordering the 
river Narbudda; specimens accompanying. By Capt. J. Abbott, late Assis- 
tant in Nimarr. 756 

VI. — Notes, chiefly Geological, across South India from Pondicherry, Lat. N. 
11° 56', to Beypoor, in Lat. N. 11° 12', through the great Gap <fr Palghaut- 
cherry. By Captain Newbold F.R.S., M.N. I., Assistant Commissioner, 
Kurnool 759 

VII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of November, 1845. . . cxi 

No. 167. 

I.— Review of L'Histoire du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. By Dr. E. 

Roer 783 

II.— On the genuine character of the Hora Sastra, as regards the use of Greek 

terms. By J. Muir, Esq., C.S 809 

III.— Account of the Panjkora Valley, and of Lower and Upper Kashkar, by 
Rajah Khan of Cabool. Translated by Major R. Leech, C.B., Late Poli- 
tical Agent, Candahar, at whose request it was drawn up in 1840 812 

IV. — On the Assam Petroleum Beds (In a letter to Major Jenkins, communi- 
cated by him.) By Capt. P. S. Hannay 817 

V.— Remarks upon the occurrence of Granite in the bed of the Narbudda. By 

Capt. J. Abbott, B.A., Late Principal Assistant Commissioner, Nimarr. .. 821 

Contents. v 

VI.— Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Koros. By Lieut. Col. 

Lloyd and A. Campbell, Esq., Superintendent at Darjeeling 823 

VII. — Narrative of a Tour over that part of the Naga Hills, lying between the 
Diko and Dyang river, in a letter from Capt. Brodie, P. A. Commissioner 
to Major Jenkins, Commissioner of Assam. Communicated from the 
Foreign Department. . . • 828 

No. 168. 

I.— Drafts for a Fauna Indica, (Comprising the Animals of the Himalaya 
Mountains, those of the valley of the Indus, of the Provinces of Assam, 
Sylhet, Tipperah, Arracan, and of Ceylon, with Occasional Notices of 
Species from the Neighbouring Countries.) By Ed. Blyth, Curator of 
the Asiatic Society's Museum, &c. &c 845 

II. — A Fourteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India; being the Bay of 
Bengal, Ceylon, Malabar Coast, and Arabian Sea Storms of 29th Novem- 
ber to 5th December, 1845. By Henry Piddington, President of Marine 
Courts of Enquiry 878 

III. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of December, 1845. .. cxxi 




Agate Splinters found in the clay 
stratum bordering the river Nar- 
budda; Account of certain. By 
Captain J. Abbott, 756 

Armenian Alphabet ; On the Inven- 
tion of the. By Johannes Avdall, 522 

Assam Petroleum Beds ; On the. 
By Capt. P. S. Hannay, .. ..817 

Buddhist Emblems of Architecture; 
On the. By Capt. T. Latter, ..623 

Buddhism Indien; KeviewofE. Bur- 
nout's Histoire du. By Dr. E. 
Roer, 783 

Cabool and Peshawar Territories; 
Account (Part 11.) of parts of the. 
By Major R. Leech 660 

Csoma de Kbros ; Further Notes res- 
pecting the late. By Lieut. Col. 
Lloyd and A. Campbell, Esq. . . 823 

Earthquakes for the year 1843; Re- 
gister of Indian and Asiatic. By 
Lieut. R. Baird Smith 604 

Esafzai-Affghans inhabiting Sama, 
&c. ; Account of the. By Shekh 
Khash Alee, .. .. .. 736 

Fauna Indica; Drafts for a— Com- 
prising the Animals of the Hima- 
laya Mountains, &c. By Ed. 
Blyth 845 

Granite in the bed of the Narbudda; 
Remarks upon the occurrence of. 
By Capt. J. Abbott, .. ..821 

Hora Sastra, as regards the use of 
Greek terms; On the genuine cha- 
racter of the. By J. Muir, Esq. 809 

Iron works of Beerbhoom. On the, 754 

Law of Storms in the Indian and 
China Seas ; A Thirteenth Memoir 
on the. By H. Piddington, .. 703 

Law of Storms in India ; A Four- 
teenth Memoir on the— being the 
Bay of Bengal, Ceylon, Malabar 
Coast, and Arabian Sea Storms of 
29th November to 5th December, 
1845. By H. Piddington, .. 178 

Mishmee Hills to the north-east of 
Sudyah ; Report of an Expedition 
into the. By Lieut. E. A. Rowlatt, 477 

Naga Hills, lying between the Diko 
and Dyang river; Narrative of a 
Tour over that part of the. By 
Capt. Brodie, 828 

New or Little Known Species of 
Birds; Notices and Descriptions 
of various. By Ed. Blyth, .. 546 

Notes, chiefly Geological, across 
South India from Madras to Goa. 
By Capt. Newbold 497 

— ; across the Pen- 
insula from Mangalore to Madras. 
By Capt. Newbold, .. ..641 

from Pondi- 

cherry to Beypore. By Capt. 
Newbold 759 

Owners and Occupants of the soil in 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa ; On 
the Tenures and fiscal relations of 
the. By James Alexander, Esq., 527 

Panjkora Valley, and of Lower and 
Upper Kashkar, by Rajah Khan of 
Cabool ; Account of the. Trans- 
lated by Major R. Leech 812 

Philippine Islands ; A notice of their 
Alphabets. By Henry Pidding- 
ton 603 

Pokree and Dhanpoor Copper mines 
in Gherwal ; Notes on the. By 
Siegmund Reckendorf, Esq., .. 471 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 
for 1845, .. lxvii-lxxxix-cxi-cxxi 

Sandstone formation at Sasseram, 
zillah Shahabad ; Note on a curi- 
ous. By Lieut. W. S. Sherwill, 495 

Trial for Rebellion, held at Moul- 
mein by the Commissioner of Te- 
nasserim ; Report of a. Communi- 
cated by the Sudder Dewannv 
Adawlut ". 747 




Abbott, Capt. J, Account of cer- 
tain Agate Splinters found in the 
clay stratum bordering the river 
Narbudda 756 

— Remarks upon 

the occurrence of Granite in the 
bed of the Narbudda, .. ..821 

Alexander, James, Esq. On the 
Tenures and fiscal relations of the 
Owners and Occupants of the soil 
in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, .. 527 

Blyth, Ed. Notice and Descriptions 
of various New or Little Known 
Species of Birds, 546 

Drafts for a Fauna In- 

dica, Comprising the Animals of 
the Himalaya Mountains, &c. .. 845 

Brodie, Capt. Narrative of a Tour 
over that part of the Naga Hills, 
lying between the Diko and Dy- 
ang river, 828 

Commissioner of Tenasserim, Re- 
port of a Trial for Rebellion, held 
at Moulmein, .. . . .. 747 

Hannay, Capt. P. S. On the Assam 
Petroleum Beds 817 

Jackson, Esq. Welby. On the iron- 
mines of Beerbhoom. .. .. 754 

Johannes Avdall, Esq. On the In- 
vention of the Armenian Alpha- 
bet, 522 

Khash Allee, Shekh, Account of 
the Esafzai-Affghans inhabiting 
Sama, 736 

Latter, Capt. T. On the Buddhist 

Emblems of Architecture, .. 623 
Leech, Major R. Account ( Part II.) 
of parts of the Cabool and Pesha- 
war Territories, 660 

— Account of the 

Panjkora Valley, and of Lower 
and Upper Kashkar, .. .. 812 


Lloyd, Lieut. Col. Further Notes 
respecting the late Csoma de 
Koros, ..823 

Muir, Esq. J. On the Genuine cha- 
racter of the Hora Sastra, .. 809 

Newbold, Capt. Notes, chiefly Geo- 
logical, across the Peninsula of 
Southern India, from Madras to 
Goa, 497 

Notes, chiefly 

Geological, across the Peninsula, 
from Mangalore to Madras, .. 641 

Notes, chiefly Geo- 

logical, across South India from 
Pondicherry to Beypore, .. .. 759 

Roer, Dr. E. Review of L'histoire 
du Buddhism Indien, par E. Bur- 
nouf 783 

Piddington, Henry. A notice of the 
Alphabets of the Philippine Is- 
lands,.. .. 603 

A Thirteenth 

Memoir on the Law of Storms in 
the Indian and China Seas. .. 703 

A Fourteenth 

Memoir on the Law of Storms in 
India ; being the Bay of Bengal, 
Ceylon, Malabar Coast, and Ara- 
bian Sea Storms of 29th Novem- 
ber to 5th December, 1845. . . 878 

Reckendorf, Siegmund. Esq., 
Notes on the Pokree and Dhan- 
poor Copper mines in Gherwal, .. 471 

Rowlatt, Lieut. E. A. Report of 
an Expedition into the Mishmee 
Hills to the north-east of Sudyah, 477 

Sherwill, Lieut. W. S. Note on 
a curious Sandstone formation at 
Sasseram, zillah Shahabad, . . 495 

Smith, Lieut. R.Baird. Register of 
Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes 
for the year 1843, 604 



Notes on the Pokree and Dhanpoor Copper Mines in Gherwal. By 
Siegmund Reckendorf, Esq , Mining Engineer. 

After the commissioner, Mr. Lushington's report, Vol. XII. Journ. As. 
Soc. 1843, little remains to be said about the situation of these mines. 
Pokree is on the right, Dhanpoor on the left side of the Douliganga, 
both about six miles horizontal distance from the river, and twelve miles 
between themselves. From Pokree I saw Dhanpoor distinctly, and it 
appeared about 1,000 to 1,500 feet higher situated. Putting the com- 
pass in h. 17 or hs. (15° E. to S. or 15° W. to N.) I had on the bear- 
ing — therefore in one line — on one side the Rajah's mine, and (accord- 
ing to the statement of the people,) several places where the same talcose 
slate occurs as in the Pokree mine. On the other side, I had a 
place, called Deehoor, on the road to the valley of the Gunga ; and on 
the Dhanpoor side a place little below the village, both places con- 
taining the slate. The layer of talcose slate containing the copper ore is 
therefore a very extensive one, and there is every reason to believe, that 
the copper goes as far as the slate, and the slate as far as the formation, 
to which 1 consider the slate to belong. Indeed it requires very little 
attention from an eye, practised in researches after minerals, to see that 
the whole of the known copper mines from the Nepal teraee in the east, 
till beyond the Pokree mine in the west, are only parts of one layer of not 
very great thickness, which perhaps may have been subdivided in two or 
three thinner layers, by some other oreless layers of slate or limestone 

No. 163. No. 79. New Series. 3 t 

472 Notes on the Pokree [No. 163. 

now transformed into Dolomite. In a country where mining is more 
in use and better known than in India, lakhs of rupees would have been 
spent upon feebler indications of ores than are here seen. When I was 
at Pokree there was no work going on, but two or three native women 
washing old heaps of nearly exhausted rubbish. The " Khans" were nearly 
entirely broken down — that in which Mr. Wilkin put in timber, was yet 
open for about forty yards, but in all these very slight indications of ore, 
copper pyrites and blue and green carbonate. Since many hundreds 
or thousands of years that part of the layer has been alternately ex- 
posed to the access of air and water, and accordingly the copper pyrites 
has been transformed into sulphate of copper, which is dissolved and 
carried off by water. That process is going on still, the waters con- 
taining enough sulphate of copper to cause, by aid of Hanuman or some 
other old gentleman, the great wonder of metamorphizing — i. e. covering 
— iron nails, thrown into the water with copper. The natives showed 
me two of these nails as perfect miracles. 

It was in this part of the layer where not only the native rulers 
worked, but also Mr. Wilkin. The slate in it is soft like soap, 
and very little ore remained," partly as pyrites, partly in sulphate, 
partly as blue or green carbonate of copper. From Mr. Wilkin's bad 
success no conclusions ought to be made, or can be made. An experi- 
ment on ore from Chili or Kamtschatka would be as decisive for the 
riches of Pokree mine as Mr. Wilkin's was,, and when I heard that a 
" sahablok" worked 2£ years at Pokree I could scarcely believe it. But 
I admired Mr. Wilkin's proceedings, when I saw, from Mr. Lushing- 
ton's report, the means Mr. Wilkin had at his disposal, and the object 
of his labour. I then acquitted Mr. Wilkin of every fault of which I 
had accused him in my mind when I saw that, with a sum scarcely suffi- 
cient to open the spot where the ore can be hoped for and collect mate- 
rials for buildings, he had to decide upon the riches of a mine at first to 
be created. The layer dips in h. 23 (15° N. to E.). The work to be com- 
menced was, a gallery 30 or 40 fathoms below the old mines ; and not 
the excavation of ores which are a very good addition in smelting better 
ones, but the smelting of which never would pay. If left to his own 
judgment, and having the whole sum at disposition, Mr. Wilkin pro- 
bably would not have produced any ore in the first year and a half, at 
the end of which he would most probably have been able to show such 

1845.] and Dhanpoor Copper mines in Gherwal. 473 

specimens of ore as would extinguish every doubt on the richness of the 
mine ; then, and not before then, was the time to begin experiments ; 
but also these ought to have been made in another way. Mr. Wilkin 
could not prepare the ore on hearths and with sieves, as undoubtedly 
he would have done, had there been more money at his command. 
Furnaces on a scientific system instead of the rough native hearths 
ought to be made, and these with powerful bellows put in regular 
motion by water-wheels instead of two goat skins moved by hand. In 
such fire-hearths, I saw in Dhanpoor two meltings, each continued 
through about four hours, and from beginning to end the flames (4 to 5 
feet high, and 3 to 5 feet diameter) were perfectly green from loss of 
metal. The natives told me that such was the case in Pokree also ! 
This shows that, 

1. The necessary preparations before the smelting could not be made. 

2. That the smelting was not properly conducted, the loss being too 

3. That the ore used was not the ore which would be the object of 
mining on a large scale, it being impoverished by the slow metamor- 
phosis of pyrites into sulphate of copper. 

It must be confessed, that the Pokree mines are highly wronged by 
the conclusions made from results shown by any work done till now. It 
could be objected against p. 3, that the presence of better ore or richer 
ore, is only a supposition ; but it is not so ! I found in the Pokree bun- 
galow a piece of hard rock talcose slate — with a high coloured pyrites 
of copper, taken from the end of Mr. Wilkin's " Khan." The ore was 
from a place where either no water came, or where it stood con- 
stantly ; but all the pyrites from the first 30 or 40 yards had — so 
said the natives — a greyish- watery colour. This shows that ore in the 
bowels of the mountain is better preserved than on, or near the out- 
side ; consequently more ore must be there, for it cannot be supposed 
that an ore which for so many miles continues, and has so little thick- 
ness, should not go, with the layer in which it occurs, to a considerable 
depth at least. Analogy with thousands of cases leads to the supposi- 

* In a high furnace a large quantity of metal offers a nearly as little surface to the 
wind as a small one. In a high furnace the ore is only exposed to the stream of 
wind at the moment of melting, but in a hearth both ore and metal are constantly 

474 Notes on the Pokree [No. 163. 

tion mentioned, that in Pokree and its neighbourhood vast quantities of 
copper could, with advantage, be produced. And upon observation of 
analogies and anomalies in nature, hundreds of valuable rules are 
founded, and most of sciences based. 

Assisted by these rules mining is no lottery, and not„more hazardous 
than agriculture and manufactures. 

I come now to other objections made to these mines, — 1. The dis- 
tance from Pokree to Almorah is perhaps one day's march farther than 
Almorah from the plains, to a point where several days' land-carriage for 
the metal from the river is required. Sreenugur is yet nearer than 
Almorah, and even Hurdwar can easily be reached from Sreenugur, by 
little flat boats steered by one man, loaded with a sufficient quantity of 
metal. The boats should be of a light construction, and would as wood only 
sell very well. — 2. Articles of bulk are, for the beginning, not required, 
and should mining become modern in the Himmalayas, roads (which how- 
ever in these parts are not so very bad, as not to be passable, after very 
little repair, by mules, horses, and even by elephants,) will soon be 
made ; and in a later period larger articles certainly will be manufac- 
tured in the hills. Iron ore is plentiful there. 

3. — The English copper is cheaper, because it is worse than the native 
copper. The natives in Sreenugur, Teeree, Hurdwar, etc., told me, they 
would not use the English wrought copper, but for the great size of 
the plates. For smaller work they prefer Dhanpoor copper. If the lessee 
had any difficulty in selling the metal at two rupees, he could easily give 
it cheaper ; but his stores are always so small, that he is sure to sell 
even at the higher price. From cross-examination of his mookteear, and 
the miners and smelters, I calculated his profits at thirty per cent., 
and from the unwillingness of the first to tell me more, I had reason to 
think that my calculation was right. I told him so, and the result of 
my reckoning, and how I obtained the data without the reporter's know- 
ing it. When I had left Dhanpoor, my servant told me that the mook- 
teear abused the work people for their betraying him, and the people 
were quite astonished to hear they had done so. The Commissioner, Mr. 
Lushington, states the way in which the charcoal burners are going on. 
They will cease to do this if they hear that from the trees themselves 
better charcoal can be obtained than from the mere branches, and should 
they continue the work, nothing remains for the lessee but to send 

1845.] and Dhanpoor Copper mines in Gherwal. 47o 

his own coal-burners for working up such wood as remained from the 
other burners, saving thus the outlay for cutting down the trees. 
The lessee would have always charcoal enough, even for a large 
establishment, or several of them, for if the inhabitants see they can 
obtain a constant livelihood they will take care not to waste wood- 
Provision however for the renewal of the forest must always be 
made for the sake of future cheapness. I think too labor could 
be obtained cheaper than in England, even if the greater skill and 
bodily strength and good-will of European workmen is taken in 
account. The old smelter in Dhanpoor may be compared with the 
most skilful smelters any where. I believe now to have shown 
the possibility (and probability) of turning to advantage the riches 
of Pokree ; the copper could support the concurrence of the English 
copper in the lower hills and part of the plains, and would have ad- 
vantages over it, in the higher interior, and in such places at the foot of 
the hills where the English product cannot reach by mere water car- 

The Dhanpoor mines, or holes, are worked to advantage, and no doubt 
could be made more so ; but perhaps it would take more trouble to 
find the layer of copper than in Pokree. What till now is opened 
would under European superintendence be entirely exhausted in the 
course of one year or two. It is possible the layer may turn out to be a 
regular dyke, but I suppose it will not be so, but might be cut off by 
slate at no very great depth. The working on a large scale would be 
also more expensive in Dhanpoor than in Pokree, for the ore must be 
stamped, and washed on moving hearths. However, I will not say, that 
Dhanpoor mine could not be made, by continued labor, a very rich one. 
The situation of Dobri mine on the other side of the very same hill 
range, admits no doubt of the ore's extension ; moreover the steepness 
of Dhanpoor hill admits shorter galleries and to greater depth. The 
present mine could not of course be of any use. There are galleries 
of several fathoms in height and breadth, following upon and preceded by 
others, which are so low and narrwo, as to admit only children ; and 
the slope goes downwards, then up again for a few yards, now to 
the right, then to the left ; &c. A shaft in the mine is only pas- 
sable for those who do not mind going about in the dress of Adam on 
the first day of creation, for only the adhesion of the skin to the nearly 

476 Notes on the Pokree and Dhanpoor Copper Mines. [No. 163. 

polished rock, keeps the passenger in many places from falling down. 
The tools are only a chisel and a hammer ; blasting of course ought to 
be introduced. 

From what is above said, it will appear as my conviction, that in the 
copper mines of Pokree and Dhanpoor, capital could most advantage- 
ously be employed. But it is not Government, in my opinion, who should 
work there. The best writers on national economy agree, that such 
speculations do not thrive in the hands of a Government. If Govern- 
ment would give these mines to any private individual or com- 
pany, for as long a period as they pay regularly a certain duty from 
the produce, and would allow to any one else to begin mining wherever 
he could find an ore, in a very short time, certainly, many places where 
ore is known, would be taken up, and the revenues of Government, now 
derived from the mines, would be very considerably increased. Districts, 
now nearly empty of population, void of cultivation, useless to the trea- 
sury, would yield revenue, and the population would become acquainted 
not alone with European luxury, but with European skill and intelli- 
gence, which would be at first more useful than schools and missionary 
establishments. As the agriculturist prepares by ploughing the hard 
soil for the reception of the seed, so we may consider, the becoming ac- 
quainted with the advanced state of European arts would " plough" 
the Paharris mind for the acceptance of higher objects, which they 
might be thought fit for being taught in some future time. 

And did not nature show her intention of civilizing the inhabitants 
of these wild districts through mining, by her upheaving such mineral 
riches which, in their present state of civilization, they cannot appre- 
ciate ? 

With regard to the capital required for the opening of Pokree mine 
and Dhanpoor mine, I think 40 to 50,000 rupees would be more than 
sufficient for both establishments, on a footing equal to the advantages 
which can be expected in the first result of an operation, which may be 
carried on through hundreds of years. 

Calcutta, September, 1845. 


Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills to the north-east of 
Sudyah. By Lieutenant E. A. Rowlatt, 2\st Regt. N. I. In a letter 
to Major F. Jenkins, Governor General's Agent, N. E. Frontier, 
dated Saikwah, 1st January 1845. Communicated by the Government 
of India. 

I now do myself the pleasure of forwarding to you an account 
of the expedition from which I have just returned, and at the same time 
beg to submit a map of the country through which I passed, to this 
I have added some portion of the country more to the north than to 
where I penetrated, and which is therefore merely laid down from de- 
scriptions gathered from the Mishmees who have visited those parts. 

On Thursday, the 21st of November last, I quitted the port of Saik- 
wah by water, and on the following day being joined by two Sudyah 
Beekhyahs, Deena Hazaree and Baleah Boca, who were to accompany 
me during the trip. At the mouth of the Koondil river, where I had 
remained the night, we took our final departure, myself in a small 
khail boat, and the rest of my party in the small fishing boats of the 
country, which, for the sake of ascending the rapids of the Burhampooter, 
are made particularly light and handy. 

As it was our first day, we were not able to start very early ; and I 
found that the evening was drawing to a close before we had long pass- 
ed the mouth of the Tainga-panee. Up to this point the stream continues 
pretty tranquil, although a perceptible difference is observable in the 
rate at which it flows ; and as from this point upwards the banks and 
islands are almost entirely formed of stones* washed down from the 
mountains, the water from hence is most beautifully clear and trans- 

Nov. 23rd. — In pursuance with the directions I had given the 
previous evening, the boats moved off by sunrise, and by 9 a.m. we 
reached the Khamptee village of the Kaptan Gohain at Choonpoora, where 
I stopped for a short time, and again moving forward, arrived by the 
evening within a short distance of the mouth of the Dhollee river, which 
I got to early the next morning. Being anxious to see a copper Tem- 

* These pebbles and boulders are all of limestone, and furnish all the lime used in 
the public works in Upper Assam. The limestone is a grey crystalirized rock just 
exactly the same as the marble used as flags in the Government House. I have never 
seen it in situ.— F. J. 

478 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163. 

pie that is situated on a branch of this stream called the Sutrung, I 
ascended the river in the smaller boats, and finding that the water in the 
Sutrung was only a few inches deep, I was obliged to wade up this 
stream ; but from the jungle having become excessively dense, and 
having no person with me who knew exactly the position of the Tem- 
ple, I was obliged to give up the attempt and return to the mouth of 
the river, unsuccessful and disappointed. 

The erection of this building is ascribed to a demi-god, named Pura- 
houtan, who, falling in love with the goddess Khaisa Kattee, undertook at 
her commands to build her a temple in the space of one night, which if 
he succeeded in completing he was to obtain her hand in marriage, but 
failing in his task was to give himself up to be devoured by her. On 
these terms, Purahoutan commenced his undertaking, and had completed 
the Temple with the exception of the doors, when the sun being made 
to rise before its time he was obliged to fly to the woods ; but, being 
soon after overtaken by his beloved, was then and there devoured as a 
morning repast. 

The Temple* is called the Tama-suree, being partly made of copper ; 
and at so late a period as a little upwards of twenty years ago, two human 
beings were sacrificed yearly at her shrine to propitiate the good 
auspices of this sanguinary goddess. Near the mouth of the Dhollee 
are yet visible the remains of the residence of the Chutteeah Rajas, 
whose rule is said to have extended over the whole valley of Assam 
as far as Gowalpara, but which was terminated by the invasion of the 
Ahoms, who crossed the hills from Moonkong. 

Nov. 25th. — As we had now fairly got into the rapids of the Bur- 
hampooter, where it was necessary for the boatmen to be constantly 
in the water, I stopped to cook before setting off, as the weather being 
cold the men did not like wading, until they had fortified themselves 
with some food. I managed, however, to get off by 8 o'clock, and before 
midday had passed the ' mouths of the Khairam and Degoroo rivers. 
The banks of the Burhampooter are here principally wooded with the 

* A remnant of the priests of this Temple, who call themselves Dolyes, have lately 
come to Lieut. Dalton's notice at Luckimpoor. They are of Chooteeah origin : they 
boast of the human sacrifices, and say the discontinuance of them has been the cause 
of all the misfortunes of Assam. Lieut. Dalton promises some particulars of these 
Chooteeahs, the last great race who held possession of the north bank of Upper As- 
sam at an earlv date.— F. J. 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 479 

Sissoo tree, intermixed with Hallecks which, from the beautiful red 
flower that blossoms on it at this time of year, imparts quite an autum- 
nal tint to the landscape. 

This day the patches of cultivation in the hills became quite ap- 
parent, and the landslips on some of the mountains appeared of such 
magnitude that the fact of a village being occasionally swept away 
ought not to be wondered at, and I was told that the village of Macrusu 
was so destroyed last year, and that many of its inhabitants together 
with the chief of the village were involved in the destruction. By even- 
ing we arrived at the mouth of the Sidroo, where we remained the night. 

Nov. 26th. — From this point the river becomes a succession of 
rapids, so that during the day our progress was but slow. The scenery is, 
however, very magnificent, and the river abounds with a great variety 
of the best sorts of fish, amongst which I mention the Silghurreah, 
Boca, Maikhan, Liun, Sandoees, Advee, &c. &c, which when fresh caught 
are most delicious eating. 

At the foot of one of the hills that approaches the Burhampooter 
at this part, is observable a high white cliff, which the traditions of the 
natives affirm to be the remains of the marriage feast of Raja Sisopal 
with the daughter of a neighbouring king, named Bhismak ; but she 
(Rookmunee) being stolen away by Krishna before the ceremony was 
completed, the whole of the viands were left uneaten, and have since 
become consolidated into their present form. 

As we had now arrived within a short distance of the Khamptee 
village inhabited by the sons of the Rannah and Jow Gohains, I sent 
in some of my people to inform them of my arrival, and in the mean 
time made as much progress in the boats as the nature of the stream 
would allow, but found that the current was too rapid to admit of my 
reaching the mouth of the Dura river ; a short distance from which I 
therefore remained for the night. 

November 27th. — About 10 o'clock this morning, the party I had 

despatched to give information of my arrival made their appearance, 

bringing with them the sons of the Rannah and Jow Gohains, together 

with several Mishmee chiefs, and a numerous train of followers both 

Khamptee and Mishmee, when all were assembled and a conference 

took place. It was arranged, that I should proceed into the hills guided 

by these Khamptee chiefs, who appearing to possess a good deal of 

3 u 

480 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163 : 

influence over these Mishmees, I was glad to accept of their escort. I 
therefore left my boats, and after passing over three or four miles of pebbly 
beach that lines the banks of the Burhampooter (or Lohit as it is usually 
called by the people in this part), I reached the road which, lead- 
ing through the jungle that intervenes between the river and the hills, 
ascended up to the village which is situated a short distance up the 
acclivity on a level piece of ground well adapted for such a purpose. 
The village of these Khamptees consists of fifteen houses, and is placed 
on a spot of ground that some years ago was the site occupied 
by the Mishmees, who then called it Maboling, and is watered by a 
small hill stream named the Toolooah. Their cultivation, which is 
rather extensive, is scattered around the village, both on the side of 
the hill and in the plain beneath. This position has now been oc- 
cupied by these people for the last three years, and in consequence of the 
protection they afford to the Mishmee tribes in this quarter from the in- 
roads of the Chullee Cuttia and Myjoo Mishmees, a great many of the 
more influential chiefs, amongst whom I may more particularly mention 
Prum Song, the head of the Muroo tribe, have settled in their neigh- 
bourhood which, being much more productive than the hills in the in- 
terior and nearer to the plains, with which they are anxious to extend 
their trade, they find it much to their advantage to cultivate the good- 
will of these Khamptee chiefs ; for, should these Khamptees remove from 
this place, the whole of the Mishmees who have settled in their vicinity 
must again flee to the sterile mountains beyond the river Tiding, and 
forego all the advantages of trade, which from their proximity to Assam 
they are at present enabled to prosecute with considerable gain to them- 
selves. During my stay in this village I ascertained the height at which 
the Burhampooter issues from the hills, to be 2049 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

By the 3rd December all arrangements having been completed, and the 
necessary number of people collected to carry the baggage, I left the 
Khamptee village, and again passing down the descent entered on the 
stony beds of the Burhampooter ; over these we passed for some miles, 
and found the passage along them any thing but pleasant walking. On 
arriving at the mouth of the Damai river we ascended that stream, and 
by evening had reached the path that leads up the first range of 
mountains. On producing my store of beads, salt, &c, I found that half a 

1845.] Report oj an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 481 

rupee's worth of these articles was demanded for every day's work, and 
as I could not have proceeded without the assistance of the Mishmees, 
I was obliged to agree to their very exorbitant demands. 

On the morning of the 4th, after a hasty meal had been despatched, and 
the several loads adjusted, we quitted the spot we had occupied during the 
night, and for some time ascended and descended the small hills that 
line the banks of the Damai. After an hour or two we arrived at the 
foot of the large range that bounds the view from the plains ; the ascent 
was rather abrupt, and the path but a bare track up the face of the 
mountain. By midday we reached a small level piece of ground, where 
a little water was procurable ; and as the mountain air seemed to sharpen 
our appetites, a few eatables that we had with us were devoured with 
great gusto. 

By 4 p.m. we reached the summit, from which a splendid view of the 
plains and the surrounding hills is visible : on the right are seen the 
towering mass of immense mountains that form the country of the 
Myjoo Mishmees ; and in the plain beneath, the prospect is only bounded 
by the far distant horizon, within whose limits the endless sea of forest 
that characterises this part of Assam is the only object that meets the 
eye. From this point we again descended for a couple of hours, and as 
the evening was drawing to a close, arrived at a small hill rivulet where, 
as water is the principal requisite to be sought for in a place for encamp- 
ing, I determined to spend the night, although nothing but the stony bed 
of the stream was available to rest on. The weather being cold we 
found our night's repose rather uncomfortable, and were glad when the 
morning broke to arise and set about procuring some breakfast : this 
being soon accomplished we again set out, but found the road worse 
than the previous day, as it led over numerous landslips that in this part 
are met with on every slope ; part was therefore over broken ground, and 
every now and then we had to pass onward by means of single trees 
that had accidentally fallen across the chasms that intersected the path. 
As the greater part of this day's march was descending the mountain we 
had ascended the day before, and the road improving as we advanced, 
by 12 o'clock we entered on the scattered cultivation of Saloomgoom, 
from which the Burhampooter is distinctly visible winding its tortuous 
way around the foot of the hills beneath. As we approached the village, 
here and there the houses of the Mishmees became apparent, and as 

482 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. C^o. 163. 

it is the custom of these people to build separately on the land they culti- 
vate, a village is spread over a large space, although confined to a few 
habitations. On reaching the house of the Gam Abasong, I found that 
the whole of his people were employed in making preparations for 
the reception of myself and party, and doing all they could to make us 

By 10 a.m. of the 6th we left this village, and there being a scarcity 
of people to carry the baggage, I here deposited every thing that it was 
possible to dispense with : after passing some cultivation the road led 
down by a steep descent to the banks of the Tiding river ; some dis- 
tance up this stream a large number of Mishmees, principally of the 
Malo and Moree clans, are located, who cannot be reckoned at less 
than a thousand persons. As the river was low, we crossed over by 
means of the fishing weirs, which extend across the stream ; but the 
usual method adopted by the Mishmees themselves, is by fixing a hoop 
of cane round the waist, which, passing over a single rope of the same 
material stretched from bank to bank, enables them to propel themselves 
forward with their hands and feet, and whatever articles they may have 
with them are suspended to the bottom of the hoop : in a similar manner 
both cows and buffaloes are conveyed from bank to bank, being dragged 
over by other ropes attached to the hoops in which they are carried. 

In the bed of this river are to be found a great variety of the different 
primitive rocks : lime is here met with in immense blocks, and granite, 
serpentine, &c. with numerous metalliferous stones, are mixed together in 
the greatest profusion. On leaving the bed of the Tiding, the road leads 
over the spurs of the mountains that continue down to the banks of the 
Burhampooter, and for some distance passes under the perpendicular 
cliffs of primitive limestone, from which are visible the pendulous stalac- 
tites that are peculiar to this formation ; after passing the limits occupied 
by this rock the soil becomes micacious, and in a few places I observed 
mica slate to cross out from the surface. Arriving on the banks of the 
Burhampooter, the only path was from block to block, which being of 
great size and worn to a smooth surface from the action of the water, 
the passage over them was thereby rendered both arduous and difficult. 
The mountains in this neighbourhood are mostly covered with dense 
tree jungle, of great magnitude, for about two-thirds of their height, 
above which is grass, and near the summits bare rock ; and in the dells 

1845] Report of a n Exp editio n i n i.o the Mishm ee Hi/ Is 483 

between the mountains, small hill streams, of beautifully clear water, flow 

along the hollows until lost in the large rivers that intersect the country. 

By sunset we reached a Mishmee house, and were glad to avail ourselves 

of the shelter offered. 

Dec. 7 th. — As rain had continued falling during the night and the 

greater part of the day, I was unable to proceed further than a few miles ; 

but contrived to reach the house of a chief, named Heasong, to whose 

residence most of my baggage had been taken on by mistake the 

previous day. 

Dec. 8th. — On leaving this place, and passing through much low 
jungle where formerly cultivation had been very extensive, we reach- 
ed the Loolooah rivulet, and crossing which the road lay skirting the 
banks of the Burhampooter, to the bed of which we occasionally 
descended ; for the most part the road for these hill tracks was tolerably 
good, except one place that ran along the side of a low rocky mountain 
where the footing was unsafe and precarious, from which had any one 
fallen, he would have been precipitated some thousand feet into the 
boiling stream of the Burhampooter, the noise of whose waters was just 
audible from the height we were passing. During this day's march we 
passed by an elevated lake of small extent, as well as many streams of 
minor size, and by 4 p.m. arrived at the house of Rumling, who is the 
head chief of the Taen tribe of Mishmees, and has established himself 
near the Pass leading from the country to the south of the Burhampooter, 
which being inhabited by the Myjoo Mishmees, with whom the tribes to 
the north of the river are at war, affords thereby a protection against the 
inroads of these people. As a large pig had been slain by this chief in 
honor of our coming, a part of which is usually reserved for the inmates 
of the house, I was much amused to see the manner in which 
these people cook and feed themselves. The animal being killed the 
blood is all carefully collected, and with the grain babosa is made 
into a kind of black pudding ; the meat is boiled in a large chaldron, 
and being cut up into pieces is distributed in leaves amongst those in 
the house ; these pieces being taken up in the hand are forced as far 
as possible into the mouth, and the remainder cut off close to the 
lips : when this is disposed of, the mixture of babosa and blood is 
stuffed down their throats as fast as they are able to swallow it. In 
this manner their meals are completed in a few minutes, when they 

484 Report of an Expedition into the Misftmee Hills. [No. 163. 

again take to their pipes, which are seldom out of their mouths from 
morning to night. Many of the cooking utensils used by these people 
are made of stone ; but they also possess some of copper, which are 
brought over from the Lama country ; in these they boil their water, 
cook their victuals, and make the liquor of which they consume large 
quantities ; but as it is drunk in an unfermented state, and therefore is 
of little strength, a great many quarts are necessary to produce the 
slightest intoxication. 

As I was informed by this chief that some people of the Lama 
country were at a village some distance further on, I determined to proceed 
to the place they were remaining at, and sent forward a messenger to in- 
form them of my intention. It was therefore the morning of the lith 
December before I quitted this chief's house, and after proceeding some 
distance we arrived at the Dillee river, which is a stream of considerable 
size, having its rise in the snowy range bordering the Lama country, 
along whose banks a path to that country exists. After crossing this 
river we proceeded along the verge of the Burhampooter, and by 4 p. m. 
reached the mouth of the Doo river, which, although a stream of 
some magnitude, is yet much inferior in size to the Dillee, and rises 
also in the same range of mountains as that river, a little more to the 
eastward, and is one of the routes by which the trade with the Lama 
people is carried on. From this point the Burhampooter has a south- 
easterly direction, and, winding between the mountains, passes through 
the snowy range beyond which the valley of Lama is situated. By the 
route of the Dillee river the road leads out at the village of Glee, and by 
the Doo at that of Lamai in whose vicinity are also many other villages 
of the Lama people, all of which are described as situated on the 
Burhampooter. The village highest up this river is named Lisko, 
where the Burhampooter is said to be but a mountain rivulet, and on the 
west side of the same mountain from which this issues likewise pro- 
ceeds the Dehong river. 

Dec. \2th. — After quitting our halting place we proceeded up the bed 
of the Doo river, over large boulders of granite and serpentine, and where 
from the river passing between perpendicular scarps of rock we were unable 
to continue along the bed ; it was found necessary to ascend the banks 
of the river, which, as they were very precipitous, was found to be 
difficult to be accomplished, and in many cases extremely dangerous to 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Hills. 485 

pass. By 3 o'clock our party reached a flat piece of ground overlooking 
the river, where it was considered advisable to remain during the night. 

The several clans in the neighbourhood of this stream consist of the 
Manneah, Tshee, Dhah, Tummaih, and Mlee, who altogether are a 
numerous people, but in appearance most indigent and ill provided both 
in food and clothing, and are as wild a set of unwashed savages as may 
perhaps be met with in any part of the world. 

The water of the Doo is by no means good, having a disagreeable 
taste, and has the property of giving goitre to all those who drink it. 

Dec. VSth. — On leaving the bed of this river, the ascent up the Dagoom 
range of mountains is very steep, and in many places where the rain 
had cut the side of the mountain into deep chasms, the path could only 
be passed by means of trees thrown from point to point, beneath which 
a perpendicular scarp of rock was all the resting place that would have 
been found had an unlucky step or a rotten bough caused any one 
to fall at any of these places. 

On arriving at the village of Tuppang, I and my party put up at the 
house of the Gam, and as the Lama people were staying at a house not 
far distant, during the afternoon I had an interview with them. It 
appeared they had come across the snowy range for the sake of trading 
with the Mishmees for teeta ;* but from the snow having fallen unexpect- 
edly, had not been able to return to their own country. 

In appearance these people much resemble the Chinese, and are dress- 
ed in a loose robe that falls in folds around the waist, and are a fair and 
tall race of men; some wear the hair plaited in the Chinese manner 
down the back, while others have the head shaved ; and from their de- 
scription of themselves, it appears that those who trade with the Mishmees 
are likewise a hill tribe, and in their manner of life differ very little from 
the Mishmees themselves. I should however imagine, that the country 
they inhabit is not very rugged, as on all the cattle brought from 
thence I observed the marks of the plough distinctly visible on the neckf. 

* Captis teeta, Wall. 

f This agrees with a report current in Upper Assam, that during an excessive inun- 
dation of the Burhampooter, a great number of ploughs and other agricultural imple- 
ments were brought down by the floods. 

The Assamese suppose the country they come from to be inhabited by Kotas; 
of which are the Assamese themselves, as the great body of the Assamese population.— 

486 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163 

After conversing with them for some time, I found they were prohibited 
by their own Government from visiting the plains of Assam, and not 
having been to Lassa the capital, were unable to give me any precise 
information regarding the Tsampoo ; but said that, according to all they 
had heard, the river flowed into the valley of Assam after quitting the 
country to the north of the mountains, and is therefore in all probability 
identical with the Dehong. 

The view from this village is very grand, as the distance from the 
snowy range, which was immediately opposite, was only two days' jour- 
ney to the summit, and from this point (Tuppang,) I was told by the 
Mishmees that they were able to reach the village of Lamai in the La- 
ma country in three days. 

As no further population is to be met with on this side of the snowy 
mountains, I determined to retrace my steps from this point, as no 
advantage could, I conceive, take place by my proceeding any further 
in this direction ; I therefore on the following morning again left this 
village, and, varying my route so as to allow of my getting a sufficient 
set of sights to complete my survey, I arrived again at the Khamptee 
village on the 22nd of December. 

From hence I set out to visit the celebrated Teeruth of the Hindoos, 
called the Brahma Kund, which I reached, and returned from, in two 
days. This place I found to be merely a bay or inlet of the Burhampooter, 
into which falls a small stream, that issues from the side of the hill 
immediately above it ; this is considered the holy water in which all 
the devotees who visit the place bathe themselves, and is reported to 
have the virtue of washing out all the sins that the person may have 
previously committed. During the time of the Ahoms, it was necessary 
for the king on his ascension to the throne to be washed in water 
brought from this place, and until this ceremony was completed he 
was not considered fit to take upon himself the reins of government : 
to insure the benefits of absolution, it is considered necessary, that 
the person should ever after forego the use of some kind of food ; 
but as this is left entirely to the person's own choice, such articles 
are commonly selected as are either not particularly liked by them, 
or such as are not often procurable. At the point where the water first 
shows itself, the large stone that covers the orifice as well as those 
on either side of the stream, were formerly gilt by a Khamptee Raja, 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 487 

a portion of which gold is yet visible. The water of this streamlet is 
warmer than that of the Burhampooter, but is of a disagreeable taste. 
1 was told by my guides, that the rains of 1843 considerably altered 
and damaged the place. 

On my arrival at the Khamptee village I left by boat, and again 
reached the post of Laikwah, on the 30th December. 

Religion. — The Mishmees seem to have but a very faint idea of any 
religion : they, however, worship a numerous set of Deos or gods, a 
great many of whom do not appear to have a name ; the most to be 
feared amongst them, is the god of destruction, named Mujeedagrah, 
who in his attributes much resembles the Hindoo Sheo or Maha-deo. 
Sacrifices are also offered to Damipaon, who is the god of instruction 
and the chase ; to Tibia, as the god of health and disease ; and these 
two last named together with a god called Prepang, are supposed 
to wander about in company from place to place. When any disease 
appears in any of their houses, a priest of these people is sent for to drive 
away the evil spirit. This ceremony is performed in the following manner : 
The time fixed on for commencing is sunset, when the inmates of the 
house and the relatives of the person concerned are assembled within the 
house ; and the priest having placed himself in the centre, he commences 
chaunting a dismal kind of dirge in a most monotonous strain. After 
this has continued some time, the priest rises with a fan in one hand, 
and a box containing pebbles in the other ; with these he dances about 
on a mat, flourishing his fan and rattling his box : after this has lasted 
some time, he leaves his mat and begins moving up and down the house, 
continually singing the same tune ; and arriving at the door, he pretends 
to drive the spirit out of the house : this is repeated several times, after 
which the intended sacrifice is led forth, and after much unnecessary 
cruelty, is killed by the priest and offered to the supposed spirit. 

These people do not appear to have any very distinct conception of a 
future state, but suppose that all, whether good or bad, will go to the same 
place as their fathers and mothers have before them ; and that, if the • 
friends and relations of the deceased offer up sufficient sacrifices in their 
name, they will be permitted to return again to the earth, but failing in 
which, the spirit of the dead becomes an avenging demon, empowered 
to work all sorts of evil on the heads of the relatives who have omitted 
to perform the necessary rites. 

3 x 

488 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163. 

Burials. — On the death of any person of consequence, the body is 
buried, and, according to the wealth of the family, a greater or less 
number of animals are slain, and the heads deposited around the grave 
on a frame-work of wood, in the centre of which a circular house is 
built over the grave itself, in which is placed flesh, both raw and cooked, 
together with grain, spirits, &c. and all the arms, clothes, and implements 
necessary for a person whilst living. Should the person be poor, the 
body is either burnt or thrown into a river if near at hand. 

Births. — When the time of a woman's confinement is near at hand, a 
small shed is erected for her reception in the jungle near the house, in 
which she remains until the time of her purification is completed. If the 
child proves a male, this lasts for ten days ; but if a female, for only 
eight from the day of its birth : during this time the mother is fed from 
the house, and none but her female relations are allowed to visit her. 

Marriages. — Marriage amongst the Mishmee3 is perhaps the most 
singular custom that prevails regarding this ceremony. Alliances are 
usually contracted by the parents for their sons and daughters ; and on 
the part of the man, presents to a large amount are required to be given 
to the father as the price demanded for his daughter, and which are 
usually proportioned to the rank and beauty of the woman : these pre- 
sents consist of buffaloes, cows, gongs, salt, &c. &c. with a large quan- 
tity of dried field mice and fish. The wives allowed to one man are not 
limited to any number, but do not often exceed four or five. When a 
man dies or becomes old, it is the custom of these people for the wives 
to be distributed amongst his sons, who take them to wife ; but the 
mother of any of the sons is always transferred to one of her husband's 
sons by another wife, so that a man is not actually obliged to marry his 
mother, but merely his father's wife. 

Dress and Arms. — The dress worn by the Mishmees consists of a 
cloth bound round the loins, which passes between the legs, and is fasten- 
ed in front, and a coat without sleeves that reaches from the neck 
down to the knees ; two pouches made of fur are used, in which to carry 
their pipe, tobacco, flint, steel, &c, and on the back is carried a flat 
shaped basket, which is covered with the long fibres of the Sinwa tree, and 
ornamented with the tail of a Lama cow ; below the knee is bound a 
quantity of finely split cane. The dress of the women is made of exactly 
the same material as that of the men, and consists of a bodice which barely 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 489 

serves to cover the breasts, and a skirt that reaches from the waist as 
far as the knee ; on the head is worn a tiara of silver, and a profusion of 
beads are suspended around the neck. 

The principal weapons used are the spear, and a straight sword of Lama 
manufacture, to which is occasionally added a matchlock or crossbow, from 
which "are projected poisoned arrows. When proceeding on any expe- 
dition of danger, a strong coat of sufficient thickness to ward off the 
force of an arrow is added to their costume, as well as a cap of fur, 
or split bamboo. 

In person both male and female are disgustingly dirty, and, with the 
exception of a few of the chiefs, are seldom washed from one year's end 
to another. 

Manufactures. — The clothes worn by these people are for the most 
part made by themselves, and consist of cotton which is cultivated by 
them for the purpose, and a few woollen articles made from the fleece of 
the Lama sheep, and in appearance seem to possess great durability both 
as to color and material. The hills, however, beyond the first range of 
mountains bordering Assam not being capable of producing cotton, the 
people beyond these limits are therefore entirely dependent for dress on 
the Mishmees bordering Assam, and the Lama people on the north side 
of the snowy range. In all other branches of manufacture, these people 
seem to be very deficient, and with the exception of spear heads and a 
few articles of this description, are capable of producing no kind of 
utensils that might prove of use to them in ordinary life. 

Trade. — Trade is carried on by the Mishmees almost entirely by barter, 
and the tribes to the north of the Burhampooter may be divided into two 
classes, namely, those who trade with Assam and those who trade with 
the Lama people ; the first usually bring down to Assam, swords, spears, 
gongs, copper vessels, with small quantities of Mishmee teeta and poison, 
which they exchange for cattle, salt, and various kinds of cloth, beads, 
&c. ; but most of these articles not being produced by themselves, they 
are obliged to procure them from the Mishmees who trade with Lama, 
and for which they give cloths made by themselves, and those they 
take back from Assam. The second division having nothing to offer in 
barter but the Mishmee teeta and poison, which is only to be found on 
the mountains near the limit of perpetual snow ; being in great request 
by the people of Tibet, they are enabled to exchange it for cattle, gongs, 

490 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163. 

swords, and copper vessels : they also barter a great deal among them- 
selves, but the difficulty of passing through the country must always in 
a great degree tend to hinder the advancement of trade, as from the 
nature of the country it can scarcely be expected that any other mode 
of conveyance can be adopted, than that of carrying all goods in the 
baskets at present in use amongst them, which are placed on the back 
and supported by a band which passes round the head. 

Houses and mode of Living. — The habitations of the Mishmees are 
generally, as much as possible, hid from the view by being placed 
in patches of jungle left for the purpose of concealment; they are 
usually built apart from each other, and unlike most other people, 
these Mishmees never congregate in villages. Their houses are all 
constructed with raised platforms, and vary from 12 to 15 feet in 
breadth, and 120 and 180 in length: a passage down one side com- 
municates with the rooms, which are divided off into lengths of from 
ten to thirty feet long ; down the whole length of this passage two 
bamboos are placed, on which are ranged the heads of all the animals 
that the owner of the house has killed during his lifetime, and which 
being constantly exposed to the smoke from the fires, and plastered 
with blood on the occasion of any animal being slain, turn to a 
perfectly black color with a fine polish. Above the fires, one or two 
of which are placed in every compartment, are hung crates of bamboo, 
which are used for drying and smoking whatever articles are required ; 
and about these compartments blocks of wood are strewed, which serve 
the inmates for pillows. The under part of the house is appropriated 
to the pigs and fowls, in which they are confined by a paling of wood. 
The staple commodity of food cultivated by these Mishmees is a grain 
called babosa ; it is Used both for food, and to prepare an unfermented 
liquor, which is drunk in a hot state as soon as made. Rice is 
grown, but in small quantities, and merely by those tribes in the 
vicinity of Assam, and is not capable of being cultivated on the moun- 
tains in the interior : they however possess other kinds of grain, such as 
buck- wheat, Indian-corn, baitnah, &c. ; but should all these fail them, 
they are capable of existing on the interior part of the Sinwah and 
Dhainkeeah trees, which afford sufficient nutriment to preserve them 
from starving, and affords excellent food for their pigs, on which they 
are commonly fed. 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 491 

Flesh of all kinds is in great request, and all animals, from a mouse to 
an elephant, are eagerly devoured by these people, merely with the excep- 
tion of crows, the black ape, and muster* found in rivers : that of the 
women is much more limited, being confined to fish, wild birds, and 
field mice ; but, however fond they may be of animal food, they have not 
yet paid any attention to the breeding of cattle, but kill and eat whatever 
they may be able to purchase immediately on arrival at their villages. 

Customs, Manners, SfC. fyc. — The domestic economy of the Mishmees 
does not appear to be burthened with many customs or observances such 
as are met with in civilized life ; but, nevertheless, some of their habits 
appear but little adapted to a savage state, amongst which I may 
mention the practice of not eating flesh, or any thing but plain boiled grain 
in the houses of their superior relations by marriage, but which does not 
apply if the case is reversed, as the superior relations are not prohibited 
from eating whatever may be offered to them in the houses of their inferior 
relations ; but as marriages and intermarriages are very common, it is but 
very seldom that a married man is capable of partaking of the rights of 
hospitality amongst his own or the neighbouring clans, although there 
may at the time be enough or even more than enough to satisfy all. 

The whole of the tribes to the north of the Burhampooter as far west as 
the Degaroo and the source of the Tiding rivers, and to the east 
as far as the Doo river, may in a political sense be treated as one 
people, although the divisions amongst themselves into clans are 
numerous, among which the Taen and Maroo hold the two first 
places ; but, being so intimately connected with the other clans 
both by the ties of marriage and interest, cannot be regarded as a 
separate people or distinct from each other in any way except in 
name : every clan has, however, a nominal head ; but the power of 
their chiefs is extremely limited, and may be set at naught by any 
person who considers himself sufficiently powerful to assert his inde- 
pendence. Laws and punishments seem scarcely to exist, and with the 
exception of murder and abduction, no other crimes against each other 
appear of common occurrence ; this last is, however, a fruitful source of 
dissension and quarrel, and when any case of the kind takes place, the 
person from whom the woman has been taken, demands the amount he 

* Sic in MS.— Eds. 

492 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No, 163. 

paid to her parents for her from the man who has taken her away, 
which if he gives, the affair is generally ended, as they never take back 
a woman who has misbehaved in this way ; but should the man refuse, 
or be unable to pay the demand, the man who has lost his wife, lies in 
wait to slay the seducer, and if successful, it then becomes the duty of his 
relatives to avenge his death. 

Agriculture appears to be conducted in the most rude and simple 
manner, and the use of the plough is unknown. When the time of sow- 
ing approaches, the surface of the ground is merely scratched with a 
small kind of hoe, which penetrates but a few inches into the earth ; and 
domestic animals, with the exception of pigs and fowls, are not reared. 

Slavery does not exist to any very great extent amongst them, and 
is chiefly confined to such individuals as they are enabled to purchase 
from other tribes, although some few instances of persons being sold 
of their own tribe amongst themselves are to be met with. It is, how- 
ever, carried to a far greater extent by the people on the other side of the 
snowy range, and I am given to understand that whole villages of As- 
samese are in great numbers in the Lama country. 

Geography. — The geographical features of this part of the Himalayah 
range, do not in any very essential particulars differ from those of other 
mountainous countries: in every direction it is intersected by small 
streams, which either fall into the Burhampooter or the larger tributaries 
to this river, the Tiding, Dillee or Doo. The height of the mountains 
is somewhat less than those more to the west, and with the exception 
of the snowy range itself, no mountains on the side of Assam are 
covered with perpetual snow, although during the winter months the 
peaks of all of them become more or less covered ; but even at these 
heights the fir, which is usually indigenous to mountain tracks, does not 
exist, being entirely confined to the Lama country, and the part of 
these hills marked in the map as the Myjoo country. 

Geology. — As the formation of these mountains is entirely confined to 
primitive description of rocks, it does not perhaps afford so fruitful 
a field of investigation into the science as may be found in other parts 
of the world. It nevertheless must possess some interest to the geologist, 
as almost every variety of these rocks is to be met with in the greatest 
profusion ; a considerable part of the first range passed over by myself is 
composed of dolomite or gypsum, in which also is to be found a great 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 493 

quantity of alabaster. On the left bank of the Tiding, primary limestone 
prevails ; beyond which micaceous formations are numerous, which in 
the vicinity of the Toolooah river become mica slate. Serpentine 
abounds in the bed of the Burhampooter, and granite would appear to 
occupy the higher elevations of the mountains, as I did not perceive 
any in situ, although boulders were plentiful in all the streams. I 
however beg to submit these observations with diffidence, and trust that 
the few specimens forwarded herewith may throw some light on this 
subject when submitted to more competent judges than myself. 

My dear Sir, — I have the pleasure to forward two heads of the 
animal which, in some of your communications you informed me, were 
supposed to belong to an animal somewhat resembling the African Gnoo.* 
It however appears, from the descriptions given of it by the Mishmees, 
to be of the deer [antelope] kind, and is called by them Takang, and by 
the Khamptees, Khing. In size the animal is but a little smaller than a 
buffalo, having an immense chest and shoulder, but small hind quarters ; 
the fore-legs are large and powerful, but taper off below the knee ; the 
under part of the neck is furnished with a dewlap that reaches nearly 
to the ground, and is covered with long hair ; the skin is speckled, and 
on the top of the back and neck is almost black ; the tail resembles that 
of the deer, being only two or three inches long, and is turned up when 
the animal is in action. It is only to be found near the snow, and is said 
to be very fierce and dangerous to approach. 

The fur cap that accompanies the heads is made of this animal's 
skin : the larger head is of a male, and the smaller of a female ; but the 

■(■ of both have been as much as possible cut away to enable the 

hunters to bring them in. I am happy to say, that I have been promised 
by the Rannah Gohain's son a complete set of all the bones, together 
with the skin of the beast, which I hope he may shortly succeed in 
procuring. The other head is that of a Lama cow. \ 

* This animal is supposed to be as yet undescribed. I will forward the specimens 
by the first opportunity. — F. J. 

t Illegible in MS.— Ed. 

% Most of the specimens here mentioned have arrived at the Society's Museum, in- 
cluding a skin of the Takang, and a frontlet and horns; also the.head of the " Lama 
cow," which would appear to be of the hybrid Yak race, termed Yho and Yho-mo, 
was according to the sex. The Takang, however, cannot well be described until its bones 
or at least the entire skull, with the skin of the face and the extremities, come to 
hand. — Cur. As. Soc. 

494 Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. [No. 163. 

Soon after my return from the Mishmee hills I again left Saikwah, 
and proceeded by elephant up the Koondil-panee, and after passing the 
mouth of the Depho-panee, followed up the course of that stream, until I 
arrived at the foot of the hills ; and as the fort I was in search of was 
said by my Khamptee guide to be between the Depho and Jameesa, I 
took a direction through the jungle about east, and without much diffi- 
culty arrived at the fort five days after quitting Saikwah. 

This fort* is said to have been built by Raja Sisopal, and is situated 
on an elevated plain at the foot of the hills ; the extent of it is consider- 
able, as it took me about four hours to walk along one side of its faces : 
the defence is double, consisting of a rampart of stiff red clay, which, as 
the surrounding soil appears of a different nature, must have been brought 
from some distance. Below this rampart is a terrace of about 20 yards in 
breadth, beyond which the side of the hill is perpendicularly scarped, 
and varies from 10 to 30 feet high; the principal entrance, and the de- 
fences for some distance on either side, are built of brick, and on many 
spots in the interior I observed remains of the same materials, so that in 
all probability the houses occupied by the inhabitants must have been 
built of masonry. As I was unable from scarcity of provisions to remain 
more than one day at this place, I could not examine it so minutely as 
I could have wished. It seemed however to be composed of only three 
sides, the steepness of the hill at its north face precluding the necessity 
of any other works. At present the whole of the northern part of it is 
thickly covered with tea, which extends, according to the Khamptees 
who know the locality well, in a belt of more than a mile in depth all 
along the foot of the hill within the fort, and not as marked in my map, 
which was drawn before I visited the place. More to the west between 
the Dihing and Dehong is a much larger fort, and, as I believe, entirely 
composed of brick, as well as a tank of similar construction, surrounding 
which are numerous hill forts of small dimensions erected by a Raja 
named Bhishmuk, and the popular tradition amongst the people 
of this part of the country is, that on the destruction of the em- 
pire of these kings by the Hindoo god Krishno, the people who 

* Of these forts we had very imperfect information before, and 1 believe Lieutenant 
It. is the first officer who ever visited them. They refer to a time of which we have 
no history or even tradition, further than frequent traces of the dynasty of the Pals 
throughout Assam. — F. J. 

1845.] Report of an Expedition into the Mishmee Hills. 495 

were able to make their escape fled to the hills, and have in the course 
of time become converted into the present tribes of Abors*. Near these 
forts a great number of wild Methunsf are to be met with, and the 
whole of the country, from the mouth of Koondil to the base of the hills, 
presents many indications of former cultivation. On this expedition 
I was absent nine days. 

Dibrooghur, 6th February, 1845. J 

Note on a curious Sandstone formation at Sasseram, zillah Shahabad. 
By Lieut. W. S. Sherwill, 66th, B. N. I. With a Plate. 

At the foot of a hill at Sasseram, zillah Shahabad, which forms the 
termination of a spur thrown off from the Northern face of the lofty 
range of the Kymoor Sandstone Mountains, I observed a curious apparent 
horizontal columnar formation in the sandstone, as shown in Plate 1 . 
The disposition of the sandstone at this spot has all the appearance 
of a quantity of horizontal columns, of several feet diameter each, and 
overlying each other to the height of twelve feet, the lower ones much 
flattened by pressure. At this spot also they have suddenly ceased, ter- 
minating in a steep bank, from which they protrude in great numbers, 
resembling a series of rudely-pointed horizontal obelisks, weather-stained 
to a very dark hue, with a strong cobalt tinge. Their exposed si- 
tuation at this spot has tempted the Sasseram stone-cutters, who, with 
wedges, have cloven blocks from off these columns for building purposes ; 
but by so doing, have made it evident that they are not solid columns, but 
a series of spheres ; each sphere composed of a great variety of differently 
colored and exceedingly hard concentric strata of siliceous sandstones, 
concentric upon a nucleus, but the strata exceedingly difficult to exfo- 
liate, the rock being purely siliceous, throwing back the hammer with 
great force. These spheres are packed closely together, and so inti- 

* If the Pals were Buddhists, this tradition may allude to their overthrow by the 
Rajas of the Brahminical faith; but all authentic records of those times appear to 
be lost, at least in this province. — F. J. 

f Bos. frontalis, or an allied species. — Cur. As. Soc 

X I enclose a copy of this letter as a part of Lieut. Rowlatt's Journal.— F. J. 

3 Y 

496 Note on a curious Sandstone formation at Sasseram. [No. 163. 

mately joined by some great pressure as to resemble columns ; the 
pressure that has brought them into contact, whether from below, above, 
or laterally, has caused them to be much flattened on every side, so 
much so that they resemble square columns, varying from two to twenty 
feet in length ; but on a closer inspection, the joint of each separate 
sphere may be traced on the side of the exposed column. 

The bed, as far as exposed, Fig. No. 2, is about twelve feet in height, the 
top row of stones generally being nearly perfect circles, of about three 
feet diameter, the centre ones elliptical, and the lower part of the bed is 
composed of a series of layers of much flattened spheres, varying from 
ten to two inches in diameter ; and although crushed into so small a 
space, each individual stratum, however fine or thread-like in its struc- 
ture, is perfectly preserved and wojiexhibited. 

In Fig. 3, where with the aid of steel wedges I managed to burst open 
a sphere, the fracture has taken place in the middle of a thin red gravel- 
like stratum of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness, and not through 
the whole strata or concentric coats, but leaving a corresponding hollow, 
from whence the globe containing the smaller strata and nucleus has 
started : upon chiselling away the outer surface of the protruding ball, 
another coloured stratum is discovered. In Fig. 4, a flattened globe 
presents its central group of strata projecting as a cylindroid ; the frac- 
ture here, as is generally the case, has occurred at one of the gravel-red 
strata, of which nature are all the delicately pencilled concentric rings 
noticeable on the fractured surfaces of Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Figs. The 
intermediate strata are composed of fine white arenaceous particles, in- 
termixed with red, black, and brown particles of the same nature. The 
red lines, which in some specimens are almost invisible from their ex- 
treme fineness, are evidently tinged with the oxide of iron, traces of 
which are also visible on the outer coating of the globes. Some of these 
globes, flattened out to an immense size, I have calculated must have 
been six feet in diameter when perfectly spherical, with many hundred 
concentric strata, though not all perfect, some running into and crossing 
each other in great confusion ; but the generality of the well developed 
strata are perfect. 

It is difficult to imagine how such a series of not only concentric 
lines, but concentric spheres, similar in arrangement to the coats of a 
bulbous root, could ever have been formed upon so grand a scale, for 

mm: tvcv 

>»'"l*t at Sassentm. Marrh 

n* For mat. on at S atS er. 

1845.] Note on a curious Sandstone formation at Sasseram. 497 

in their formation no trace is left of the globes ever having, at any- 
period, been at rest. Had they been so, the point d'appui, or that part 
pressing or resting on the ground, most certainly would not have had 
the concentric strata passed under it ; that the strata are concentric to 
a common nucleus I have proved by bursting open many of the globes, 
the strata invariably exfoliating as in Nos. 3 and 4. The nucleus, 
whatever it may be, must be an exceedingly small and insignificant par- 
ticle, as I have fractured through several globes to within a quarter of 
an inch of the innermost centre, and found nothing ; the strata varying 
from the fineness of a hair to six inches in depth, and the spheres from 
six feet diameter to the size of a pea. 

Having noticed a series of what I thought were the projecting edges 
of small shells running in a straight line nearly parallel to the major 
axis of one of the elliptical stones, and traversing all the strata, (vide 
No. 1, fig. a,) I had it broken open in that line ; and in so doing, exposed 
to view a bed of about a foot in width, of very closely compressed 
blotches, of a delicately soft argillaceous substance, of a pale yellow 
color, impalpably fine when dissolved in water ; no individual particle 
being visible under a powerful lens. 

I traced this curious formation for about two hundred yards along the 
base of the hill where it suddenly ceases, the sandstone regaining its 
usual horizontality of stratification. ' 

Notes, chiefly Geological, across the Peninsula of the Southern India, from 

Madras, Lat. N. 13° 5' to Goa, hat. N. 15° 30' by the Baulpilly 

Pass and Ruins of Bijanugger. By Captain Newbold, F.R.S., 

M. N. I., Assistant Commissioner Kurnool, Madras Territory. 

Physical aspect of the plain between Madras and the Nag gery mountains. 

The country lying between Madras, and the Eastern Ghaut line of the 

Naggery hills, is a maritime plain, about 34 miles broad, rising gently 

towards the base of the mountains. It is watered by the Coom stream, 

which finds its way to the sea at Madras, and by the Cortelair which, 

after receiving the Naggery river, communicates with the sea by the 

salt lagoon of Ennore, about ten miles North of Madras. 

A few gentle undulations or swells running generally to the S.W. 
alone interrupt the flat monotony of this great plain, the surface of 

498 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

which is studded with numerous trunks, and often verdant with rice 
and raggi cultivation. 

Plantations of the betel-vine and patches of sugar-cane are scattered 
here and there, and tall groves of cocoa-nuts and palmyras tower over 
an underwood composed chiefly of the dwarf date, cactus, euphorbia, 
and mimosa. These form a low jungle covering the higher sterile, dry 
patches, which intervene between the lower cultivated portions. 

Soils. The surface soil is usually sandy, and many extensive tracts 
are entirely covered with a fine sand resembling that of the sea, and 
lateritic debris. The sandy soil occasionally passes into a silt and 
fine red clay, largely used in pottery and brick-making. 

The subsoils are in some situations beds of kunker of various thickness, 
of mhurrum, or disintegrated rock, and granitic and hypogene rocks ; 
thin beds of grey marl overlie, near the coast, beds of a black clay im- 
bedding pelagic shells of recent species, laterite, and a loosely aggre- 
gated sandstone which passes into slate clays, both white and co- 
loured, with oxide of iron of various shades. 

Of the rocks above-mentioned granite, gneiss, and hornblende schists 
are found basing all the rest, occasionally rising above the surface, but 
in general thickly covered. The granite near the coast is usually of the 
variety termed pegmatite, being composed of quartz and felspar ex- 
clusively ; above the surface it commonly appears in naked bosses, and 
detached concentrically-weathering blocks. On approaching the base 
of the mountains these blocks become more frequent, and are mingled 
with similar globular masses of basaltic greenstone, outgoings of the 
numerous dykes which prevail in the granite and hypogene rocks. Frag- 
ments of quartz rock, chert, jasper, and sandstone also occur, more 
or less rolled, derived doubtless from the Naggery beds. The gneiss 
usually contains hornblende. 

Occasional beds of laterite occur. One I observed between Madras 
and Poonamallee, which passes into a loose sandstone and felspathic 
shale. Laterite has been employed in the construction of the fort at 
Poonamallee and in the revetment of the old fort of Tripassore. 

Eastern Ghauts. The southerly line of Ghaut elevation appears to 
terminate on the N. bank of the Naggery river, south of Hodgson pettah, 
and farther west in the bluff peak of Naggery nose ; but it, in reality, 
suffers a deflection westerly and southerly, forming a great mountainous 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 499 

curve by Muddoordroog, Chellumpolliam, and Mymundeldroog to the 
great break of the Eastern Ghauts at Sautghur. 

The low hills at the foot of the Naggery chain are of granite, gneiss, 
hornblende, schist, and basaltic greenstone. The height of the main 
chain itself near Cumbancumdroog, where it supports a small table- 
land, is stated at 2550 feet above the sea. The sandstone cliffs by which 
the chain is crested have a columnar aspect ; but those forming the 
lower part of the ridge clearly proved this appearance to be deceptive, 
and that the rock rests in thick beds on the granite, having a dip 
towards the west. The columnar appearance is owing to the nearly 
vertical fissures which intersect the strata at right angles ; and which, 
in the thicker beds, constitute their most marked feature. A highly 
illustrative instance of the jointed structure is seen in the mural sand- 
stone cliffs cresting the sacred hill of Tripati. These cliffs usually 
support table-lands of greater or less extent. To the east of the chain, 
between it and the sea, runs a low flat-topped ridge, which for want of 
leisure I was unable to examine. The Naggery hills, as the traveller 
proceeds in a N.W. direction, lose their peculiar crested appearance, 
and acquire a smoother outline, — a feature possibly to be attributed to 
the almost total disappearance of the granite and greenstone on which 
they rest. The Tripati spur, however, which takes an abrupt turn to 
the east, resumes this appearance ;* but it again disappears in the hills 
of Curcumbaddy : the latter, as we ascend towards the table-land, 
diminish in height, and acquire rounder tops and gentler declivities, 
in general clothed with vegetation. 

Tripati. The approach to Tripati from the south is extremely 
beautiful, lying over a large and cultivated plain cinctured by an 
amphitheatre of picturesque hills. The plain gradually slopes to the foot 
of the holy mountain, at the southern base of which the town of Tripati 
lies. The mountain itself, with its mural crest of reddish sandstone, the 
path for pilgrims to the celebrated shrine leading up its steep side, 
commanded by three antique pyramidal gateways, and the town at the 

* 1 have since heard from Capt. Bell, Engineers, that a porphyritic granite is seen 
at the western base of this sacred mountain. Greenish and dark coloured whetstones 
are often used by native barbers all over the country, which are quarried in the argil- 
laceous beds near Tripati, but ar,e not so much prized as the imported Turkey oil 

500 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

foot overlooked by lofty pagodas, — form an interesting study for the 
pencil. The surface of the plain is covered with a reddish sandy soil. 
The old boundary of the Tamul and Telinghi kingdoms, the Andra and 
Dravida-des, is in this vicinity. 

Curcumbaddy^ From Tripati to Curcumbaddy the road skirts the 
southern flank of the Tripati hills in an E.N.E. direction to Cur- 
cumbaddy. The rocks in the immediate vicinity of Curcumbaddy are 
of a crystalline sandstone passing into quartz rock of a white or 
slightly green hue, radiated with red bands. 

Baulpilly. From Curcumbaddy the road at first lies over a short 
table-land, and then descends into the valley of Baulpilly, bounded to the 
E. and W. by two ranges of hills. The face of the country is covered 
with a thicket abounding with bamboos. The soil is red, but darker and 
softer, from the admixture of argillaceous and calcareous matter, than that 
hitherto seen : it contains vegetable matter mingled with the alluvium. 
Bajra, raggi, and culti are cultivated with success. The formation 
consists of sandstone less quartzose than that of Curcumbaddy, and 
of the argillaceous shales into which the Cuddapah limestone passes. 
The lines of cleavage in the latter are nearly vertical, and almost at 
right angles with those of stratification ; but I did not observe them 
passing into the structure of the sandstone. This may be seen near 
the rude barrier gate of the Baulpilly Pass. The softer shales are 
usually found in the lower parts of the valley, and the sandstone cap- 
ping these summits of the hills. Dykes of basaltic greenstone occur 
traversing the shales and slates ; also veins of quartz. Fragments of 
flinty slate, chert, and jasper are frequent. The surrounding country 
is wild and romantic. 

Codoor. The road passes partly through a bamboo jungle up the 
centre of the Baulpilly valley in a north-westerly direction to Codoor, 
a small village in the Cuddapah collectorate, 108 miles travelling dis- 
tance N.W. from Madras. Here the hills on either side open out 
into a delightful plain watered by the Gungama, and smiling with culti- 
vation, principally of bajra, raggi, culti, and indigo. The Pass of 
Baulpilly leads over a rocky belt that stretches across the valley, and 
forms an anticlinal line, from which the Gungama and a branch of the 
Calastry river flow in contrary directions; the first towards the N.W. 
to the Pennaur, and the latter towards the S.E. by Calastry. The 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 501 

formation is argillaceous limestone passing into argillaceous shales, 
capped occasionally by sandstone. Extensive deposits of kunker contri- 
bute much to the fertility of the soil. 

Nundaloor. The route from Codoor to Nundaloor, a distance of thirty 
miles and upwards, lies up the valley of Baulpilly, which is obstructed in 
many parts by rock spurs from the flanking ranges. Approaching Nun- 
daloor the hills become barer, more conical and mammiform. Nun- 
daloor is a small town, about 137^-miles N.W. from Madras, and situat- 
ed on the left bank of the Baugonuddi or Cheyair stream, which flows 
northerly to the Pennaur river, east of Sidhout ; and is here three furlongs 
broad, with a bed of coarse sand. The surrounding formation is argillace- 
ous and calcareous shales, schist, and sandstone : the soil is sandy ; and pro- 
duces, among other articles, indigo and a considerable quantity of rice. 
The rice lands are irrigated by a large tank, situated a little to the west of 
the village, which derives its supply principally from the rain water that 
rushes down during the monsoon from the tops and sides of the hills lying 
to the westward. Palmyras appear to thrive in low situations in the sandy 
soil. In some of the hills in this vicinity the lines of stratification 
can be distinctly traced, even at a considerable distance. The strata 
dip at an angle of 12° to the south of east; the strike of the beds 
N. by W. The cleavage lines of the shales and schists are much more 
vertical than the planes of stratification, forming with them an angle 
of about 45°, but dipping in the same direction. The latter are dis- 
tinctly marked, even in hand specimens, by alternate parallel light and 
dark bands. The seams are often filled with friable calcareous in- 
crustations. From a compact argillaceous slate of a light greyish green 
with fine chloritic laminae, it passes into white and purple shales. 
Minute spangles of mica occur disseminated. The sandstone, as we 
recede from the granite, becomes less crystalline, and acquires argil- 
laceous matter, though veins of white quartz are still seen traversing 
it. The light coloured argillaceous slate, held in the platinum forceps 
before the blowpipe, whitens and fuses into a whitish enamel ; the purple 
shale after deepening in colour melts partially, and with difficulty, into 
a number of minute greyish globules. With borax it fuses into a 
light green glass, which becomes greyish on cooling ; and, with carbo- 
nate of soda, with effervescence, into a glass of a darker green. The soil 
here is sandy and calcareous ; debris of the sandstone, limestone, and clay 

502 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

slate. From Nundaloor the range of hills flanking the western side 
of the valley is crossed by a defile to the plains of Cuddapah. The 
summits of many of these hills are capped with sandstone ; while lime- 
stone and its associated shales are seen near their bases in the vallies, 
as at Wontimetta and near Bankrapet. 

Cuddapah, Cuddapah is situated at the western entrance of the flat 
valley of the Pennaur, from which river it lies about six miles south. 
The height of the plain, in the midst of which Cuddapah is situated, is 
about 500 feet from the level of the sea. The Pennaur flows at the 
base of the northern range in an easterly direction towards Nellore, 
below which it disembogues into the Bay of Bengal. The stream, 
on the banks of which Cuddapah stands, takes its rise in the hills to 
the south of the place, and pursues a northerly course to the Pennaur. 
Other streams of minor note intersect the plain. The soil covering the 
surface is generally black, mixed with sand and calcareous matter : to 
the west of the cantonment, a thin stratum of sandy soil overlies a bed 
of kunker, from one to four or five feet thick ; in some places compact 
like travertine, and in others having a pisiform, tuberose, and tufaceous 
structure. Some specimens when broken exhibit a crystalline radiated 
structure; others a concentric form. Below this lies a bed of limestone, 
generally purple and of a shaly structure, mingled with argillaceous matter. 
The bed of kunker, however, does not always intervene : the latter rock, 
where it is tufaceous, has often a concentric appearance resembling 
stalactite ; and sometimes appears in pisiform concretions both detached 
and adherent to the subjacent mass. It is still in process of formation 
from water slowly percolating from below ; the stems of the grasses 
around which it has formed, are often found undecayed. 

Eastern Range. Ghauts, North of Cuddapah. On ascending the range, 
north of Cuddapah, where it overlooks the diamond mines of Chinnoor 
and Ovalumpully, I found the base and sides to be covered with angular 
fragments of a very hard ferruginous sandstone. Advancing a little way up 
the ascent, a narrow bed of a greyish quartz, following the line of bearing, 
is crossed. Here and there slightly convex plateaus of compact crys- 
talline sandstone, passing into quartz rock, of various shades of red, are 
observable amid the loose blocks and vegetation with which the surface is 
almost concealed. Large amorphous masses of the greyish quartz rock 
appear at irregular distances on the summit; some of them ten feet high. 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 503 

Fragments of the same are strewed around, partly lying upon, and 
partly imbedded in, a fine reddish soil resulting from the weathering of 
the subjacent rock. Near the summit I picked up pieces of a vesicular 
ferruginous rock with tubular sinuosities, a species of laterite, and ap- 
parently of the same structure as that on the summit of the Ganjicotta 
hills. The tops of these, as well as of the other hills in the vicinity, 
present slightly convex plateaus forming table-lands of circumscribed 
extent. The relative altitude does not suffer any considerable varia- 
tion, not exceeding, I believe, 1500 feet above the level of the plain. 
The sides are deeply indented by abutments jutting out at right angles 
to the line of bearing. In the ravines that separate them, fine echoes 
are produced. The sides and summits are thickly clothed with vegeta- 
tion and low forest. The wells at the base of the range to the south of 
Cuddapah are cut* through strata, varying from eight to twenty feet in 
thickness, of compact and tufaceous kunker. 

Bankrapet Range, South of Cuddapah. Passing the small tank of Ipa- 
Penta, the ground gradually ascends and becomes jungly. Several rivulets 
are crossed until a rather high ground is reached, where two defiles 
branch off; the one to the left or east, leads to the water- fall of the 
Pedda Garhi, and the other to the right to that of the Chinna Garhi. 
There I pitched my tent on the right bank of a stream, and proceeded 
on horseback over a stony jungly path winding through defiles, over- 
looked by jungly hills and mural precipices of sandstone. The Pedda 
Garhi is one of those singular fissures through the sandstone, like that 
of Ganjicotta, cleaving the rocks diagonally across the line of stratifica- 
tion from the summit to the base. The sides are precipitous rocky 
facades, narrowing rather abruptly, as the traveller advances southerly, 
into a fissure two or three yards wide, with salient and re-entering 
angles. At the base of the western cliffs are pools filled with the clear 
water, which drips in a perpetual rain from seams in the disrupted strati- 
fied rocks which have a dip of about 8° to the N.E. The precipice on 
the left, or on the north-east, distils no water. Here we see one of the 
very few illustrations observed in Southern India of the theory of springs. 
The water evidently percolates through the porous strata capping the 
higher adjacent summits to lower impervious beds, where collecting it 
follows the dip of the strata, and finds an exit in the fissure which has 

3 z 

504 Notes, chiefly Geological, QNo. 163. 

broken off the continuation ; between the rocks on the right and those 
on the left, the latter are of course perfectly dry. The cleft in the rock 
proceeds, according to the natives, to a considerable distance, till at 
length, from the height and closeness of its high rocky walls, the rays 
of the sun are excluded. Natives from superstitious motives dread ex- 
ploring its recesses, and tell many incredible tales of the vengeance 
with which the Genius Loci has visited intruders. The bottom of the 
fissure is completely covered with water to an uncertain depth. Hun- 
dreds of the finny tribe sport in the clear depths of the water, which I 
could not persuade the guides to attempt to catch, as they hold them 

Chinna Garhi. I now proceeded to the smaller spring, or the Chinna 
Garhi. Here the water gushes in a small silvery cascade from a cliff 
about 200 feet high into a deepish pool among the rocks below, disap- 
pearing through a narrow cleft, probably a continuation of the principal 
fissure, to re-appear in the form of a spring below by some fault or dis- 
location in the strata. In the rains it cannot run off by this outlet as 
fast as it collects, and a large deep bason is formed, as evinced by the 
black ferruginous coating with which some of the rocks in the vicinity are 
covered. The temperature of this pool I found to be 68.5°, three feet 
below the surface; temperature of air in shade 80°; in sun 86°. The 
dropping of the thermometer into the water disturbed hosts of the small 
fishes that rose to the surface, evading all my efforts to catch them. 
The water is remarkably transparent, sparkling, and agreeable to the 
taste, probably from containing a large proportion of fixed air. 

The formation of the range in this neighbourhood is a reddish white, 
and greenish sandstone, interstratified with shales of various shades of 
purple and light green, and passing into quartz rock, or arenaceous 
schists. Large cavities occur filled with beautiful crystals of quartz, 
and a little hsematitic nodular and stalactiform iron ore. I observed a 
furnace for the smelting of this at the foot of the range. The rocks 
are distinctly stratified, having a dip towards the North and East, 
varying from 12° to 6°. The joints dip about 70°, and are crossed by 
others at nearly right angles, separating the masses into cubes and rhombs. 
The ripple mark is seen very distinctly on the lamina of some of the 
arenaceous schists. The soil is a light red, and sandy : the vegetation 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 505 

on the hill sides, luxuriant. Few of the trees or shrubs were seeding or 
flowering, but amid a multitude of others I observed the Tectona gran- 
dis, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus Santalinus, Erythrina indica, the 
Mimosa Xylocarpa, Carissa spinarum, and the Ixora parviflora used for 
torches. In the plain are seen the Aloe perfoliata, Euphorbia, Cassia 
auriculata, Ficus indica, Elate sylvestris, Borassus flabelliformis, Melia 
azadirachta, Tamarindus indica, and the Asclepias gigantea. The prin- 
cipal articles of cultivation are saffron, indigo, white juari, raggi, 
rice, castor oil plant. Among the wild animals frequenting the hills 
are the tiger, leopard, bear, porcupine, wild bear, several varieties of 
monkeys, and also the Indian land tortoise. 

I returned to my tent about 4 p. m., after being nearly twelve hours 
on horseback, and twenty-four hours without refreshment. 

Started at three o'clock this morning towards Cuddapah : after about 
eight miles ride arrived at the Bhuga. This is a sacred spring in a shady 
Tamarind tope. The Hindus have erected a small Gopar over it, and con- 
ducted the water from the mouth of a sculptured cow or bull, to be seen at 
the bottom of the clear pool in which the water collects. In the shade 
of the tope stands a temple to the tutelar god of the spring, Bhugama 
Iswara ; hard by are five or six other springs bubbling from the rock, 
and following into the river close by. The temperature of the two 
springs, which I tried at sunrise, I found to be the same, viz. 88° ; of 
the water in the river 72°, and of the atmosphere 65°. The springs 
are evidently thermal. The cause of their appearance is a fault in 
the subjacent sandstone strata. They lie about ten miles N. by E. 
from the Pedda Garhi. The water appears perfectly pure and well 

Chillumcoor. This village and halting place is about twenty-six miles 
and a half to the westward of Cuddapah. It comprises about eighty 
houses, inhabited chiefly by kunbis, or cultivators. There are also a few 
Brahmans and Mussulmans. It seems to have once been a place of greater 
importance, and its pagodas have an air of considerable antiquity : they 
are dedicated to Iswara and Hanuman. Inscriptions on slabs of red 
sandstone now lying prostrate, do not afford the date of the building 
of these structures ; but inform us that the temple to Iswara was endowed 
by Harihara, king of Bijanugger, in 1305 of the Salivahana era, or 

506 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

about A. D. 1383. The small lath, or pillar, in front of the temple to 
Hanuman, according to the inscription, was erected A. S. 1670 by 
Ram Reddy of Chintalconda, and Chunapa Reddi of Vellipaulum. 

Cotton, indigo, raggi, juari, bajra, are the staple articles of culti- 
vation. Soil, principally Regur with saline patches, taken advantage 
of by natives for the manufactory of salt. The adjacent country is 
a plain bounded to the north and south by low ridges of hills. Near the 
village the limestone alternates with thin beds of sandstone passing 
into a greenish arenaceous schist. A trap dyke has crossed both 
rocks ; but, from the deep superstratum of soil the line of junction 
could not be seen. Fragments of rocks converted into jasper are seen 
marking the course of the dyke, which is attended by a profuse deve- 
lopment of kunker. Incrustations of muriate of soda occur between 
the lamina? of the arenaceous schist, as may be seen in the well near 
the Traveller's bungalow. A little beyond this, a bed of a granular 
crystalline limestone is seen in contact with this schist, which, from the 
massive character of the detached blocks, and the structure and colour 
of the rock itself, has much the appearance of a grey felspathic granite 
or trachyte. To the N. E. it passes into a breccia with angular frag- 
ments of the arenaceous slate, siliceous limestone, chert and jasper 
imbedded. The presence of the two last minerals indicate the for- 
mation of this bed to have taken place subsequent to the intrusion of 
the trap dyke, which appears to have broken up the limestone and 
schist into the fragments now impacted in the crystalline breccia. 
The following is a section presented by a well in the neighbourhood 
of the village. fSee Plate.) 

The kunker is often dug out in rough square masses, and used in 
building walls. Blue limestone, with iron pyrites in nearly horizontal 
strata, is seen in the beds of all the rivulets in the neighbourhood, and 
also in the bed of the Pennaur, which flows about eight miles to the 
north of the village. The nearest hills are of sandstone. 

Chittawarapilly . The road passes for the most part between two 
ranges of sandstone passing into arenaceous slates of various degrees of 
fineness and compactness, which generally dip at an angle of 6° to the 
E. N. E. The higher hills are crowned with thick beds of sandstone 
supporting table-lands. Vertical joints and fissures often intersect these 


■ * 






c t. p 











f V 

















1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 507 

nearly tubular masses, which give an appearance of a wall of Cyclopean 
masonry, running in a line with the crest as far as the eye can reach. 
The lower beds will be generally found schistose, and of smoother out- 

Range to the South of the Bungalow. The eastern extremity of the 
range to the south of the road has a remarkably rugged appearance, and 
large masses of rock lie precipitated on its base and sides. On ascend- 
ing to ascertain the cause of disturbance, I found the hill to have been 
penetrated by the ramification of a large basaltic dyke. The rock com- 
posing the dyke passes from a porphyritic to a compact structure. Pale 
green felspar crystals are imbedded in a crystalline paste of hornblende. 
Circular and oval cavities, filled with a faint reddish mineral resembling 
cornelian, and a white mineral resembling prehnite, are found in the 
greenstone. In the compact varieties augite replaces the hornblende. 
Near the summit of the hill the basalt appears in four and five sided 
prisms, about a foot in length, the lower part of the joints convex, fitting 
into the concave surface of the supporting prisms. A thin incrustation 
of carbonate of lime occurs between the prisms. The sandstone is 
highly quartzose, and ferruginous, and acquires a cellular slaggy struc- 
ture resembling some varieties of laterite. 

In wandering among the chain of hills to the S. of the Bungalow, I 
picked up some slabs of laminar sandstone, from the surface of which 
project oval and circular concentric concretions, from the size of a shilling 
to that of a half-crown in circumference. The outer circle is nearly 
white, the second darker, enclosing a hard solid nucleus. These con- 
cretions are harder than the imbedding sandstone, from which they 
are with difficulty separated, and by weathering less rapidly, project 
in relief on the surfaces of air-exposed slabs : they penetrated from 
half an inch to an inch into the substance of the rock. When broken, 
they do not differ in appearance from the sandstone, except in being a 
little whiter, and of a finer sand. Some of the more finely laminated 
slates present on their planes vivid dendroidal delineations. 

Range to the North of the Bungalow. The sandstone hills to the North 
of the Bungalow support the table-land of Ganjicotta. Ramifications of 
a greenstone dyke are seen to run along their base, attended by a profu- 
sion of kunker deposit. 

508 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

Tallapodatoor . This village stands in a plain on the right, or South 
bank of the Pennaur, about twelve miles W. N. W. from Chittawaripilly. 
The Gundicotta hills flank its North bank, from which they are about 
three miles direct distance. At their base I found a siliceous greenish 
slate which, higher up the ascent, is capped by tubular masses of sandstone 
dipping conformably at a slight angle of about 4° to N. E. The gene- 
ral direction of the strata, and of the chain itself, is nearly S. E. The 
laminae of the slates also run S. E., and are intersected by nearly vertical 
joints at short distances running E. S. E. These fissures pass into the 
superjacent sandstone. Cavities, which have apparently once been 
filled with a ferruginous earth or clay, are here frequent in the faces 
of the sandstone cliffs. 

Concretions in the Sandy banks of the Pennaur. The steep bank of 
the Pennaur near Tallapodatoor is composed of a thick accumulation 
of sand, silt, quartz, and jasper pebbles, and kunker. The latter is 
seen often in stalactiform concretions in the substance of the sand and 
silt, which have been formed by the infiltration of water charged with 
lime. In many instances these concretions have formed round the stems 
and roots of grasses, some of which are still vegetating within their 
stony case ; but by far the greater portion have withered, passecj into 
dust, and fallen out leaving cavities or casts. 

Small dunes of sand are seen in this vicinity on the South bank of 
the Pennaur drifted by the N. W. winds. 

Tarputri. At Tarputri, the next march, are two handsome pago- 
das, dedicated to Chintal Raya and Ram Iswara, elaborately decorated 
with sculptured bas-reliefs representing the exploits of Rama, and the 
adventures of the Indian Apollo, Krishna, and other mythological 
events. Among them is a figure holding a bow, made like the Grecian 
bow, a form rarely met with in Hindu sculpture. The unfinished 
gateway of dark basaltic greenstone presents a mass of graceful sculp- 
ture scarcely excelled, in my opinion, by any thing in the ruins of 
Bijanugger, or Mahavelipur, though on a much minor scale. 

The three Sassanams or inscriptions on stone in these temples, which 
I had copied, were in the Telugu character and language, may bear 
date severally 1429, 1431, and 1435 of the Salivahana era, and the name 
of the then reigning sovereign at Bijanugger, Narsengha Rayel. 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 509 

Tarputri is still a considerable place : it is the capital of a taluk, with 
a population of about 4256 Hindus, (chiefly kunbis) and 2155 Mussul- 
mans. The language is Telugu. 

From Tallapodatoor to Tarputri, (about ten miles). The road lies 
over an extensive plain watered on the north by the Pennaur, cover- 
ed with regur and a soil of a dark coffee red, except where lime- 
stone prevails, when it assumes a cineritious colour. The substratum 
is generally a bed of kunker. Trap dykes are frequently crossed. Tarputri 
is situated on the right bank of the Pennaur. The only hill in the 
vicinity is of greenstone, associated with a greenstone slate curiously 
mottled by dark oval spots. On the summit of this hill, I found kunker 
imbedding angular bits of the rock. Beyond Tarputri, near Vaimpully, 
close to a dyke of basaltic greenstone, masses of calcareous spar with 
quartz are seen jutting from the surface, many of them incrusted with 
drusy crystals of quartz. The spar, in some instances, has been pene- 
trated by the basalt, and coloured of a dull green. Fragments of jasper, 
flint, chert, brown, green and white, are strewed on the surface. Mounds 
of kunker are also frequent. Trap dykes continue from Vaimpully 
to Ryelcherroo. 

Ryelcherroo. Near this place limestone, sandstone, and sandstone 
conglomerate prevail, associated with jasper and chert. Tippoo, it is 
said, dug a considerable quantity of the latter for musket flints. The 
hill in which the excavations lie, is about 1^ mile S. W. from the small 
fort. Its base consists of a greyish laminar limestone, with a rugged 
external appearance, and veined with calcareous spar and quartz. As- 
cending the hill, the limestone becomes less crystalline, and changes 
its colour to shades of a greenish blue and pale flesh colour, until the 
sandstone conglomerate, by which the hill is capped, is reached. A little 
below the summit amid the blocks of pudding stone and sandstone, lie 
Tippoo's excavations for flints ; they are dug out in externally ochreous 
and rusty coloured, irregularly shaped, blackish, grey and white masses. 
They are a variety of chert far less tough than the English flint of the 
chalk formation, splitting easily on a smart blow. The summit of the 
hill is strewed with pieces of red jasper, and pebbles of a flinty quartz 
and calcareous spar. 

A native of the village turns neat cups and vases from a pale yel- 
lowish and white magnesian limestone, which is procured at a hill in 

510 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

the Pupal jungle near Yengunapilly, about eight or nine miles in a 
southerly direction from the Bungalow.* It is a low hill, rising abruptly 
from the Regur or cotton ground at its base, with a gentle slope 
from the east into low cliffs of limestone which front the west, towards 
which quarter the hill falls with an abrupt and steep declivity. The 
surrounding hills are mostly of sandstone. The base is composed of 
a crystalline bluish grey limestone passing, as the cliff ascends, into 
a number of beautiful shades of red, yellow, green, and white. Some 
dark green varieties resemble precious serpentine ; others imbed silvery 
white, and yellow pyrites. Calc spar, white, fibrous, and pale yel- 
lowish brown, occurs in veins, and coating fragments of rock. On the 
eastern slope of the hill is an excavation, whence the Brahmins dig a 
chalk, which is used for marks of caste, and for white-washing houses. 
At Putsa Marculpilly a massive asbestus, associated with a white 
magnesian and calcareous earth, occurs in a bed in the limestone. 
The former is of a dull greenish grey colour, passing into a mottled 
yellowish white. It is tough under the hammer, and breaks into 
fibrous flexible fragments. 

Junction line of granite with the Limestone and Sandstone formation 
near Yairypully. A mile or two west from Ryelcherroo, betweep the 
granite range north of Gooty on the west, and the limestone and sand- 
stone hills of Ryelcherroo on the east, extends a plain about a mile 
broad intersected by a nullah, which I examined in vain for a section 
showing the junction of the limestone with the granite. The surface 
of the plain is covered with angular pebbles of quartz, chert, jasper, 
and of a breccia composed of angular bits of quartz, derived probably 
from the granite, imbedded in a jaspery paste, and of a sandstone grit 
imbedding reddish jasper and chert, which is seen in veins in the 
limestone. The limestone composing the hills on the eastern boundary 
of this plain is siliceous ; so much so, as to afford sparks with steel. 
It alternates in the same hill with a purple and yellowish shale, and a 
crystalline sandstone, which is generally found capping the summits. 
There are a few exceptions, however, where the limestone continues to 
the summit, the sandstone having been stripped off by denudation. 

* The Mussulmans, from the supposed qualities of the stone in discovering poison, 
call it " Pad-zahr" or Bezoar stone. By the Hindus on the spot, it is called " Gurha 
Putsa Rai." 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 511 

Veins of calcareous spar and quartz intersect both rocks ; the former 
also occurs in filbert-sized nodules in the looser varieties of the sandstone. 
The strata dip at an angle of 10° from the granite towards the E. The 
direction of the sandstone ranges is S. 45° E. The surface of the lime- 
stone is grooved with furrows, which have a generally south-westerly- 
direction. This surface is uneven, unlike the regular polished surfaces 
formed by glaciers. 

Crossing the plain towards the granite, the fragments become more 
quartzy, and at the base of the nearest granite hill runs a belt of a pale 
reddish jaspideous rock in an E. 10° S. direction, penetrated by numerous 
quartz veins. Large beds of quartz occur also in the granite, and are 
often seen between this and Gooty to form entire hills. The limestone 
and sandstone terminate in a small hill on the left of the road, a little 
to the east of Yairypully, about nine miles E. from Gooty. The pebbles 
of the conglomerate have not been transported from any great distance ; 
the angular ones appear to have once formed part of the jaspery and 
chert veins, which traverse the limestone; and the rounded pebbles have 
probably been carried by the stream from the adjacent hills. Their 
course may also account for the furrows just alluded to, on the surface 
of the limestone, on the summits of those hills which have not been 
capped by the conglomerate. 

Gooty. The limestone and sandstone formation is now taken leave 
of. From the village of Yairypully, about nine miles east from Gooty, 
nothing but granitic trap and quartz rocks, associated with gneiss and 
hornblende schist, present themselves ; the latter form several picturesque 
peaks to the left of the road. The rock of Gooty is a vast precipitous 
mass of a sienitic granite, composed principally of reddish felspar 
quartz, a little mica, hornblende, and actynolite. The actynolite occurs 
with felspar in thin veins of a lively green, or in drusy surface crystals. 
At its base, gneiss occurs with beds of a brilliant hornblede schist, dip- 
ping at an angle of 62° from the hill, i. e. to the west. This schistous 
bed forms the rising ground on which the Idgah stands : it is penetrated 
by quartz and granitic veins, which I was unable to trace to the main 
rock. It imbeds nests and drusy crystals of actynolite. Dykes of 
basaltic greenstone are numerous. 

Height of Gooty plain and rock. The approximative height above the 
sea by the boiling point of water of the plain at the base of the Gooty 

4 A 

512 Notes, chiefly Geological, QNo. 163. 

rock is 1 200 feet ; and that of the summit of the latter above the plain, 
about 900 feet. From the old flagstaff at the top is a fine view extend- 
ing over a sea of hills to the East and Northward ; and over the great 
regur plains of the Ceded Districts to the West. To the South the 
Gooty range is prolonged to the Cuddapah and Mysore frontiers. 

A dark narrow cavern infested by bats is shown in the granite near 
the top of the rock, at the bottom of which is a well which the natives 
affirm, with little probability, communicates with the Paumri stream in 
the plain below. Gooty is said to have derived its origin from the Rishi 
Gotama's residence on the rock. The fort is naturally of great strength, 
and the favourite abode of the Mahratta chief, Morari Row. 

Goontacul. Between this place and Gooty, from which it is about 
twenty miles West, granite, hypogene rocks and basaltic greenstone pre- 
vail ; the latter is seen often in long low black ridges of blocks piled one 
upon the other like a huge wall of masonry, and penetrating the associated 
rocks. The blocks and masses seen in the plain North of the village of 
Guntacul are principally of the usual granite of India, composed of felspar, 
quartz, mica, and hornblende, and schorl but rarely : the crystals of fel- 
spar are large and well defined. This large grained granite is pene- 
trated by veins of a smaller grained granite with reddish felspar, and a 
few plates only of mica ; veins of compact opaque quartz coloured by acty- 
nolite, are often numerous. Schorl occurs in the blocks of granite seen 
scattered near the great tank of Rayelcherroo. 

We now cross into the ancient Hindu kingdom of the Karnatak from 
that of Andhra. Both Telinghi and Canarese are spoken here and at 
Gooty ; but a little farther Westward, Canarese prevails. 

Guddacul. Overlooking the bungalow on a craggy hill, stands a small 
conspicuous pagoda to Chouri Amma. It is the easternmost of a broken 
range from the W. N. W. At its Northern base is a thick bedded gneiss, 
with dark coloured mica in scales. The upper part of the hill is occu- 
pied by masses of red sienitic granite with thin veins of quartz and 
felspar coloured by actynolite. The crystals of hornblende disintegrate 
into a rusty coloured powder, which leaves cavities on the surface of the 
rock in falling out. 

The rock on which the small fort stands is also of sienitic granite, 
penetrated by a greenstone dyke. At its base is an excavation, about 
eight feet deep, into a greenstone bed or dyke. 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 513 

It is in various stages of disintegration, which has been hastened and 
modified apparently by the infiltration of water containing carbonate of 
lime and muriate of soda. The dark hornblende crystals have been con- 
verted into the green hue of diallage, which passes into a greenish yellow 
and feuille morte, and other deeper shades of brown. It is reticulated 
with seams, filled and lined with kunker. I have seen this singular effect 
produced on the colour of hornblende under similar conditions, in vari- 
ous parts of Southern India. It is probable, that the green, or greenish 
yellow- coloured rock, if analysed by the chemist, would afford different 
results to those yielded by the hornblende rock prior to disintegration. 
Thus rocks and minerals often decay only to appear in other and often 
more beautiful combinations. 

The sienitic granite here exhibits great variety in structure and 
colour, from close-grained to porphyritic : flesh-coloured felspar and light 
green actynolite occur in veins. 

Bellary. The clusters of rocks on which the fort of Bellary stands, 
those overlooking the Ball- practice ground, and the Peacock hills in the 
vicinity are all composed of a crystalline granite containing hornblende 
in addition to the usual components. The greater proportion of the 
felspar in this granite is flesh coloured, and imparts a prevailing tinge 
to the rock. The granite occurs in all its varieties in one mountain 
mass, compact and porphyritic, red and grey, micaceous and hornblendic. 

The Peacock hills, and the broad- backed rock on which the fort 
stands, are nearly covered with loose cubiform blocks and rounded 
masses of granite, which appear as if shot out suddenly on the ground 
from some enormous cart. Many rise suddenly from the flat plain, like 
inverted tea cups on the surface of a table. Such is the aspect of most 
granite masses of S. India. 

Tors and logging stones abound in the Peacock hills and on the 
cluster near the Ball-practice ground, where occurs that singular pile 
figured in the XHIth No. of the Journal Royal As. Soc. in the article 
on the quarrying granites of Egypt and India. Here also is seen, 
one of those curious piles of calcareous scoriae, attributed by the Hindus 
to the Racshasas of old.* 

* Vide No. XIII, Journal Royal As. Soc, p. 129, &c. 


Notes, chiefly Geological, 

[No. 163. 

Gametic gneiss and leptinitic gneiss occur around the bases of these 
granite rocks in contorted strata; and further to the S. and W., rise the 
hornblende and chlorite schists into the ranges 'of Boodihal and the 
Copper mountain. 

Copper Mountain. This dome-shaped mountain is the highest point 
of a ridge which runs by Jondoor N. Westerly to the Tumbuddra 
near Hospett, and about five miles Westerly from Bellary. It is said 
to be 1500 feet above the plain at its base, which at Bellary is about 
1600 feet above the sea according to General Cullen's measurements* 
The great plain at its Eastern base extends Easterly as far as Gooty, 
Northerly to the North bank of the Kistnah, and Southerly to the My- 
sore frontier : it is for the most part covered with a rich sheet of regur, 
resting either on kunker or the debris of the subjacent granitic and 
hypogene rocks ; and in addition to the bajra, and other dry grains of red 
soils, smiles with extensive crops of cotton, wheat, and the white juari. 

The inferior ridges at the base of the range are chiefly of gneiss, 
and a reddish and faint greenish quartz rock. The great mass of the 
ridge is composed of hornblende schist passing into chlorite and earthy 
ferruginous schists, capped by a wall-like naked ridge of a dark brown 
rock composed generally of a greyish chert, and brown iron ore, or 
jaspideous red and brown clay, in alternate layers, and resting ap- 
parently on their edges ; in fact, a ribbon jasper on a large scale. The 
laminae are often highly contorted and waving. The crest is often 
broken up by transverse fissures or joints ; and, at more than one part 
of its crest-like course, has suffered manifest disturbance. Its general 
direction is S. Easterly. 

A columnar mass, about 50 feet high, crowns the ridge, not far from 
the copper excavations, and serves as a guide-post to their site, which is 
nearly obliterated by earth and fragments of excavated rock, and can be 
hardly found without the aid of a Tulari, or of a person who has previous- 
ly visited them. A crater-like cavity, on the top of a small mound a few 
yards in diameter and of little depth, was pointed out as one of the exca- 
vations for copper made by order of Hyder. I examined the sides and 
bottom of this cavity, but did not discover any vein of the ore in the 
rocks composing them, though traces of the green carbonate in their 
seams and incrustations are seen on the refuse thrown out. On the right 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 515 

of the ridge a little farther to the N. W., is another excavation at the 
base of the rocky crest of the range. 

The ore appears to have existed only in these thin incrustations and 
seams, (for I could not find the slightest trace of any continuous lode 
or vein,) and the project was shortly given up by Hyder. The imbed- 
ding rock is a ferruginous slate clay, and the ferruginous quartz rock 
of the crest. 

From the vicinity of these excavations rises the dome- shaped summit 
before mentioned, as the loftiest peak of the ridge. Its summit is flat- 
convex, and capped with laterite containing much iron. This tubular 
mass is precipitous on its S. W. side, and contains two apparently na- 
tural caves situate at the bottom of the precipices, of small dimensions. 

In one of these stood the shrine of the tutelary deity of the mountain ; 
and recent offerings of flowers, oil, and cocoa had been made in this rude 
rock temple. On the roofs and sides of these caverns are partial in- 
crustations of common salt and alum, which appear to have been deposited 
by water percolated through the porous mass above, and which contains 
sulphuret of iron, by the decomposition of which the sulphuric acid has 
been set free. 

This peak formed one of the stations of the Trigonometrical survey : 
a pile of stones on its surface marks the stand probably of the flag. 
The thermometer in the shade during the hottest part of the day 
stood at 72° Farenheit only, (July.) 

Descending the ridge N. of this peak, a large dyke of trap is seen 
crossing the mountain in a westerly direction. White potter's-earth, 
kunker, and smoky quartz occur in the vicinity. At the base, a small 
seam of whitish saccharine limestone (marble) is seen in the hornblende 

The singular ranges and valley of Sondur to the Westward of the 
Copper mountain, have been described already, (Madras Journal for 
Sept. 1838, p. 128). 

Ringing stones of Courtney. A little to the S. E. of the village of 
Courtney, about ten miles W. N. W. from Bellary, to the left of the 
road is a low, long, black ridge composed of blocks of basaltic green- 
stone piled one upon another, — the outgoings, in fact, of a dyke which 
penetrates and projects from the surrounding granitoidal gneiss rocks. 

516 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

Their piled and separated appearance is entirely owing to that natural 
process of spontaneous splitting, and concentric exfoliation when ex- 
posed to the atmosphere, which I have attempted to describe elsewhere. 

These blocks, like phonolite and other rocks of basaltic origin, give 
out a metallic sound when struck by a stone or hammer : and here, 
from the peculiar and often delicately poised position of the blocks, the 
effect is greatly enhanced. A few years ago an ingenious person in 
London made a sort of harmonicon from slabs of basalt and other 
rocks. The course of this dyke is South-westerly. 

Daroji. From Bellary to the great tank of Daroji, about fifteen miles, 
the plain is flanked to the westward by the Copper mountain range, 
which is gradually neared. Granite and gneiss are seen in low hills and 
masses along its western base. A spur of this range ends at the S. E. 
angle of the Daroji tank, throwing out a few outliers in the direction 
of its line, viz. N. W. by N. This natural barrier line of elevation pro- 
longed by an artificial embankment, or " bund," of stone and earth, 
nearly three miles long, dams up the water flowing down the sides of 
the ranges to the West, North-west, and South. It continues to the 
village of Daroji, beyond which is another outlier of the Copper moun- 
tain range. 

One of the rocks in the line of the tank bund presents a vertical sec- 
tion of the strata, which do not materially differ from those forming the 
crest of the Copper mountain already described, and have a similar ver- 
tical arrrangement of laminse. Traces of the green carbonate of copper 
also occur in it, and similar incrustations of the sulphate of alumina of an 
earthy texture, are found at the bottom of a quarry in a small hill 
crowned by a Hindu temple on the bund of the tank. Small seams in 
the rock are filled with this mineral. Laterite, associated with a 
blistery, and mammillary iron ore, occurs in a few small overlying 

A little to the North of this, beyond the village, lies a small hill of chlo- 
ritic schist ; and on its flanks, a lofty and extensive outburst of granite 
forming a chain of naked rugged peaks separated by deep trans- 
verse gaps or valleys, stretching towards the South. It flanks the plain 
West of the tank, and diverging towards the W., is lost in the still 
loftier elevations of Sondur. 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 517 

At its contact with the chloritic schist the granite loses its mica, 
becomes a pegmatite, and is. seamed with vertical lines of cleavage. 
The felspar of the granite becomes more compact, and is of a pale 
pink colour. Its quartz often acquires a greenish blue tinge, probably 
from the contiguity of the chlorite, and its structure becomes pris- 
matic. Dark dendritic markings occur on the superficies of the 

A few feet from the line of contact the mica reappears in the granite. 
Thin flakes of chlorite, however, are visible in its structure, which 
impart to it a somewhat laminar character. Actynolite also occurs 
in the veins of eurite, quartz, and felspar, with which these mountain 
masses of granite are intersected. 

The chloritic schist has been hardened and often converted into jaspi- 
deous rock at the contact. The smooth surfaces and the prismatic frag- 
ments into which it splits, on being struck by the hammer, exhibit dark 
arborescent delineations on a pale greenish yellow ground curiously con- 
trasted with the dull, greenish blue colour of the schist. Short veins 
from the granite are seen penetrating the chlorite schist; and it is 
evident that, at this point at least, as at the celebrated locality of Glen 
Tilt, the granite must have penetrated this hypogene rock in a liquid or 
semi-liquid state. Some of the seams in both rocks are lined or filled 
with calcareous incrustations. 

Bijanugger. From Daroji to the celebrated ruins of Bijanugger 
(about fifteen miles) the route lies through low clusters of hills princi- 
pally of granite and gneiss. The felspar of the granite is usually red- 
dish, and it is often coloured by actynolite of lively shades of green. 

From the low grounds between these hills, hornblende and chloritic 
schists are frequently seen out- cropping, and are the outgoing of numer- 
ous basaltic dykes, the general direction of which is Westerly and North- 

Angular and slightly worn fragments of a coarse variegated jasper, 
a ferruginous quartz and indurated clay, occur scattered on the surface 
of the valley along which the road lies, mingled with fragments of the 
other rocks in sitti. It is probable these fragments of jasper have been 
derived from the Sondur ranges on the left or W. The range on the 
right, as Bijanugger is neared, assumes the more rugged and indented 
aspect peculiar to granite. 

518 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

The whole of the extensive site occupied by the ruins of Bijanugger 
on the South bank of the Tumbuddra, and of its suburb Annagundi 
on the Northern bank, is occupied by great bare piles and bosses of 
granite and granitoidal gneiss separated by rocky defiles and narrow 
rugged vallies encumbered by precipitated masses of rock. Some of 
the larger flat bottomed vallies are irrigated by aqueducts from the 
river, and appear like so many verdant Oases in this Arabia Petraea of 
Southern India. Indeed some parts of the wilderness of Sinai reminded 
me, but on a far grander scale, of this huddled assemblage of bare 
granite rocks on the banks of the Tumbuddra. The formation is the 
same, the scantiness of vegetation, the arid aspect of the bare rocks, 
and the green spots marking the presence of springs, few and far be- 
tween in the depths of the vallies, are features common to both loca- 

The peaks, tors, and logging stones of Bijanugger and Annagund 
indent the horizon in picturesque confusion, and are scarcely to 
be distinguished from the more artificial ruins of the ancient Hindu 
metropolis of the Deccan, which are usually constructed with blocks 
quarried from their sides, and vie in grotesqueness of outline and mas- 
siveness of character with the alternate airiness and solidity exhibited 
by nature in the nicely poised logging stones and columnar piles, and 
in the walls of prodigious cuboidal blocks of granite which often crest 
and top her massive domes and ridges in natural Cyclopean masory. 

The granite clusters of Bijanugger are continued on the opposite or 
Northern bank of the river to Annagundi and Gungawutti in the 
Nizam's territories. On the East they are bounded by the great regur 
plains of the Ceded Districts, and on the West by those of the S. 
Mahratta country. The country to the S. has already been described. 

At first sight these elevations appear to have sprung up confusedly 
without order or arrangement ; but I found, after ascending the loftiest 
summits, and after a careful examination of the direction of the laminae 
in the gneiss, interstratified beds, veins, and fissures, on both sides of the 
river, that the great general line of dislocation nearly follows that 
hitherto observed, viz. N. N. W. and S. S. E. and that the rock opening 
through which the Tumbuddra flows is a cross valley. 

A few caves, both natural and artificial, occur in the granite. The 
natural caverns are usually fissures roofed by precipitated blocks, or the 

1845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 519 

spaces left between great superimposed masses of rock, and not, as in 
limestone, laterite, &c, galleries, or caverns in the substance of the rock 

The rock temple to Rungasami is in a low, dark cavern, formed partly 
by a fissure, and partly by artificial means. 

The marks of the chisel in the granite quarries whence was excavated 
the material for constructing the great monolith statues, the temples, 
palaces, walls and aqueducts of this once magnificent city, are as fresh 
as if only of yesterday. Those in the blocks quarried from Syene in 
upper Egypt are almost equally as recent looking ; a phenomenon attri- 
butable, in part, to the great dryness of the atmosphere. 

About a mile easterly from Nimbapur, a small hamlet in the suburb 
of Bijanugger, lies an oval-shaped heap of calcareous scoria, about forty- 
five yards long by about eighteen broad, and from ten to fourteen feet 
high, partially covered by grass and other vegetation. It is evidently 
artificial, and of considerable antiquity. The Brahmins aver it to be the 
ashes of the bones of the Giant Walli, or Bali, an impious tyrant slain 
here by Rama on his expedition to Lanka (Ceylon*.) 

After passing a week in these interesting ruins, engaged in having the 
inscriptions on stone copied, rambling among its deserted temples and 
collecting the marvellous legends of the few priests that now linger on 
the principal sacred spots, I proceeded along the western flank of the 
Sondur hills, on the right bank of the Tumbuddra, towards the ferry into 
the S. Mahratta country at Humpsagur. With regard to the inscrip- 
tions it may be remarked, en passant, that the greater part are in the old 
Canarese character, (but the language is often Sanscrit,) and chiefly 
dated in the 14th and 15th centuries. One of them is curious, as showing 
that the bridge over the Tumbuddra was constructed by the Hindu 
prince Ramnatha, prior to the Bay el Dynasty of Bijanugger ; this is in 
Nagri character, on a stone at the foot of the mountain on which 
Hanuman is said to have been born, date A. S. 121 1. 

Hospett. Hospett lies about five miles W.S.W. from Bijanugger, near 
the point where the two ranges enclosing the valley of Sondur end, and 

* For an account of these heaps of ashes, vide Journal Royal As. Soc. No. XIII. 
p. T29, &c. 

4 B 

520 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 163. 

nearly meet, being connected by a high and massive embankment of 
stone and mud. These ridges have already been described, (Madras 
Journal of Literature and Science.) 

A dyke of basaltic greenstone crosses the plain between Bijanugger 
and Hospett in a westerly direction. It forms an eminence, on which 
is situated an ancient Mahomedan burial ground, a little to the W.N. W. 
of Camlapoor. 

Granite blocks, with much red crystalline felspar, are seen in the 
ditch of the fort of Hospett. 

Proceeding towards Humpsagur, the road lies along the stone em- 
bankment just mentioned. Gneiss is seen immediately at the eastern 
base of the hills, but their bulk is composed of a dull green horn- 
blende schist, with much silex and argillaceous matter, crested by a 
jaspideous rock similar to that cresting the Copper mountain. This 
rock contains nests, and layers of iron ore and loadstone, or iron ore 
with polarity. This I first discovered in setting down my pocket com- 
pass on one of the ferruginous-looking masses which project from the 
surface of the mammiform hill overlooking Hospett, when I was surprised 
to see the north pole of the magnet whirl suddenly round to the south, — 
a hint to be careful in selecting spots for taking magnetic bearings, 
choosing a site for an observatory, or in selecting stones for the fixed 
stands of magnetic instruments, &c. 

Quartz, both white and ferruginous, is abundant ; and a white striated 
mineral resembling tremolite externally. 

Wallavapur. This place is about thirty miles from Hospett. Below 
the fine anicut (dyke) thrown across the river by the Hindoo princes of 
Bijanugger, is seen a bed of gneiss penetrated by veins of porphyritic 
granite, containing much pink felspar in large semi-foliated crystals ; 
and here and there nests of hornblende and mica. The strata of the 
gneiss are waved and bent. 

A dyke of basaltic greenstone crosses the river bed in a westerly 
direction, compact at the edges : porphyritic towards the centre. The 
imbedded crystals are of light green felspar augite and hornblende. 

Gneiss, granite, hornblende schist, and basaltic greenstone continue 
to Humpsagur, where the Tumbuddra is crossed, into the South Mahratta 

18-15."] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 521 

Rock basins. The rocks in the bed of the river, both from Bijanug- 
ger and still farther east to Humpsagur, afford many instructive exam- 
ples of the formation of rock basins by the action of water in motion, 
particularly below the anicut of Wallavapur, where the gneiss is full of 
them.* The anicut itself is a stone dam, about twenty yards broad, 
thrown across the river so as to dam up its course, and to throw part 
of its water into the fields on either bank. On stone slabs in both 
wings of this anicut are inscriptions in the Hala Canada character, giv- 
ing the date of its construction, viz. 1443 Anno Salivahana, (about 1521 
A. D.), name of Cyclar year, Vicrama ; in the month Aswin. Although 
the floods of this large river have washed over these inscriptions for 
upwards of three centuries, the characters of the inscription are perfectly 
distinct and legible. 

From Humpsagur to the Western Ghauts. From Humpsagur the river 
crossed into the Darwar, or South Mahratta country, the geology of 
which by Gudduk and Dammul to the Western Ghauts, has already been 
described as consisting of granite and the hypogene schists, intersected 
by greenstone dykes. 

From Cuddapah to Darwar the Regur prevails, interrupted only when 
the rising of these rocks from the surface has covered their bases with 
a more recent alluvium resulting from their own disintegration. 

Ghauts West of Darwar. The formation of the Ghauts W. of Dar- 
war is the same as at Gairsuppa, and their western base to the sea at 
Goa is partially covered, as at Honawer, by a bed of laterite. Most of 
the surface buildings and fortifications of Goa are constructed of this 
rock, and it formed the thick walls of the once tremendous dungeons of 
the Inquisition, now lying prostrate. The startled snake and glittering 
lizard glide noiselessly away, scared by the sound of man's footstep 
among the rank vegetation which in many places chokes up the ruins. 

* For a description of the Rock basins of the Tumbuddra, vide Proceedings Geol. 
Soc. for 1841-42. 


On the Invention of the Armenian Alphabet, By Jghannes Avdall, 
Esq. M. A. S. 

If ancient Hellenic writers assign the palm to Cadmus for having 
been the inventor or introducer of the Greek letters, Haican historians 
of antiquity do bestow an equal distinction on St. Mesrop as the 
author or originator of the Armenian alphabet, the invention of which 
took place in the commencement of the fifth century, when this emi- 
nent divine flourished in Armenia, during the reign of Viramshapuh. 
Anterior to this period the Armenians used the Greek, Syriac and 
Persian characters. All their ecclesiastical and historical books were 
written in the two former, while the transactions of their courts of jus- 
tice, as well as of their civil administration, were recorded in the latter. 
Although it is true, as it will appear from what I shall have to state 
hereafter, that about a score of rude letters existed among the Arme- 
nians long before the day of St. Mesrop, yet their imperfection and 
consequent inutility was an insuperable bar to the cultivation of Ar- 
menian literature and to the advancement of knowledge among the 
sons of Haic. The disadvantage, attendant on the non-existence of a 
perfect and systematic alphabet, was deeply felt by the Armenian lite- 
rati of that period. Lazarus Parphensis, a reputed historian of the 
fifth century, tells us that the books used in the national schools, 
were written in Syriac characters, and that the Armenian youths 
were, in consequence, subjected to great toil, perplexity and expense 
in the prosecution of their studies. The pious and the devout expe- 
rienced similar difficulties in attending divine service, which was read 
and performed in books written in Greek or Syriac characters. This 
was certainly a source of great discouragement both to the pastors 
and the congregation, and at this the godly spirit of St. Mesrop was 
deeply grieved. The foregoing statement is fully borne out by the 
authority of Moses Chorenensis, who is justly termed the Armenian 
Thucydides, and is familiar to the learned of Europe by a Latin and 
French translation of his history of venerable antiquity. " b L 'b 

tlutpr^.ujuikinbi_ bpiuhtri^nth \ybupndpiijj ) n£_ i[:n^p fypkp i[tnuifbi^u t ^.luJii^p 
[thj'b tr,p jrrbfttrp^oi^ L [^lupt^Jlul'ft^ » L IrRk "HL"-^ ^> u * h 'hl} u i^P "V lf}>P^"-- 
'liijjp ni~p 'but i'i£ J> t b^p* i£ufb[vnn_'(i cf nqjiilpq.njfu (fo/Lp jiaquiq.u n> ll^^UD 

pajptj.tru/itp^t " " Beatus autem Mesrobes non parvam molestiam 

1845.] On the invention of the Armenian Alphabet. 523 

inter docendum ex eo cepit, quod ipse cum lector, turn interpres erat, 
neque a populo intelligi potuit, si quis forte, eo absente, legisset, 
quoniam quidem non aderat interpres." L. III. Cap. XLVII. The 
heart of St. Mesrop burned with a holy desire to translate the Scrip- 
tures into the Armenian language, but the want of a perfect alphabet 
operated as a check to the attainment of the great object he had in 
view. This insurmountable obstacle tended, in no small degree, to the 
revival of paganism in some parts of Armenia, the inhabitants of 
which had embraced Christianity. The mind of St. Mesrop, was, 
therefore, literally absorbed in the plan of systematizing and complet- 
ing the Armenian alphabet, fully sensible that on the success of this 
important project depended the civilization and happiness of his coun- 
trymen. Moses Chorenensis, referring to the object in view, adds: 

« \\ujuU npnj trt^ '/i iTwft <y'buj[itr[__ qtnu/btr^'bjufbuttfrppu Z^ujinq fjrqnt.[iu * &_ 
u/pt(b uif_ cfuibX'b 'fi ui^uui^u $ufbu u{i;uuik" iftnp&fti-tg tniuJ-ufb^nx" c - AtQUe 

ob earn rem rationem iniit, quemadmodum Armeniacae linguae charac- 
teres inveniret ; qua in re dum operam poneret, variis premebatur 
difficuitatibus." L. III. Cap. XLVII. 

St. Mesrop was eminent for his profound learning, and his know- 
ledge of the Greek and Syriac languages. His unrivalled qualifica- 
tions had obtained for him the appointment of Secretary to the King 
Viramshapuh. Having filled this situation for a certain time, he preferred 
the quiet of monastic seclusion to the bustle of public life. Urgent busi- 
ness induced Viramshapuh to sojourn in Mesopotamia, where the absence 
of his able and experienced Secretary, or of one equally competent to 
discharge the duties of his office, was a serious impediment to the pro- 
gress of the transactions of his court. The use of Persian characters in 
public writings presented many difficulties. Hereupon, a priest or 
monk, named Abel, offered to the king to introduce Armenian letters, 
the prototype of which was said to be in the possession of a Syrian 
bishop, known by the name of Daniel. These letters are mentioned 
in the annals of ancient Armenian writers by the designation of Dani- 
elian characters, which, however inelegant and incomplete, were des- 
tined to be improved, systematized and completed by the genius of St. 

It is thus evident that Armenian letters were extant prior to the 
fourth century, but these, like the Hebrew and Arabic alphabets, were 

,524 On the invention of the Armenian Alphabet. [No. 163. 

without vowels, the want of which rendered the existing consonants of 
little avail or practical utility. Koreun, another cotemporary writer, 
says, that the Danielian characters were considered insufficient to link 
syllables together, and to form words out of them. Hence these cha- 
racters were allowed to sink into disuse, and in their stead, the Greek, 
Syriac and Persian alphabets were used by the Armenians of those 

The Danielian characters were twenty-two, or, according to other 
writers, tweny-nine in number. The invention of the seven vowels, 
1\> \j* i b ) C* * t* * fl ' ffc is only ascribed by Asolik to 
St. Mesrop, while another historian asserts that he invented fourteen 
letters, of which seven were consonants, and the other seven, the 
foregoing vowels. Vardan, who flourished in the thirteenth century, 
says: — "St. Mesrop invented and introduced the Armenian alphabet, 
of which twenty-two letters are known by the designation of Danie- 
lian characters, which were, from time immemorial, extant among the 
Armenians. But these Danielian characters had become obsolete, in 
consequence of their being incomplete and insufficient to combine the 
syllables of words in the copious language of Haic. The Armenians 
were, therefore, obliged to content themselves with the use of the 
Greek, Syriac and Persian characters. St. Mesrop succeeded, by in- 
spiration from above, in inventing fourteen letters, of which the form 
was seen inscribed on a stone by an invisible hand ! This sacred gift 
he obtained on the mount Balu, as Moses had received the Divine 
tablets on the mount Sinai ! To this day vestiges of the stone, bear- 
ing the miraculous inscription cf the letters, are visible on that spot, 
which is held in veneration by the Armenians." That there were 
Armenian letters anterior to the Christian era, was ascertained beyond 
a doubt during the reign of the Armenian king Leo, when coins 
were discovered, bearing inscriptions commemorative of the sovereign- 
ty of pagan Armenian kings. But these letters were both inelegant 
and imperfect, and our modern Ezra, St. Mesrop, brought them to 

The fact of the existence of Armenian letters, prior to the beginning 
of the fifth century, is further corroborated by the testimony of fo- 
reign writers. Philostratus, who flourished during the reign of the em- 
peror Severus, and who enjoyed the patronage of the empress Julia, 


On the invention of the Armenian Alphabet. 


thus writes in his history of Apollonius Tyanseus: — " A panther was 
once caught in Pamphylia, having round its neck a gold collar, on 
which were inscribed these words in Armenian characters, 
\L„<± m -»^ mw.m)r*su t^-ttt-rtj s Sing Arsaces to the god Nysceus" 

The improvement and perfection of the Armenian alphabet was 
immediately followed by the establishment of numerous elementary 
schools and colleges for the instruction of the sons of Haic in scholastic 
books written in their own characters. The Scriptures were also 
translated from the original Greek into Armenian, together with such 
select Greek works as were calculated to enlighten and elevate the 
minds of Armenian students. Thus a happy change was wrought, 
in the beginning of the fifth century, by the introduction of Armenian 
letters; and the reign of Viramshapuh, like the Augustan age, is con- 
sidered as the golden era of the cultivation of Armenian literature. 

The Armenian alphabet consists of thirty-eight letters, of which 
twenty-two existed, though in a rude form, prior to the Christian era; 
fourteen were invented by St. Mesrop, and two were borrowed from 
the Greeks in the twelfth century. 

The following are their forms, names, and sounds. 







I be (as in 


A (as in father) 



t .. 



B soft. 



* .- 


. . 

K. C. Q. 



T •• 


T soft. 



fr .. 

Yetch, . . 

Ye (as in yes.) 



t •• 


. . 

Z or S soft. 



k .. 

E. .. ., 


E (as in met.) 



c .. 


U (as in us.) 



e- .. 

Twoh, - . 

T hard. 



* .. 

J. or Zh, 


J- French, or as English S. in the 
words pleasure, measure. 



fr .. 


I or E. 



i - 

Luine, .. 




h .. 

Khe, . . 

Ch. German, or as \ Greek. 



s- .. 

Dzah, .. 


526 On the invention of the Armenian Alphabet. [No. 163. 

The following are their forms, names, and sounds, (continued.) 







Ghien, .. 

G hard. 




Hwoh, . . 





. . 

Tzah, . . 

TZ soft. 




Ghahd, . . 

Gh or as y Greek. 




Je or Jde, 

I or G soft. 




Mien, .. .. 






He or Ye, 

H soft. 











Shah, . . 






Wo (as in worthy.) 





Tchah, . . - 

Teh or Ch (as in charity) 





re, . . 





TcheorChe, ... 

Ch or Teh soft. 




Rah, .. .. 

R hard ( as in raft.) 










• '« 







Tune, .. 



I 1 


. . 

Re, .. .. 

R soft. 




Tzvoh, .. .. 

Tz hard. 










• • 






Ke, .. .. 

K or Ch (as in archangel.) 




O, .. .. 






Pha, or Fe, . . 

Ph or F. 

It is worthy of notice, that a beautifully lithographed folio volume 
on Armenian Caligraphy was published at Venice in 1834. In this 
interesting publication is given a great variety of specimens of the Ar- 
menian alphabet, in nearly thirty different forms, which must certain- 
ly excite the wonder of orientalists, and the admiration of the lovers 
of Armenian literature. A similar publication has, it appears, lately 
issued from the Armenian press at Vienna, but not a single copy of it 
has as yet reached us in India. 




On the (enures and fiscal relations of the owners, and occupants of 

the soil in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. By James Alexander, 

Esq., B. C. S. 

The word Zemindarree, in the time of the Moghuls, signified the 
particular extent of land over which one zemindar, or landholder, 
exercised jurisdiction ; the collection of the revenues of that district 
was one of the chief duties entrusted to him, and the object of the 
greatest importance to the state. The amount of revenue leviable 
upon it became the distinguishing character of each zemindarree, and 
it was the only matter regarding it of which a record was kept in the 
superior revenue offices. Although the area was entered in some of 
the registers, yet the information regarding this, or as to the peculiar 
boundaries or products of each tenure was very defective. When the 
Perpetual Settlement was effected under the British Rule in Bengal, 
Behar and Orissa, the same form of record was preserved, and to this 
day little more is known of a zemindarree than the amount revenue 
which it is bound to pay the state. For the actual collection of reve- 
nue, and better preservation of individual rights, more particular dis- 
tinctions have become necessary ; but these will be more conveniently 
treated of under another head. 

Zemindar. This officer, under the Moghul government, exercised 
powers as phoujdar, or chief of the armed force, collector of revenue, 
and civil judge in trifling case3. On the accession of the English, his 

No. 164. No. 80, New Series. 4 c 

528 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

services were required only as a middleman between the state and the 
actual cultivators of the soil. Although the zemindar's office had 
become by use hereditary, yet it is uncertain whether he had any pro- 
prietary right in the soil itself. It was, however, found convenient 
to bestow this right upon him, in order that it might be available 
as a security for the payment of the revenues of the state ; and the ze- 
mindar is now regarded as the proprietor of his zemindarree as long as 
he makes good the Government revenue leviable from it. Should he 
fail to do this, his proprietary rights are liable to sale for the realiza- 
tion of the demand. 

It was incumbent on the zemindar, in his character of collector of 
revenue, to account to the state for his collections ; his remuneration 
consisted in a percentage on his collections. The title to office having 
been received as a right, the same rule held good with reference to 
these emoluments, insomuch that the incumbents of zemindarrees were 
held entitled to their allowances or per centage even when they de. 
clined to perform the duties of their office by undertaking to pay the 
amount of revenue at which it was assessed.* These allowances so set 
aside were called Malikana, and averaged about ten per cent, on the 
gross assessment of an estate ; expenses incurred in the management of 
an estate are either entered in the account current, and their amount 
deducted from the gross proceeds, or are regulated by a fixed allow- 
ance on their account: where this latter plan is adopted, they are cal- 
culated at from ten to twenty per cent, on the assessment. 

The original title of the zemindar then consisted in his right to 
hold the lands under his jurisdiction, on condition of accounting to the 
state for the net proceeds after deduction of expenses and his own 
per centage allowances. It is evident, however, that the state had no 
alternative between placing implicit reliance on the accounts given 
in by the zemindar or testing them by an annual investigation or 
assessment of the lands, and that if such took place the value of the 
zemindarree was entirely dependent on the result. To obviate this, 
it was determined in the year 1790, under the local Government of 
Lord Cornwallis, that an assessment should be made of all estates, and 
that the amount so assessed should be the sum which Government 

* Shore's Minute, 18th June 1789, para. 202nd ; 18th September 1789, para. 2nd. 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, $c. 529 

might demand every year, and that no further demand should be 
made for ten years : this period of ten years was subsequently increas- 
ed to perpetuity; and all estates, held under assessments so imposed, 
are called Perpetually Settled Estates, or Zemindarrees. 

Various causes, however, have operated to prevent or impede the 
settlement of many zemindarrees. These are disposed of for shorter 
periods, and called Estates under Temporary Settlement. The condi- 
tion of tenure of these is as in Perpetually Settled Estates, the payment 
of the Government demand; but the period "of tenure is limited by 
that of the lease under which it is held, and at the expiration of this 
the estate is open to reassessment. 

Confirmation by competent authority is essential to the validity of 
either a perpetual or temporary settlement. 

It is evident, that when the yearly rent of a zemindarree became 
fixed in perpetuity, and the payment of it was the only condition of the 
tenure, the condition of the zemindar was materially altered; instead 
of being only interested to the extent of ten per cent, in the increases 
upon the annual proceeds of his estate, he had a right to appropriate 
to his own use all surplus proceeds after defraying the Government 
revenue. Rapid improvements took place in all properties held under 
this fixed assessment ; the favourable returns from these, together with 
the lightness of the original assessment, have raised the incomes of 
proprietors so high, that the term Malikana is no longer applicable to 
the sums, which they receive in their character of zemindars. These are 
now designated, generally, as Proprietary Profits; they consist in the 
net proceeds of an estate after deducting the Government revenue and 
the expenses of collection, and will of course vary very much in pro- 
portion to the capabilities of an estate, and the success of the manage- 
ment to which it is subjected. 

A talook is a subordinate tenure within the jurisdiction of a zemin- 
darree. Talooks were of various descriptions. In some cases the talook- 
dar had obtained the fee-simple or proprietary right in lands compos- 
ing their talooks, either from the zemindar or his ancestor, or directly 
from the state ; and his title was indefeasible as long as he paid the 
Government dues: in others, the incumbency of the talookdar in the 
subordinate tenure was prior to that of the zemindar in the larger; 
in others, the zemindar had never any proprietary right in the lands of 

530 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

the talook. In all these tenures it was ruled at the formation of the 
Perpetual Settlement, that the talookdars should have the privilege of 
entering into engagements, and paying their revenue directly to the 
state, and that they should be independent of the zemindar. Talooks 
of this class are called Independent, or *Huzooree Talooks. In cases 
where the deeds under which the talook was formed only alienated the 
zemindar's title to collect the rents without conveying any pro- 
prietary right in the soil, or where it was evident from the form or 
wording of the lease that the zemindar contemplated the resumption 
of his title, the talook was considered dependent, and the rent of 
the talook was included in the assets of the zemindarree, and paid 
to the state through the zemindar. Under many circumstances, to be 
detailed hereafter, the rent on the talook was liable to enhancement 
on the part of the zemindar. It was however ruled, that neither loss 
nor gain on the rents derived from his subordinate tenures, could affect 
the amount of rent payable by the zemindar to the state. The rents 
of talooks were either increased or diminished, or new talooks were 
established at his own risk; and the civil court was in all cases the 
arbiter of his title to interfere with his talookdars.f With refer- 
ence to the establishment of new talooks, it was laid down that he 
could not alienate lands for a period extending beyond that of his own 
incumbency; that this being conditional on the payment of Govern- 
ment revenue, any failure in this payment would render void his 
own title, and also that of all other tenants holding immediately un- 
der himself. The effect of this rule is, that on an estate being sold by 
auction for arrears of rent, all leases granted by the former proprie- 
tor since the Decennial Settlement become void, and the lessees liable 
to an enhancement of their rents under certain restrictions, which 
will be more fully specified hereafter. 

The cultivators of the soil in India have acquired various titles and 
privileges, acquaintance with which is essential to understanding the 
revenue system. Indiscriminate use of terms has given this part of the 

* The word Huzoor signifying literally, the presence, is applied in India to desig- 
nate the extant supreme authority in the land. The addition of a vowel affix gives it 
the form of an adjective, and thus a Huzooree Talook comes to mean a tenure having 
directly to do with the Supreme Government without intermediate lien, or inter- 
vention. — Eds. 

f Clause 8, Section 15, Regulation VII. 1799, 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, SfC. 531 

question some appearance of intricacy : to obviate this, a mere detail 
of the titles will be given in this place, and the privileges obtained 
under those titles will be more fully considered when the rates of rent 
are discussed ; for it is evident, that in the ryuttee as in the zemin- 
darree tenure, the rent which it will yield is the distinguishing 
mark of each sort of tenure, and the only point about it to which 
interest attaches in a discussion on revenue laws. The exact meaning 
of the word ryut is not conveyed by the word cultivator; for a man 
may be a ryut without being a cultivator: neither is the word resident 
a proper translation, for a man may be a resident without being a ryut. 
By the word ryut is implied a certain relation towards the community 
of the village of which a man is a ryut, and towards the zemindar 
of that village. An artificer or shopkeeper may stand in these relations 
of citizenship and vassalage, although perfectly unconnected with the 
cultivation of the lands of a village : in pursuing his occupation or 
trade in another part of the country he will still call himself the ryut 
of the particular village, and the particular zemindar with which he is 
connected as a ryut. When he dissolves this connection and becomes the 
ryut of another village, his rank and title in his new location are 
completely changed. This discussion appears necessary, because it is 
not uncommon to observe great misuse of the word ryut, as a revenue 
term ; whereas it is not, until connected with some other word implying 
employment in culture, that it acquires any value at all. Thus the 
terms kudeemee or morousee ryut do not imply a ryut possessed of 
any peculiar privileges, merely that his ancestors were ryuts in the vil- 
lage, even a moccurreree ryut may hold only the area of his homestead, 
and these are the most common sort of moccurrereedars. The proper 
definitions and distinctions are khod-khasht, paee-khasht, moccurreree 
khod-khashty morousee khod-khasht, kudeemee khod-khasht, moccurre- 
ree paee-khasht, morousee paee-khasht, kudeemee paee-khasht. The 
several privileges which these various titles confer, will be discussed 
under the head of Rates. It will be necessary to observe, that the term 
jote is the word which may be most conveniently employed in ex- 
pressing the land held by each particular ryut. 

The rent of land is the hire paid for the use of it. The original 
contract was very much this; — the proprietor of the soil gave 
the use of it, and the cultivator gave his labor, and the proceeds 

532 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

or crop were divided between them. Many causes, however, tend to 
disturb the primitive simplicity of this arrangement ; the degree of labor 
requisite to ensure a compensating return is liable to great variation. 
Labor is not the only capital needed : the implements of husbandry, 
cattle employed in agriculture, seed, the means of protection, — all 
require outlay, and it soon becomes a question, in what proportion this 
is to fall on the contracting parties ? The landlord must con- 
stantly observe his tenant to ensure his honesty, and the tenant is 
discouraged by the reflection that one-half of his labor must be bestow- 
ed for the benefit of another. The first step towards the adjustment 
of these difficulties is, generally, a variation in the proportion of the 
crop receivable by the landlord, calculated with reference to the con- 
tribution which he makes towards the joint capital employed in the 
cultivation, whether in the shape of seed, cattle, hired labor, or any 
thing else necessary to raising the crop. Where the cultivator contri- 
butes labor only, he receives somewhat less than one- half of the crop; 
where he contributes both labor and capital, he receives more: the 
latter is most commonly the case in India, but even after the adjust- 
ment of the proportions due to either party, difficulties will still re- 
main, in any scheme of partition. The two most important have already 
been noticed — the necessity on the part of the landlord, of constantly 
watching his tenant ; and the discouragement on the part of the tenant, 
in bestowing extra labor and capital. To obviate these inconveniences, 
the landlord allows the tenant to redeem the proprietor's share in the 
proceeds, and this gives rise to money-rents, or the payment of rents 
of money. Although a revenue officer in this country has generally the 
task of discovering and recording the rents actually paid, rather than 
that of determining what they ought to be ; yet it is important, that he 
should have some knowledge of the various causes which affect the 
adjustment of money-rents, and indeed his doing so is essential to his 
understanding the different tenures under which ryuts hold, and the 
rates at which they are assessed. Soil, stock, and labor, are all three 
necessary to the production of a crop : if these were all three contribut- 
ed in proportions of equal value, it is evident that the hire of the soil 
should equal one-third of the whole produce ; but in agreeing to pay 
an unvarying rent the tenant ensures the landlord against losses by 
failures of crop, defective seasons, fluctuations in the value of grain and 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, $c. 533 

labor, and relieves him from all the care and expense of watching 
over and transporting his own share of the produce. In order therefore 
to make an equitable adjustment in converting rents paid in kind 
into money-rents, every one of these points should receive attention ; 
and although it is probable that these questions were not formerly 
understood in all their minuteness of detail, yet we find that in prac- 
tice the cultivator discovered them as it were by experience, and 
limited his payments in money to the amount at which cash pay- 
ments were advantageous or not hurtful to his interests: — and here 
it must be recollected that in the earlier history of a country the pro- 
ducer and consumer are more nearly on an equality with each other, 
that it is not until the increased possessions of the latter give him a 
monopoly over the land that he can dictate its price to the former ; the 
careful recollection of this fact will afford material assistance in the 
consideration of the various rates paid by the different classes of cul- 
tivators in India. In discussing these it will also be necessary to bear 
in mind the distinction between the actual rate or nerick, and the 
various additions which have been made to it by the avarice of the 
landlords. This was formerly so well understood, that in the earlier 
discussions on revenue matters in this country we generally find the 
term ussul nerick, as distinguishing the actual rent or hire of the land 
from all extra demands made under other pretences. Although this 
distinction has been very much lost sight of, yet the careful analysis 
of the accounts of any zemindarree will shew the total demand of 
dustur against the ryut is made up of the ussul nerick, and various 
other extra charges. Although these latter are discountenanced and 
invalid by law, yet the possession of a monopoly of a necessary of life 
will always give rise to the disposition to profit by it, and landlords 
in this country are not more disposed than in others, to place other 
limit on their desires than that which necessity imposes. The cultiva- 
tor must have land, and he can afford to pay for the hire of it, the 
whole surplus proceeds remaining after the deduction of the costs of 
production, and a sum sufficient for his own maintenance. In England 
this is so well understood, that the capability of the tenant to pay is 
the only limit to the landlord's demand for rent. In this country 
ancient institutions, new laws, and large tracts of waste land, con- 
tribute to defeat the monopolizing tendencies of the landlord ; but there 
is a constant struggle between himself and his tenantry regarding 

534 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

the share which they are respectively to enjoy of the surplus profits of 
cultivation. In England there being no general laws for the protec- 
tion of the tenantry, many landholders have at different times pur- 
chased peculiar privileges from their landlords, which have descended 
from father to son, and are in force to this day ; the effective conditions 
of the judicial institutions rendering any attempt on the part of the 
landlord to set them aside, useless. The general laws in this country 
are well calculated to preserve to the cultivators all privileges, which 
ancient institutions or prescription without any special purchase or 
individual guarantee have conferred upon them ; but various causes 
have prevented their taking advantage of the protection of these laws. 
Now, however the necessity of obedience of the law and executive power 
is becoming daily more apparent, and exactly in proportion as these 
assert and maintain their authority well, the peculiar privileges of the 
cultivator receive protection : hence also careful examination of them 
with a view of understanding what they are, becomes daily more in- 
teresting and important ; as the nerick or rate of rent may be considered 
the index, or as it were test of the value of these privileges, they will 
come most conveniently under consideration in a review of the various 
sorts of rates which prevail in this country. 

Nerick moccurreree* A fixed rate of payment secured to the cul- 
tivator under the guarantee of a written document; it is essential 
to the validity of tenure at a moccurreree nerick, that the land 
had been held at fixed rates twelve years previous to the De- 
cennial Settlement, that the payments should have been uninter- 
rupted and uniform. Any failure of payment renders the lease 
void, and proof of increase of payments on former occasions is gene- 
rally regarded as evidence, that the moccurreree tenure has been 
broken up. Moccurreree nericks established by zemindars, at any date 
less than twelve years before the Permanent Settlement, are liable 
to be broken up on the sale of the estate for arrears of revenue, unless 
granted for specific purposes, or proved not liable to increased assess- 
ment on the grounds stated in Sect. 51, Reg. VIII. 1793. 

Leases conveying moccurreree rights need not necessarily specify the 
rate of rent: they frequently record the total area and total rent, or 

* S udder Dewanny Reports, Vol. I. page 102, " as no mention of a moccurreree 
tenure occurred in an authentic document." 

1845.] the oivners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, fyc. 535 

describe the external boundaries of the land, and mention the rent 
to be paid by the tenant ; but documents of this sort will generally 
be found to bear dates antecedent to that of the Decennial Settlement; 
since then the practice of giving moccurreree leases, except for special 
purposes such as the erection of buildings, &c, has fallen very much 
into disuse; where the grants have been made for specific purposes 
at fair rates, they are not liable to enhancement as long as the lands 
continue to be used for the purposes specified in the leases. These 
points are specified very clearly in Sect. 27, Reg. XII. 1841. 

The right to cancel a moccurreree tenure does not convey any title 
to oust the moccurrereedar, but merely to assess his land at the dis- 
cretion of the purchaser, who still retains his right of tenancy. (Vide 
Sudder Dewany Adawlut, vol. 1, 174.) It must be borne in mind, 
that the date of the Permanent Settlement is that on which each par- 
ticular settlement received confirmation from competent authority. 
Although in the majority of cases this occurred on the same day 
with reference to properties situated in the same tract of country, 
yet enquiry on this point is always necessary inasmuch as there are 
many exceptions to the rate. 

JSerick Mowroosee. Fixed rates to which a title is established by 
inheritance. Although the term Meeras is commonly employed to 
denominate tenures at a fixed rent, yet taken by itself it conveys a 
title of very uncertain value, the heritage must consist of something to 
be inherited. If this be a lease guaranteed to the descendants of the 
lessee, the tenures should be more properly considered under the head 
of Moccurreree, if it be a prescriptive title it should be considered 
under that head ; it is possible that there may be an attempt to 
found a title on the fact of a series of undisturbed successions, the 
evidence to this, if not that of documents in the hands of the claimant 
must be obtained from the public records, or those of the zemindar ; 
or it may be oral evidence assisted by tradition, but so many diffi- 
culties lie in the way of this sort of proof, that a Meeras will generally, 
as before remarked, prove a poor tenure unless supported by docu- 
ments or prescription. 

Nerick-i-kudeem. Fixed rates to which a title is established by pre- 
scription. The nobleman, under whose auspices the Permanent Settle- 
ment was completed, recorded the following observation on the right 

4 D 

536 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

of cultivators: " Unless we suppose the ryuts to have been the actual 
" slaves of the zemindars, every beegah of land possessed by them must 
"have been cultivated under an express or implied agreement, that a 
"certain sum should be paid for each beegah of produce, and no more. 
" Every Abwab or tax imposed by the zemindar over and above that 
"sum is not only a breach of that agreement, but a direct violation of 
u the laws of the country. The cultivator has therefore in such case an 
"undoubted right to apply to Government for the protection of his 
" property, and Government is at all times bound to afford him redress." 
This spirit pervades the whole body of law relative to the rights of the 
agricultural community. His Lordship again declares, " That the pri- 
e ' vilege which the ryuts enjoy of holding possession on the spots of 
" land which they cultivate so long as they pay the revenue assessed 
" upon them, is by no means incompatible with the proprietary rights 
" of the zemindars; whoever cultivates the land the zemindars can 
" receive no more than the established rent, which in most places is 
"fully equal to what the cultivator can afford to pay. The zemin- 
dars however may sell the land, and the cultivator must pay the 
rent to the purchaser." Now, although it is probable that any at- 
tempt on the part of the ryut to produce evidence of express agree- 
ment as to the terms of the original contract under which he broke 
up the soil, must fail, and although the nature of the implied agree- 
ment must have been dependent on so many circumstances, in which 
the lapse of time must have wrought such a change as to leave no 
trace by which to assist the formation of the judgment regarding 
them, yet evidence will be generally procurable as to what the rate 
has been, and in the absence of all proof to the contrary, it is assumed 
that this is what it ought to have been ; and the fact of having held 
this rate confers on the cultivator a prescriptive title to continue to 
do so, and in this way a title to hold rates fixed by time and custom 
constitutes a good and valid tenure. Then again this title to hold at 
established rates, may be attached to particular spots of lands, par- 
ticular villages, particular classes in a village, particular divisions 
of the country, or peculiar local custom. The first, and in some 
respects, most valuable is the right to hold particular spots of land 
on payment of a rent fixed by custom ; the land so held constitutes 
what is known by the name of, Mokuddum ryuttee jote, (answering 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, $c. 537 

very much to our English copyhold * ) is transferable by sale, and is 
undefeasible as long as the rent is paid. In Central Bengal where the 
introduction of Indigo has raised the demand for land, and the pre- 
sence of Europeans has given greater stability to the interests of culti- 
vators, these jotes are recognized as valuable properties, and are trans- 
ferred from hand to hand by sale or mortgage solely at the pleasure 
of the jotedar without reference to the zemindar, who has no claim 
except for his rents. In Eastern Bengal where land is more abundant 
in proportion to the demand, and where the system of underletting 
exposes the ryut to the ever varying aggressions of new farmers, if 
confidence in the stability of the rates is not so strong, and tenures 
held under prescriptive title have not the same value as marketable 
commodities, neither will the cultivator himself incur the risk of any 
extensive outlay in the formation of gardens, the excavation of tanks, 
and the building of houses, unless under the additional guarantee 
of a lease or other document. The estimation in which it is held 
in the market, however, does not affect the real validity of the title ; a 
tenure under rates established by prescriptive usage is valid in Eastern 
Bengal as elsewhere, but there are not the same facilities for asserting 
it as in Central Bengal, where it has been already recognized as a 
transferable property. 

Nerick M oroza-waree. Prescriptive usage has in some places given the 
inhabitants of a village a title to cultivate the lands in it at the rates 
established for each peculiar class of soil ; this title acquires its validity 
from the inability of the zemindar to levy more than the established 
rates; he sues a ryut for land which he has cultivated without enter- 
ing into engagements, although duly served with a notice, under 
Section X. Reg. V. 1812. The cultivator in defence states, that that 
notice raised the rates above those of the village ; the questions then 
to be determined are, what are the village rates, and what title the 
ryut has to the enjoyment of the privilege of cultivating at those rates ? 
The first is regulated by such evidence as may be procurable ; the se- 
cond depends very much on local usage ; the nearest approach to a ge- 
neral rule is, that the cultivator if not duly served with a notice to 
enter into fresh engagements, cannot at the end of the year be called 

* Vide Vol. IV. Stickler Dewanny Adawlut, 274. 

538 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

on to pay more than he paid the two preceding years, and that a 
cultivation of two years' standing is necessary to give him a title to 
cultivate at the village rates. There is an apparent difficulty, as to 
whether the cultivation must be of the same spot, or whether the 
title holds good in the event of any change, but the fact in practice is, 
that cultivators will never break up new or even fallow soil except at 
reduced rates: so that the question generally arises in the third year of 
cultivation, when, the particular spot of land in dispute having become 
a valuable holding, the zemindar wishes either to dispossess the tenant 
and let his land to another at increased rates, or to obtain those in- 
creased rates from the occupant, who then, in the absence of other 
title, claims to hold at the same rate as other cultivators in the village, 
or at the village rates. 

The Nericki-Mukuddum is a rate established in favor of particular 
individuals, who claim to hold land at rates below those of the village, 
as a privilege of caste or office; where there is sufficient evidence to 
prove that this title has been previously recognised, it acquires a force 
from prescription which is not easily set aside, but it has been gene- 
rally conceded by the zemindar rather than admitted by Government, 
or the Courts ; but still in practice it will be found, where there are 
Rajpoots in the same village with Goallas, Keoras, and Chamars or 
other low. caste men, that they hold their lands on more favorable 
terms than these latter; the alleged reason is, that the -Rajpoot culti- 
vator is compelled to employ servants, who see the whole of the labor 
is performed by the lower caste cultivators with their own hands. It 
has already been remarked, that this title must be recognised with 

The Pergunnah-waree Nerick is resorted to, to check the Mowza- 
warree Nerick in cases where the latter cannot be determined by evi- 
dence, or when the proper assessment of a village hitherto held at an 
inadequate rent requires readjustment. It is the prevailing rate in the 
pergunnah, a well known revenue division of the country. 

The Bundoobustee Nerick is the rate recorded by an officer deputed 
under Reg. VIII. 1822, to effect the settlement of an estate as the pro- 
per Nerick of the place; it ought to be either a mere record of the pre- 
vailing rates fixed with reference to the various titles under which the 
different cultivators hold their land, or of the rates determined by 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, &c. 539 

himself with due reference to the prevailing pergunnah rates. Rates 
thus established are under the provisions of Section XI. Reg. VII. 
1822, fixed for ever, as far as concerns the ryut holding under them 
at the time of settlement; neither can this in propriety be questioned 
in the Civil Court. 

Jungle-boor ee Nerick. The rate at which cultivators enter into 
engagements to bring jungly land into cultivation. These of course 
depend on the terms of the specific contract entered into. It may be 
useful to notice the various circumstances which may affect this. These 
are, the density of the jungle required to be cleared, the situation of the 
land with reference to markets, public thoroughfares or rivers, the 
demand for land in the neighbourhood, the means of irrigation, the 
quality of the soil and water, the aspect of the ground, and the heal- 
thiness of the climate. 

Nayabadee Nerick. The rate at which cultivators enter into en- 
gagements to bring waste lands into cultivation ; the above remarks 
are very much applicable to it also. 

Bheetee Nerick is the rate at which land for building is let. It 
is generally fixed on each house, and is determined by the eligibility of 
site, the extent of population, and similar causes ; in almost every case 
former payments will be the only satisfactory evidence regarding this 

Nerick Baghan, Nerick Phulkur. These two rates appertaining to 
orchards or gardens may be considered together. As some outlay is 
necessary for the preparation of a garden, the cultivator generally 
secures himself by obtaining a lease of the ground beforehand ; where 
he fails to do this, and has no prescriptive rights in his favor, the 
zemindar claims some proportion of the produce; even where this is as 
low as one-fifth, it is disadvantageous to the ryut, as orchard land 
requires great care in cultivation, and yields exceedingly high returns. 
A grove of mango trees standing on five acres will yield four or five 
hundred rupees if situated near a public road ; in like way the produce 
of betel gardens, or pawn gardens, is of such value that the highest 
rate of money rent, will seldom equal more than one-twentieth or 
twenty- fifth part of the assets. With all these rates the evidence of past 
payments, or the payments in adjoining fields or properties is the best 
guide for determining what ought to be paid in each particular case ; 
where evidence on this head is not procurable, great caution must be 

540 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

exercised in calculating a money rent from an estimate of raw pro- 
duce. It will be of importance to ascertain from evidence what pro- 
portion of this produce local custom assigns to the zemindar, and 
then carefully to bear in mind the fluctuations of markets, seasons, 
price, and other points before noticed in the discussion on money 

Nerick-i-Deh. In parts of the country where the villages are built 
in rows or streets, and the houses clustered together, the value of all 
lands is somewhat affected by their degree of proximity to the vil- 
lage, but the fields in the immediate vicinity of the houses are of 
peculiar value from the facility with which they are guarded, and the 
opportunity afforded of irrigating these from the village wells. These 
are called Deh lands, and are devoted to the more valuable crops, 
poppy, spices, tobacco, sugar-cane, and all others which require irriga- 
tion and watching. The rates on these are proportionate to the advan- 
tages conferred by position, and will generally be found recorded in the 
village accounts; where these are not procurable, nor appear trust- 
worthy, evidence of former payments on cultivators of similar land will 
afford some guide as to what the rates ought to be. In adjusting 
a money rate, reference must be had to the amount of labor bestowed 
in raising and gathering the crop, more particularly the latter, when 
it consists of opium or spices. 

Nerick Muteherfa. In Behar, the cultivating classes do not pay 
ground rent for the spaces occupied by their houses ; this however is 
levied from artizans, and shopkeepers and other residents not cultiva- 
tors, under the head of Muteherfa. In Bengal the word Chandnee is 
more commonly used for this peculiar class of rent ; local usage, vil- 
lage accounts, and evidence of past payments, will afford the best guide 
in deciding claims regarding this rent. In adjusting a money rent, it 
is necessary to consider what are the advantages obtained, and what 
is included in the rent, such as a right of wharfage on the banks of 
a River, of frontage in a Bazaar, or of participation in the commercial 
privileges of the place in a large town ; all which will affect the rent 
materially, and will, under peculiar circumstances, raise it to nearly 
500 or 1,000 per acre. 

Nerick-i-Bhatai, is the rate or proportion at which the rents of 
land are levied in kind. Where the simple word Bhatai is used, the 
produce is usually divided into two equal shares, of which one is 

1845] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, $c. 541 

appropriated by the tenant, the other by the landlord ; it is occasionally, 
however, levied in other proportions, such as one-fifth and four-fifths, 
two-fifths and three-fifths, one-third and two-thirds, or such other 
proportions as may be determined on. 

Nerick-i-kutnee. This is rather a legal term than an absolute rate. 
Where disagreement exists as to the terms of divisions, or when 
the landlord neglects to assess the standing crop, the cultivator cuts 
it at his own risk, and if he fail to satisfy the landholder, the latter 
brings an action at the Nerick-i-kutnee, stating that the crop having 
been cut he had no means of assessing it, and therefore sued the cul- 
tivation at the full value of an average crop; this value is generally 
laid at twenty maunds per beegah of the standard of Akbur. It 
becomes necessary to determine through whose neglect no assessment 
was made, what the terms of cultivation were, what the actual pro- 
duce was, what the Bazaar rates were at the time of cutting, and 
what the expenses were ; the titles advanced by the cultivators may 
be just the same as in the case of money rents, evidence of the same 
nature may be resorted to. 

Nerick-i-kunkoot. This again is a legal term. The landlord in order 
to save the expense of watching the crop from the time of its cutting 
to its being thrashed, assesses it when standing, obtains from the cul- 
tivator an acknowledgment of the assessment mutually agreed on, and 
by this the accounts are subsequently adjusted. Where disputes sub- 
sequently arise regarding this, an action is brought, Kunkoot ke nerick 
se, or Kunkoot ke hisdb se, to determine what the assessment was, or 
ought to have been ; if no written acknowledgment was entered into, 
or if it is disputed, oral evidence regarding the particular crop or 
those round it is generally all that is procurable. 

Nerick-i-khaneh shumarree. Where cultivation extends over hills 
or places not easily accessible for purposes of assessment, revenue is 
assessed on the families or the males of each family ; this mode of 
taxation is rapidly disappearing. It may be observed here, that 
tenures which lapse by dereliction or through default of heirs, revert to 
the zemindar; if a cultivator dies heirless, the zemindar may dispose 
of his tenure to the best advantage to himself, but if a new cultivator 
obtain possession without any stipulations as to rent, and retain it for 
two years, he cannot be ousted, but his title is not to hold the land at 

542 On the tenures and fiscal relations of [No. 164. 

the same rates as the former tenant, but at the village rates. If a ryut 
be absent from his cultivation, he may continue his title to it by 
payment of the prescribed rent, but should balance of rent remain 
unpaid at the end of any year, the zemindar may proceed against 
him under the provisions of Sec. XV. Reg. VII. 1799, and having 
obtained a decree oust him, under Sec. XVIII. Reg. VIII. 1819. 

Nerick-i- Bunkur is the rate paid for the privilege of cutting wood, 
grass, or similar products from particular localities; it is occasionally 
paid in the shape of rent for the ground occupied, occasionally in that 
of the price of the articles carried away. Generally a particular tract 
of country yielding Bunkur produce is let at a fixed rent to a farmer, 
who levies imposts from the men who carry away the different pro- 
ducts, according to the quantity which they take; the first descrip- 
tion of rent will be dealt with simply as any other farm, the second 
affecting the interests of the ryuts will depend very much on local 
usage ; although it is doubtful whether this can ever have been so com- 
pletely established as to constitute any prescriptive right to a fixed 
rate. In fact it is generally levied rather as a toll at the different 
points of export than as rent, and it does in reality differ from rent, as 
being rather the price of the article produced, than merely the lease of 
the hire of the land, although this latter is included in the price, the 
land being occupied in the production. Nature herself is the labourer, and 
the fortunate landholder is permitted to enjoy the fruit of her toils ; 
but Nature contenting herself with production, has left the appropria- 
tion or reaping to man ; and generally speaking, the labor of collecting 
and conveying spontaneous produce is far greater than of reaping a crop 
which is the result of cultivation ; and this labor which has before been 
mentioned as calculated to affect rent, will materially influence that of 
land yielding Bunkur produce. The two distinct operations of col- 
lecting and conveying, are frequently performed by different classes 
of labourers ; where this is the case, the landlord avails himself of the 
occasion of the transfer from one to another, as a convenient oppor- 
tunity of collecting his rent, and perhaps of taking some from each party. 
The woodcutter brings his log of timber or bundle of bamboos to the 
purchaser at the outlet of the estate, whatever it may be, the ghat or 
pass in a mountainous country, the river or roadside in a forest, or an 
alluvial chur ; the purchaser takes it from each individual, paying some 

1845.] the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, %c. 543 

portion of the price to the landlord, and adding a small sum on his own 
account for the privilege of storing his purchases on the property until 
they are completed; the rent here includes the hire of the soil, the 
value of the product, and in addition to it is charged a rent for the 
ground on which the collected store is deposited, pending transit. 
Bunkur literally signifies wood or belonging to the forest, but mineral 
products, generally speaking, found in woody places, all go to make up 
Bunkur rents; that is to say, they form part of the assets on which the 
rent of a Bunkur farm is calculated, such as chalk, coal, stones, chu- 
nam : these again have separate subdivisions, but the principle on which 
the rent is to be calculated is the same. With reference to the two 
latter, labour is bestowed not only in the collection of the article, but in 
its preparation for the market ; this preparation consists in the reduc- 
tion of the bulk, and the landlord compensates himself for what he 
loses in not taxing it in bulking by participating to a certain extent 
in the increased value of the article after it has undergone preparation. 
For the manufacture of the limestone into lime he makes a charge 
for the wood consumed in the heating of the kiln, and for the kiln 
itself; as he has the power of dictation, he generally prefers avoiding 
the risk of failure from injudicious heating, by taking the kiln accord- 
ing to the quantity of lime which it is estimated to yield rather than 
wait for the lime itself, hence this rate is generally levied on the kiln 
at so much per hundred maunds. Bunkur rates being generally levied 
as a toll, disputes regarding them seldom come before the Revenue 
Courts, except when disputes arise between the landholder and farmer, 
and these will of course depend on the terms of the lease. A Bunkur 
ryut is seldom a resident on the estate ; in fact, Bunkur estates are gene- 
rally unfitted for continued residence; the want of scientific knowledge 
by which to avail itself of the treasures of the hill and forest have 
served to depreciate the value of Bunkur property in the estimation of 
natives far too low : as the products become of more importance, laws 
will become necessary for the protection of each peculiar class, instead 
of their being left now in indiscriminate confusion, all classed under 
one unmeaning title, Bunkur. 

Nerick-i-churhaie, the rate of rent paid for the right of pasturage 
in extensive forests on waste lands. Trials will come before the 
Revenue Courts, rather regarding the right to levy, than the rate 

4 K 

544 On the tenures and fiscal relations of QNo. 164. 

at which the levy is to be made. In deciding cases, care must 
be taken lest the plaint, and the whole proceedings be fictitious, 
and lest there be collusion, the object being to establish a title by 
obtaining proof of having collected, or having been declared entitled 
to collect, or with a view of evading the resumption laws. 

Nerick-i-julker, is the rate of rent paid for the right of fishery in 
particular waters ; it is levied generally at so much a boat, and is modi- 
fied according to the description of net used. Local usages prevail 
with reference to this rent, differing in almost every river, and every 
bend of each river ; but litigation is less frequent with reference to 
these than perhaps any other class of rents. 

Engagements to cultivate under a lease become void with the ex- 
piry of the lease itself; but if the zemindar instead of ousting the ryut 
at once, serve him a notice for the enhancement of his rents under the 
provisions of Reg. V. 1812, the service of the notice brings the case 
under the jurisdiction of the Revenue Courts, and if a balance remain 
unpaid at the end of the year, the zemindar cannot plead this balance 
as giving him a right to oust the cultivator under the provisions of 
Section X. Reg. IV. 1840, before the Magistrate; but having brought 
himself under jurisdiction of the Revenue Court, must sue for it and 
obtain a decree under Section XVIII. Reg. VIII. 1819. The occu- 
pancy for the year without opposition by the zemindar would appear 
to give the tenant a title from sufferance, which is defined by Black- 
stone : " Where one comes into possession of land by a lawful title, but 
keeps it afterwards without any title at all, as if a man takes a lease 
for a year, and after a year is expired continues to hold the pre- 
mises without any fresh lease from the owner of the estate :" and the 
reason is, because the tenant being once in by a lawful title, the law 
(which presumes no man in the wrong) supposes him to continue 
upon a title equally lawful, until the owner of the land prove it 
to be wrongful. Now the Magistrate can only support the zemin- 
dar in the exercise of undoubted rights ; he by his own neglect 
suffered a certain cause for doubt to supervene, and must clear it 
away by suing for any balance of rent as by his notice may remain 
due at the end of the year; at the end of the second year the cul- 
tivator has acquired a title of settlement since the expiration of his 

1845. j the owners, and occupants of the soil in Bengal, 8$c. 545 

A resident cultivator considering himself aggrieved by ejectment, 
has a right to a trial of his grievance. If the ejectment be accompanied 
with violence he may apply for redress to the Magistrate, who besides 
inquiring into the violence, will on plaint being made under Reg. IV. 
1840, call on the zemindar to prove his claim to the exercise of the 
right of summary ejectment, and should it appear that the cultivator 
had no claim, he will permit his summary ejectment; but should the 
case appear to be of the nature of those above described, he will either 
maintain the cultivator in possession, or stay the zemindar from dis- 
posing of the lands for a fixed period, within which he will instruct 
the cultivator to bring an action to try the ejectment under the 5th 
clause, Section XVIII. Reg. VIII. 1819, and the construction put 
upon it by the Circular Orders of the Dewannee Adawlut, dated 15th 
November 1833, which states that, " The declaration that it is illegal 
to oust resident cultivators except under circumstances, necessarily 
implies a remedy in case of the contravention of the rule, &c. &c." 

The general laws of the country, if fully enforced, afford a degree of 
protection to the cultivator which is rather weakened than strengthen- 
ed by a special contract or lease ; even in the formation of new settle- 
ments the cultivators will be found unwilling to enter into written 
engagements, they have a sort of instinctive feeling that it is not their 
interest to do so ; and they dislike the signature of the counterpart of 
a lease, which renders obligatory on them the annual payment of 
sums for the realization of which they have no security but the crop 
dependent on the contingencies of the season: in settlements besides 
the general laws of the country in their favour, they have the special 
protection afforded by Section XI. Reg. VII. 1822, and are well aware 
that if unable to assert their privileges under those general laws, that 
the mere possession of a pottah will not render them much stronger, but 
will have very much the effect of a special bond for a portion of a debt, 
which without affording any additional guarantee for the payment of 
the amount included in it, serves to throw doubt on the remainder 
which is excluded, and will tend to deprive them of the benefit of 
the protection to be derived from the general law with regard to any 
privileges not enumerated in it. 


Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known Species of 

Birds. By Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. 

[Continued from p. 212, ante.] 

After the first part of this article was consigned to the press, an 
opportunity occurred of looking over Gould's magnificent ' Birds of 
Australia,' up to the nineteenth number of that work ; and a few of the 
notes I took from it, bearing on the Ornithology of India, may here be 

Among the Falconidce, a second species of my genus Butaetus* 
(ante, p. 174,) occurs in the Aquila morphnoides y Gould, P. Z. S. 
1840, p. 161 ; and the slight enlargement and elongation of the central 
occipital feathers recurs in it, which I mentioned to exist in fine speci- 
mens of B. pennatus. Falco hypoleucos, Gould, (ibid), which that 
naturalist considers to be the Australian representative of the Jer Fal- 
con of the north, is very closely allied to F.juggur of India, from 
which it only appears to differ in having a dark forehead, no trace of 
supercilium, and the broadly white patch on the cheeks greatly dimi- 
nished. Milvus affinis, Gould, the common Kite of Australia gene- 
rally, excepting Van Dieraen's Land, appears to be quite identical 
with M. govinda of India ; but in that case the cere and feet are 
coloured too deeply : I can perceive no other difference whatever. 
Elanus axillaris (v. notatus, Gould,) is certainly distinct from E. 
melanopterus of India ; and a beautiful new species is figured as 
E. scriptus. I am also informed by Mr. Strickland, that the Ame- 
rican E. dispar has the tail wholly white, and a smaller beak than E. 
melanopterus : so that four species of this generic form are now esta- 
blished. A South African specimen of E. melanopterus, in first plu- 
mage, presented to the Society by Lord Arthur Hay, appears to me 
to be identical with the bird of India, although his lordship inclines to 
a different opinion. 

In the Athene strenua, Gould, we have an Owl of the largest size, 
yet strictly pertaining to this genus of (generally) very diminutive 
Owls: and the Athene? connivens, (Lath.) Gould, Ath. maculata, (V. 

* This name must yield to Hieraetus of Kaup (1844); which 1 learn from Mr. 
G. 11. Gray's extremely useful illustrated work on the genera of birds, seventeen num- 
bers of which are now before me, and from these 1 shall have occasion to append some 
notes to the present paper. Mr. Gray merges Hieraetus in Aquila. 

1845.] little known Species of Birds. 547 

and II.), and Ath. boobook, (Lath.), evidently pertain to Mr. Hodg- 
son's genus Ninox* 

Caprimulgus macrurus, Horsfield, is figured as an inhabitant of 
Port Essington, in North Australia; and. the species would seem to be 
the same as that which I have referred to macrurus, p. 206, ante: the 
general colour, however, would appear to be scarcely so dark as in the 
Malacca specimens, and I do not understand the second white mark 
represented upon the breast of the male. The two sexes are figured, 
both having the white marks on the wings and tail, but diminished in 
extent in the female : and looking to a series of specimens of the near- 
ly allied C. albonotatus, it would seem that the females vary in this 
respect, many having certainly more or less of this white, which con- 
firms Captain Tickell's statement of the sexes of this bird resembling 
each other. In the common small C. asiaticus of India, the male and 
female appear always to resemble ; and I now suspect that this will 
prove to be not unusually the case in C. albonotatus, C. macrurus, and 
C. mahrattensis.f 

To the genus Collocalia, Mr. Gould erroneously refers two species 
of true Swallow, allied in nidification as well as plumage to Hirundo 
capensis and H. daurica (v. erythropygia) ; and a third Swallow is 
figured by him as H. neoxena, which appears to me perfectly identical 
with a specimen of H. pacifica, (v. domicola, Jerdon,) from the Neil- 
gherries. A new Cypseline genus — Atticora — is founded on Hirundo 
fasciata, Gm., and two or three other South American species, to which 
is added one Australian representative as At. leucosternon.% 

* This group Ninox is not admitted by Mr. G. R. Gray, who refers as many as 
forty-four species to Athene! 1 certainly consider the former to be a good division. 

fit may be here remarked, that Caprimulgus indicus is far from being so rare in 
Lower Bengal as I formerly supposed ; inasmuch as specimens may be often procur- 
ed in the Calcutta Botanic Garden. C. monticolus will also probably turn out to be 
far from scarce when I come to discover its proper haunts, which I suspect are upon 
open ground. The only two specimens of the latter which I have obtained were both 
caught alive by bazar shikarrees. Among Sir A. Burnes's drawings is a figure of a 
species, (from " Lakat,") nearly allied to.C. monticolus, but still more uniform in its 
colouring which approaches to sandy, — this being a tolerably sure indication of the 
prevalent hue of its haunts ; — but if correctly figured, (and it is stated to be "natural 
size,") it would be a smaller bird than C. monticolus, having the wing but nine inches 
and a quarter long. A skull and feet in Burnes's collection are, however, quite 
undistinguishable from those of C. monticolus. — The Society has just received another 
closely allied species from Java. 

X Mr. G. K. Gray refers Atticora to the Swallow group; but I have little doubt that 
he is wrong. Not only is the whole appearance of Mr. Gould's figure of At. leucos- 

548 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

Acanthylis caudacuta (v. australis), p. 211 and note, ante, would 
seem identical with the Himalayan species, only the middle of the back 
is represented scarcely whitish enough, and the Australian bird is 
figured to have a white mark above the bill, which does not exist in 
the Society's Himalayan specimens : but as the nearly allied Ac. 
gigantea varies in this respect, as shewn by specimens in the Society's 
museum, it is evident that no importance can be attached to this slight 

Cypselus pacificus, (Lath., v. australis, Gould,) p. 212 ante, from 
Penang, accords minutely with Mr. Gould's figure of an Australian 
specimen (except that the chin is not so purely white), and it may 
therefore be considered as rightly determined. 

The Totanus glottoides, Vigors, is still regarded by Mr. Gould as 
distinct from T. glottis, and is figured by him as Australian : so also 
is Coturnix chinensis, which is common in parts of India, and seems 
to be found through all the intervening countries into Australia ; and 
Mr. Gould admits it doubtfully into his Australian genus Synoicus. 
To Hiaticula nigrifrons, (Cuv.), v. melanops, (Vieillot), must be refer- 
red the Charadrius russatus of Jerdon. Hcematopus longirostris of 

ternon quite Cypseline, but he has distinctly represented ten tail-feathers, of very Cyp- 
seline character: whereas all the species of the Swallow group have invariably twelve 

Hirundo neoxena Mr. Gray identifies with H. javanica of Vigors and Horsfield, 
referring them both to H. pacifica of Latham ; and H. domicola, Jerdon, will come 
in as another synonyme : but H. jewan of Sykes is considered by him to be the true 
H. javanica of Sparrman, though I suspect its true name will be H. gutturalis, Scop., 
v. panayana, Lath. ; an identification I owe to Prof. Behn. Mr. Gray agrees with 
me (1 may even say as a matter of course) in referring Mr. Gould's two supposed 
species of Collocalia to true Hirundo. 

Of Collocalia, Mr. Gray enumerates four species, viz. C. esculenta, (Lin.) C. 
nidifica, (Lath.), C. fuciphaga, (Thunb.), and C. troglodytes, G. Ii. Gray, which 
last he has figured. The Nicobar species which I referred to C. esculenta, appears to 
be the fuciphaga of Dr. Horsfield's list, but not of Shaw ; the latter approaches much 
nearer to ft concolor, (Jerdon), which last will, I suspect, bear the prior name of 
brevirostris, McClelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 155. The Nicobar species (true fuci- 
phaga?) is of the same size as C troglodytes figured by Mr. G. R. Gray, but has a 
much larger head than is represented in that figure (doubtless incorrectly), and its 
upper-parts are dusky-black, slightly glossed with green and purple, the lower 
brownish with white abdomen. The name fuciphaga is, of course, an absurdity: and 
on perusal of my remarks on the composition of the edible nests (p. 210, ante), our 
contributor Mr. Laidley remarked "to me, that he had arrived at the same result from 
chemical analysis, which shewed the constituent elements to be those of inspissated 
saliva. — The Society has just received the Nicobar species from Java. 

* Ac. caudacuta of Australia, and Ac. nudipes of the Himalaya, are enumerated 
as separate species by Mr. G. Li. Gray. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 549 

Australia is distinct from the Indian Oyster-catcher, which has a much 
longer bill, and I shall describe it by the name H. macrorhynchus. 
Himantopus leucocephalus, Gould, of Australia and the Malay coun- 
tries, occurs also in India, but is much rarer than H. candidus. 
Nettapus eoromandelianus of Australia, as figured by Mr. Gould, agrees 
exactly, both in size and markings, with the common Indian species. 
In the genera Hylacola and Calamanthus (Praticola, Sw., 1837), a 
very close approach is shewn to the Indian Pellornium (vide J. A. S. 
XIII, note to p. 372); but the latter seems sufficiently distinct, being 
also a larger bird, with a longer bill than in its Australian affines.* 
Lastly, I shall only notice Sericornis, Gould, exemplified by his 5. 
citreogularis, as a generic type to which a common Himalayan species 
(sent by Mr. Hodgson with the name Tarsiger chrysceus,) would seem 
to appertain. f The latter may be described as follows : 

Sericornis (?) ckryscea, (Hodgson.) Length about five inches and a 
quarter, of wing two and three-quarters, and tail two and a quarter, its 
outermost feathers a quarter of an inch less : bill to gape three-quar- 
ters of an inch, and tarse an inch and one-eighth. Male having the 
entire under-parts, shoulder of wing, more or less of the scapularies, 
the rump, and basal three-fourths of all but the middle pair of tail- 
feathers, brilliant yellow ; the last being also yellow at base, and there 
is a narrow supercilium of the same : rest of the tail, and the lores 
and ear-coverts, black : alars, and their larger coverts, blackish, nar- 
rowly edged with dull yellowish ; and the head and back are dusky 
olive, with dull yellowish-green margins to the feathers : bill da*rk 
above, below pale ; and the legs pale. In younger specimens, there is 
less yellow on the scapularies and wings : and the females have the 
whole upper-parts uniform dark greenish-olive, with merely a more 
yellowish shade over the rump ; the under-parts sullied yellow ; and 
tail dusky-olive, marked as in the male, but with considerably duller 
yellow. The young of the year differ from the female in being spotted 
above like a young Robin. 

Mr. Hodgson informs us that this bird u inhabits the central hills 
of the Himalaya; is shy, solitary, and bush-loving, constantly descend- 

* In the sequel (p. 600), I have added a new genus to this group, — Malacocincla, 

f Other species of Sericornis, however, figured by Mr. Gould, render this generic 
identification more doubtful. 

550 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

ing to the ground from its perch : it feeds and breeds on the ground, 
making a compact saucer-like nest of moss. Eggs verditer." In form 
it comes very close upon Calliope, and approaches still nearer to Cya- 
necula, from which its principal structural distinction consists in the 
more rounded form of its wings and tail, and the somewhat reduced 
degree of firmness of its plumage ; besides which the yellow colouring 
is a character of the present group. The wings have the fourth, fifth, 
and sixth primaries subequal and longest, and the first about half 
their length. 

Referring again to the first part of this paper (p. 182, ante), it may 
be remarked that Mr. Jerdon now considers the Scops sunia and Sc. 
pennata there described, to be different phases of plumage of the same 
species. Until I obtain further data, I shall refrain from adding to 
what I have already stated on the subject ; but may remind the natural- 
ist reader, that I have described three distinct states of plumage of the 
Sc. sunia, — viz. the first or nestling garb, an intermediate dress in both 
sexes, and the mature livery which is almost uniform deep chesnut- 
ferruginous : so that the variation to grey would certainly not appear 
to be dependent either on age or sex.* 

Of Syrnium nivicolum (p. 185), a second specimen has been oblig- 
ingly presented to the Society (with numerous other valuable bird 
skins), by Mr. L. C. Stewart, of H. M. 39th Foot, believed to be from 
the Western Himalaya, where many of that gentleman's specimens 
were procured. It completely establishes the species, as distinct from 
S. aluco ; and it differs from the specimen already described in the 
general darker tone of colouring of its upper parts, occasioned by the 
greater predominance of the fuscous ground-tint, while the scapulary 
spots are whiter, and there is also an intermixture of white on the 
facial disk, and the lower parts are less tinged with fulvescent. It is 
probably a male, and the other a female. 

With respect to the species of Brachypiernusf (p. 194), I find that 
a third occurs in the Scindian representative of the common Picus 
(Br.) aurantius. With the dimensions of the latter, it differs from it 
in the reduced quantity and intensity of the yellow on the upper parts, 

* Mr. G. It. Gray identifies Sc pennata with the- European species, and adopts 
Ephialtes, K. and B., as the generic name. 

f Lord A. Hay thinks, judging from recollection, that P. micropus is the common 
species of S. India, P. bengalensis apud Jerdon. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 551 

which is also quite free from any orange tinge, and the whitish mark- 
ings on the wings are much more developed ; — distinctions which hold 
true in both sexes. As I have elsewhere described the species, the 
present indication of it will here suffice. 

I am also informed that the P. badius apud Jerdon, of S. India, dif- 
fers alike from the true P. ( Micropternus) badius of the Malay coun- 
tries, and from P. (M.J phceoceps, nobis, of Bengal, Nepal, Assam, 
and Arracan. Accordingly, we now distinguish three species respec- 
tively of the subgenera Micropternus, Brachyptemus, and Tiga ; which 
certainly confirms the propriety of these groups being thus separated.* 

Centropus (p. 202). Lord Arthur Hay has obtained a very splen- 
did bird of this genus from Malacca, which is evidently the Cuculus 
bubutus of Raffles's list, stated to be " not much less than two feet in 
length ;" but it is not Dr. Horsfield's Javanese bird, described to be 
eighteen inches and a half long {Lin. Trans. XIII, 180), which is 
precisely the length of the Indian species (vide J. A. S. XI, 1099). 
This fine species may be appropriately termed 

C. eurycercus, A. Hay : being particularly remarkable for the great 
breadth of its tail-feathers, each of which measures two inches and 
three-quarters across. Length about twenty-three inches, of which the 
middle tail-feathers measure half, the outermost being four inches and 
three-quarters shorter; wing eight and three-quarters; bill to gape nearly 
two inches (in a straight line), and three-quarters of an inch in vertical 
height, being much larger than in C. philippensis ; tarse two and a 
quarter ; the long hind-claw but an inch. Colour as C. philippensis, but 
the back and wings are of a brighter and more chesnut brown, and the 
tail is glossed with steel-blue instead of green. C. philippensis and 
C. Lathami are also met with at Malacca, and both appear to be much 
commoner there than the present species. I have also lately received 
certain information of a Centropus, of the alleged size of C. bengalensis t 
(and doubtless that species,) occurring in the Calcutta Botanic Garden. 
My informant brought me C. Lathami from the locality, and stated 
that he had often there observed the minute species, but was unaware 

* Mr. Jerdon writes me word — "The Picus moluccensis figured in the Planches 
coloriees is certainly distinct from that of Hardwicke and Gray: the former being 
of course true moluccensis, and I suspect the same as your canicapillus." — A 
Javanese specimen just arrived is very doubtfully distinct from that of S. India: and 
I may add, that in Ur Cantor's Malayan collection is a superb fourth species of Tiga. 

4 F 

552 Notices and Descriptiofis of various new [No. 164. 

of its being at all a desideratum. It is therefore probable that I 
shall soon obtain specimens. (C. bicolor. Lesson, has just been re- 
ceived by the Society, with the specific name celebensis, probably of 
Temminck. It is a very distinct species.) 

"We may next pass to the paper on Leiotrichance, &c, and Fringillidce, 
Vol. XIII, pp. 933 et seq., to notice some further identifications which 
have occurred to me. 

Leiothrix furcatus, v. sinensis, must be designated L. luteus, (Sco- 

Siva occipitalis, nobis, (p. 937,) makes so considerable an approach 
in plumage and general character to the Yuhina ? flavicollis, Hodgson, 
As. Res. XIX, 167, that their near affinity is indisputable; and this 
brings the latter species, for which Mr. Hodgson now proposes the 
generic name Ixulus (vide sequel, p. 562), within the confines of the 
group of Leiotrichance, where the slender form of the bill approximates 
it to Minla, from which it is barely separable, and it thence carries on 
the series of affinities to Yuhina and also to Myzornis (J. A. S. XII, 
984). The Siva occipitalis, however, differs greatly in the form of its 
bill from Ixulus flavicollis, that of the former being fully as stout as in 
Proparus, in which group it might very well be classed : and as re- 
gards other distinctions, the crown is tinged with rufous, the slightly 
reverted crest is less developed, the narrow blackish streak from the 
corners of the mouth does not occur, the under- parts are much more 
sullied or less whitish, and the wings are longer ; yet, notwithstanding 
these various differences, the resemblance is at first sight not inconsider- 
able. It may be added, that the name Certhiparus, which Mr. Hodgson 
wishes to substitute for Minla, is objectionable on other grounds than 
as concerns the mere alteration ; it having been previously applied 
(apparently by the Baron de la Fresnaye) to a group of New Zealand 

* Vide G. R. Gray, in Dieffenbach's 'New Zealand,' II, 189 (1843). This na- 
turalist, by the way, reunites the whole of Mr. Hodgson's divisions of Leiotrichance 
under Leiothrix; and he gives four species of Pteruthius, adding as a fifth the Pipriso- 
ma agilis, which has no sort of relationship to the group. The male of Pt. rufiventer, 
nobis, is beautifully figured, but the sexes of this species are so different, that the 
female should certainly have accompanied it. As for his mixing up the Leiotrichane 
birds with Pardalotus, Pachycephala, &c, 1 am quite of Mr. Strickland's opinion, 
that the group Pachycephalia so formed is an extremely forced and unnatural one ; 
and that such is usually the case, when too little attention is paid to the geography of 
genera thus brought together. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 553 

The Parus (?) minutus, Jerdon, (p. 944,) is probably identical 
with Erpornis zantholeuca, Hodgson, XIII, 380. ^i & - 

P. nuchalis, Jerdon, is a new species from Southern India. Length 
about five inches, of wing two inches and three-eighths, and tail two 
inches ; bill to gape nearly half an inch, and tarse five-eighths. Colour 
black above, as also a broad mesial stripe from throat to vent ; cheeks, 
sides of neck, and of the breast and belly, with the under tail-coverts, 
white ; a white spot also at the nape, as in P. ater, &c, a band of the 
same across the wing, and the tertiaries very broadly margined exter- 
nally and tipped with white ; outermost tail-feather white, except its 
inner border, the next with the outer web and contiguous portion of 
the inner web white, and the third with the outer web white at tip and 
for most of its basal half: bill black ; and legs plumbeous. Inhabits 
the Eastern ghauts. 

Of Ploceus philippinus, (p. 944,) Mr. Strickland writes me word, 
that the Indian bird, and not Dr. Horsfield's Javanese species, is the 
true Loxia philippina of Linna3us. It extends its range to Malacca. 

Passer montanus (p. 947,) proves to be the more common species 
of Sparrow in Arracan generally, about 60 of this species occurring to 
one of P. domesticus, var. indicus : Lord Arthur Hay has also re- 
ceived it from Malacca ;* and hence a doubt arises whether it be not 
the Siamese Sparrow mentioned by Crawfurd. P. montanus is also 
the common Sparrow of Afghanistan. 

The division Gymnoris, Hodgson (p. 948), I shall now adopt, on 
the authority of a second species sent on loan by Lord Arthur Hay, 
and believed to be from S. Africa. 

G. superciliaris {$), A. Hay. Length about six inches and three- 
quarters, of wing three and three-quarters, and tail two and a half; 
bill to gape eleven- sixteenths of an inch, and tarse three-quarters. 
Plumage as in G. Jlavicollis, with the same yellow spot in front of the 
neck ; but there is no maroon colour on the shoulder of the wing, the 
anterior whitish bar crossing the wing is narrower, there is a conspicuous 
whitish supercilium, and the dorsal feathers have the terminal third of 
their inner web dull dusky-brown, imparting somewhat of the streaky 
appearance common to most Sparrows : the crown and upper portion 

* 1 hear that a Sparrow of some species, most probably this one, abounds in Singa- 
pore. — The Society has just received Ploceus philippinus apud Horsfield from Java. 

554 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

of the ear-coverts are dark brown, contrasting strongly with the 
whitish supercilium : bill formed exactly as in the other species. 

To Amadina maja, (p. 949,) should have been added, as a synonyme, 
Loxia leucocephala, Raffles. A. acuticauda, Hodgson, is the Loxia 
molucca, Lin., and will therefore range as Amadina molucca. Speci- 
mens from Malacca are perfectly identical in species with those procur- 
ed in Nepal by Mr. Hodgson.* 

For Erythrospiza (p. 952), must be substituted the prior name 
Carpodacus of Kaup : and for Corythus, Strobilophaga of Vieillot. 

Carduelis caniceps (p. 955). The Afghan specimen described, was 
in summer aspect of plumage, when the winter edgings to its feathers 
had been cast. Its length should have been printed Jive inches and 
three-quarters. One from the western Himalaya, in winter garb, is 
rather smaller, agreeing in length of wing with Gould's figure, and the 
plumage has a browner tinge, less relieved with white on the fore-neck 
and breast than in the Afghan summer specimen, or than in C. com- 
munis ; but the colour is much less dark than in Gould's figure, the 
red surrounding the base of the beak is also much less developed, and 
there is no black streak passing backward from the eye. 

An oriental species of Ligurinus, or Greenfinch, exists in the Loxia 
sinensis, Lath., founded on the Verdier de la Chine of Sonnerat. It 
agrees in size, and in the Goldfinch-like marking of the wings, with 
L. xanthogrammicus of the Andes. 

To the species of Bunting enumerated in pp. 957-8, may now be 

E. melanops, nobis. Length six inches, of wing two and seven™ 
eighths, and tail two and five-eighths ; bill to forehead seven-sixteenths, 
and tarse three-quarters of an inch. Head, neck, throat and breast, 
dull green, paler below, and a little streaked with dusky on the crown ; 
lores, chin, and around the eyes, black ; belly and lower tail-coverts 
sulphur-yellow, the flanks greenish with dusky streaks : scapularies and 
inter-scapularies rufescent, with a black central streak to each feather ; 

* Lord A. Hay writes me word—" 1 have specimens of Amadina punctularia v. 
nisoria from Malacca, and they seem distinct from our Indian bird; being much 
li^hter-coloured, and the markings seem differently formed."— Should they prove 
distinct, the Indian species would perhaps rank as Am. lineoventer, ( Hodgson :) but I 
remember comparing Malayan with Bengal specimens some time ago, and observing 
no difference between them. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 555 

the wings blackish, each feather margined with rufescent, palest at 
the tips of the greater and second range of coverts : rump plain 
rufescent-greenish : tail dusky, with the terminal two-thirds of its 
outermost feather white, except the final third of the narrow outer web ; 
and about a third of the inner web of the penultimate feather is also 
white, obliquely separated : bill dusky, the lower mandible whitish 
except at tip ; and feet pale. From Tipperah, whence a fine specimen 
has been presented to the Society by M. Courjon. This can hardly 
be the male of E. sordida, J. A. S. XIII, 958. 

It may be that I was wrong in referring a Peshawur female in the 
collection formed by the late Sir Alexander Burnes and Dr. Lord, to 
the E. icterica of Central India, in XIII, 957 ; for both sexes of the 
Peshawur bird are figured in a drawing made under Sir A. Burnes's 
superintendence ; and though the specimen has certainly every appear- 
ance of being the female E. icterica, the male is not represented to 
have any distinct rusty tinge on the head, which is nearly concolorous 
with the back, except that the pale yellow hue of the under-parts is 
made to surround the ear-coverts, and thence to ascend on the crown, 
posterior to the eye, so as to divide the brown of the crown from that 
of the occiput. Should it prove to be a distinct species, and not 
merely icterica represented indifferently, it might bear the name E. 

The following is a remarkable genus, the affinities of which have 
puzzled me a good deal, but (now that the Society's specimens have 
been mounted, and I can judge better of their characters,) I 
incline to think, with Mr. Hodgson, that it is really related to the 
Larks, though tending to assume the character of some of the Crate- 
ropodince, as Pellorniurn and its allies, yet without being truly affined 

* Since writing the above, Mr. Stewart has favored us with many specimens of E. 
icterica from the vicinity of Agra, where the species appears to be very common ; and 
the females seem tome to be decidedly identical in species with Burnes's Peshawur 
female, though the back is less rufescent. Burnes's specimen is, however, in old 
and worn plumage, whilst the Agra specimens have their feathers newly put forth. 

1 may likewise notice here, that Lord Arthur Hay has obtained E. Lathami, male 
and female, from Hong Kong; the species certainly identical with the Indian one. 

These, and all the other Indian Buntings which I know of, pertain to the division 
Euspiza of the Prince of Canino, at least according to the classification of Mr. G. R. 
Gray, which I am not altogether satisfied with. The type of Euspiza is Emb. melano- 
cephala of Scopoli ; which is distinct enough in the form of its beak. 

556 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

to the latter. Mr. Hodgson terras it "a most interesting form, tending 
to relieve the insulation of the Alaudince." 

Heterura, Hodgson. " Bill moderate, strong, compressed, straight, 
but with the culmen and compressure curved, and gonys ascending ; its 
base clad with rigid plumes as far as the advanced nares, and the tip 
for the most part decidedly inclined and notched ; tomice scarpt and 
trenchant : gape wide and hispid. Wing short, hardly passing the base 
of the tail, but Alaudinem all its details ; the first and fifth quills equal, 
and somewhat shorter than the second, third, and fourth, which are 
longest ; centrals notched ; the tertiaries equal to the primaries. Tail 
rigid, somewhat gradated from sides as well as centre, and the sepa- 
rate plumes possessing the divaricate structure, with acutely wedged 
or hastate points. Legs and feet strong, ambulant : tarse plus the 
middle toe and nail, strongly scutellate to the front, smooth and 
cultrated to the back. Toes medial, compresed : the laterals equal ; the 
central sufficiently long ; the exterior basally connected to the mid 
one ; the hind least : nails simple, fully curved. 

" Hab. Hills only. Not very gregarious : frequent trees, and breed 
and feed on the ground." 

H. sylvana, Hodgson. " General aspect and colours Alaudine, but 
the body below completely striped. Above brown-black, largely 
margined with ruddy-luteous [on the sides of the feathers] : below 
rufescent-luteous, immaculate on throat, but beyond it streaked cen- 
trally with more or less wide blackish lines ; a dark moustache, and pale 
brow : lateral caudals more or less albescent : legs fleshy-green ; bill 
horn-colour, with dusky ridge. Length seven inches and a quarter to 
seven and a half: bill eleven to twelve-sixteenths of an inch ; tail two 
and three-quarters to two and seven-eighths ; closed wing two and seven- 
eighths to three and one-sixteenth ; tarse under an inch ; central toe to 
nail thirteen-sixteenths, hind ditto eleven-sixteenths ; weight an ounce." 
Inhabits Nepal.* 

I will next briefly review the Nectariniidce, which were last taken in 
hand in Vol. XII, pp. 969 to 984, inclusive. 

* The Coryphidea baghaira (p. 961, ante,) is identified by Mr. G. R. Gray with 
Alaudabrachydactyla, Auct. ; and as this constitutes the type of Calandrella, Kaup, 
the species will accordingly range as Cal. br achy dactyl a. The form is quite distinct 
from Alauda, to which Mr. G. R. Gray refers it; as any one familiar with the living 
bird must at once acknowledge. Mr. Gray's Indian Alaudce are in sad confusion. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 557 

To commence with the genus Arachnoihera : my A. latirostris (p. 982) 
must be referred to A. modesta, (Eyton, p. 981) ; and of the other spe- 
cies briefly described by that gentleman, who erroneously referred them 
both to Anthreptes of Swainson, the Society has now received two fine 
specimens from Malacca, which may be thus described : 

A.flavigaster, (Eyton). Length about eight inches, of wing four, and 
tail two inches ; bill to forehead one and three-quarters ; and tarse seven- 
eighths. Colour plain olive-green above, paler below, and yellowish on the 
belly and under tail-coverts : feathers around the eyes, and a tuft near 
the angle of the jaw, brighter yellow : bill dusky, paler beneath, and the 
legs have probably been bright yellow. A young specimen is smaller, with 
the wing three inches and five- eighths long, and the rest in proportion : 
the plumage is less compact, but the colouring of the upper parts is 
brighter olive-green, and of the abdominal region much brighter siskin- 
yellow : in other respects it is similar.* 

Nectarinia mahrattensis, (p. 978,) will bear, as its earliest specific name, 
that of asiatica, (Lath.) It is also the Certhia mahrattensis, Lath., and 
C. saccharina of Shaw.f The range of this species extends eastward 
into Arracan, where also the N. Gouldice is met with ; but not zeyloni- 
ca, which is replaced by Hasseltii, as asiatica there begins to be by 
flammaxillaris, which last, in its turn, is replaced towards the Straits 
by pectoralis. 

N. jugularis, Vieillot, apud nos, (p. 979,) is a new species, and may 
now rank as N. flammaxillaris, nobis : the length of its tail, misprint- 
ed " under half an inch," should have been given as under an inch and 
a half. The allied N. pectoralis, Horsf., is common at Malacca, and 
in the Nicobar islands : a specimen in spirit from the latter group 
measuring four inches long, by six in spread of wing. 

Nect (v. Anthreptes) phoenicotis, (p. 979,) ascends so high as Tip- 
perah ; and also certain other Malayan birds (as Calomis cantor\ and 
Brachypodius melanocephalus) occur there, which do not appear to 
have been met with further to the west. 

Nect. Phayrei, nobis, p. 1008, proves (as I formerly suspected) to 

* The Society has now two, if not three, additional species of this genus from Java, 
which require more study than I can at present bestow on them. 

f N. strigula, (Hodg.) is the young. 

% Lord Arthur Hay has pointed out to me some distinctions between the Tipperah 
and Arracan Calomis, and the closely allied species of the Straits. 

558 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

be N. Hasseltii, Tem., and is common also at Malacca. It is the 
Certhia sperata, var., of Raffles's list. 

Nect. (v. Anthreptes) frontalis, nobis. Differs from the female of 
N. lepida (v. javanica, Horsf.,) in having the bill rather shorter; the up- 
per parts of a richer, somewhat darker, and more aureous, olive-green ; 
and the lower parts greenish-grey, without any yellow : the throat, and 
cheeks especially, inclining to be cinereous : the frontal feathers alone 
are scale-like, and of a brilliant steel-green. Length about five inches, 
of wing two and three-eighths, and tail two and one-eighth ; bill to gape 
three-quarters of an inch ; and tarse nine- sixteenths. From Singapore. 

Dicceum chrysochlorum, nobis, p. 1009, extends its range southward 
to Malacca. 

D. erythronotum, p. 983, bears the prior name of cruentatum, (L.)* 

D. Tickellice, nobis, is the Certhia erythrorhyncha, Lath., a name, 
however, which is too inaccurate to be retained. Young birds, when 
they leave the nest, have the beak of a flesh-red colour, except just 
the tip ; and a specimen in this state is figured among Buchanan's 
drawings, with the reddish colour of the bill exaggerated ; and it was 
probably upon a copy of this very drawing that Latham founded the 
species. Being the Nectarinia minima of Tickell (not of Sykes), it 
might therefore be termed Dicceum minimum, (Tickell). The range 
of the species extends into Tipperah and Arracan. 

D. ignicapillum of Eyton is the Prionochilus percussus, (Tem.) 
Strickland : and in form and colouring it bears much the same relation- 
ship to Piprisoma agilis, (Tickell) nobis, XIII, 395, that the bright- 
coloured Malayan Diccea do to the dull-coloured species which alone 
inhabit the peninsula of India. To this genus Prionochilus, Str., 
P. Z. S. 1841, p. 29, are referred the various Malayan species which 
M. Temrainck has strangely classed in Pardalotus^ as his P. thoracicus 
and P. maculatus, in addition to the percussus: and the so-called Par- 
dalotus pipra of Lesson's Traite (stated to be Himalayan), upon which 
the latter naturalist has since founded his Idopleura, turns out to be 

* Dr. Horsfield informs me, in epistold, that the Javanese species which he refer- 
red to cruentatum is distinct from the Bengal one, or true cruentatum. It is probably, 
therefore, one the Society has just received from Java, which has the head, neck, 
throat, breast, whole inter-scapularies, rump, and upper tail-coverts, scarlet, wings and 
fail blue-black, and lower parts pale ashy, except the under tail-coverts which are 
white. D. cruentatum is common at Malacca. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 559 

South American ; which satisfactorily disposes of all the Asiatic species 
that had been assigned by authors to the very peculiar Australian 
genus Pardalotus, warranting and confirming our suspicions in other 
instances, wherein the French naturalists more particularly have 
strangely inclined to disregard some of the most striking exemplifica- 
tions of the geographical limitation of particular forms. 

Two well marked species of Prionochilus are now before me, which 
may be described as follow : 

1. Pr. percussus, (Tem.) : Dicceum ignicapillum> Eyton. Length 
about three inches and seven-eighths, of wing two inches to two and a 
quarter, and tail an inch and a quarter ; bill to gape seven-sixteenths, 
and tarse half an inch. Colour dull lavender-blue above, the lower 
parts bright yellow, passing to whitish on the lower tail-coverts ; a large 
igneous-red spot on the vertex, and another in the centre of the 
breast ; and a white streak from the side of the lower mandible, divid- 
ed from the yellow of the throat by another of the same colour as the 
upper parts. Bill black above, more or less whitish beneath ; and legs 
lead-coloured. Mr. Eyton describes the female to be ashy above, with 
the under-parts yellow irregularly streaked with cinereous ; and a red 
spot on the vertex. The young are olive-green above, paler below ; 
and it is doubtful, from a specimen before me (which has advanced in 
its moult), whether there is either coronal spot, or more than a trace 
of one, or of yellow on the under-parts, in its first plumage. From 

2. Pr. thoracicus, (? Tem.) The appropriateness of the name leaves 
little doubt of this species being properly identified ; and it is not un- 
likely that Pardalotus maculatus, Tem., refers to the female or the young. 
Length four inches and a quarter, of wing two and three-eighths, 
and tail an inch and a quarter ; bill to gape half an.inch, and tarse 
rather more. Head, neck, breast, and throat, black, with an igneous- 
red spot on the vertex, and a very large patch of the same on the 
middle of the breast ; wings and tail also black, some of the feathers 
slightly margined with olive ; back greenish-yellow, brightening on the 
rump, and becoming vivid yellow on the upper tail-coverts, and on 
the shoulder of the wing ; axillaries, and fore-part of the under surface 
of the wing, white ; and the remainder of the lower parts yellow, ting- 
ed with olive on the flanks. A presumed female has the entire upper 
parts olive-green, with an igneous coronal spot, less red than in the 


560 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

male ; a whitish streak from the base of the lower mandible, separated 
by an olive-green streak from the slightly yellowish white hue of the 
middle of the throat; and the under-parts yellow, brightest along the 
centre, and streaked laterally with olive-green; lores whitish, and the 
axillaries and under surface of the wing white, as in the male. A 
presumed young male is olive-green above, the crown ashy, with a 
central spot of olive-green ; middle of throat white, its sides ashy, with 
no decided white streak from the base of the lower mandible : the 
lower parts are yellow, mixed with olive-green, and having an indication 
of the red pectoral spot of the adult male. Also from Malacca. The 
mature male here described is in the collection of Lord Arthur Hay. 

The curious species described as Pachyglossa melanozantha, H., 
in J. A. S. XII, 1010, is thus characterized by Mr. Hodgson: 

Pachyglossa, H. "General structure of Myzanthe* («/. A. S. XII, 
983), but much less delicate. Bill conspicuously short, thick, conic 
and blunt, with the gonys ascending strongly ; yet typically denticulate 
on the tomial margins. Tongue as long as the bill, thick, fleshy, with 
cartilaginous bifid tip. Wings with the first quill very minute and 
spurious : the three next subequal and longest. Legs and feet as in 
Zosterops, strong: tarse to sole just plus the middle toe and nail. 
Toes short, depressed, unequal ; the fores much basally connected ; the 
hind smallest, with or without the nails : nails very falcate, stout, equal. 

"P. melanozantha, mihi. Length five inches; bill seven-sixteenths ; 
tail one and three quarters ; wing under three inches; tarse nine- 
sixteenths; central toe and nail the same; hind three-eighths of an 
inch. Blue-black, paler below, and a broad white stripe passing from 
chin to breast, whence to the vent inclusive is rich yellow. Alars and 
caudals dusky. The extreme caudals with a large white spot near the 
tips inside. Bill dusky-blue, with fleshy base. Legs plumbeous. 
Female duller-hued, and more or less shaded with olive. 

" These birds are peculiar to the hills. They are shy, and make 
ingenious pendulous nests, like the Myzanthe. Their food consists 
of small insects and viscid berries, which latter they swallow entire. 
The upper mandible is (typically) denticulated." 

As many as six generic forms certainly require to be distinguished 
in this Dicoeum group, which are as follow: — 1, Myzomela, exempli- 
fied by M. sanguinolenta and other Australian species ; 2, Dicceum, as D. 

* Unfortunately, this name too closely resembles Myzantha, of the Meliphagidce. 

1845] or little known Species of Birds. 561 

cruentatum, D. concolor, D. chrysochlorum, &c. ; 3, Myzanthe, Hodg., 
ante, as M. hirundinacea of Australia, and M. ignipeclus of the 
Himalaya ; 4, Pachyglossa, Hodg., ante, P. melanozantha ,• 5, Piprisoma 
(XIII, 314), P. agilis ; and 6, Prionochilus, ante. The three first 
differ chiefly in the degree of elongation of the bill,* and the two last 
are also allied together ; and they combine to form a natural and satis- 
factory group. 

Of the remarkable form noticed as Myzornis pyrrhoura in XII, 
984, I find also the following description by Mr. Hodgson : 

Myzornis, H. " General structure of Yuhina (As. Res. XIX, 
165), but slighter. Bill moderately slender, more or less cylindric, 
and arcuate with both tips down ; the upper conspicuously longer, 
and furnished with one sharp tooth : nares lineo- lunate, typically large 
and soft % wings, tail, and feet as in Yuhina ; but the feet stronger, 
and the wings and tail more feeble. Tongue brushed. Hab. North- 
ern and central hills [oi Nepal.] 

" M. pyrrhoura, mini. Bright parrot-green, more or less merged 
in rusty on the throat and vent. Outer margins of caudals, and of 
mid-alars, fiery-red, or carmine : wings tipt with white. Lores black, 
and black streaks on the crown. Legs fleshy : bill black. Length five 
inches and a half ; bill eleven-sixteenths; tail one and five-eighths; 
wing two and seven-sixteenths ; tarse fifteen-sixteenths ; central toe and 
nail five-eighths ; hind nine-sixteenths. Remark. — These birds have the 
manners and general structure of Yuhina : but they want the Bul- 
boul-like crest common to all the species of that type : their more 
slender bill is unidentate only, and their tarse is longer, being a third 
plus the middle toe and nail ; it is also stout, and quite smooth. We 
may here add, that our Sibia is another truly meliphagous form, pro- 
per to these hills." 

Yuhina, Hodgson, since termed by him Polyodon, is re-defined as 
follows, and a third species described ; the fiavicollis, passim, being 
removed, and regarded as a distinct type, Ixulus. 

" Bill moderate, much depressed as far as the large nares, com- 
pressed beyond. Tip of the upper mandible inclined, with three 
[minute] teeth on each side: gape bristled, reaching to the eyes: 
brows soft. Nares large, fossed, membranous ; the aperture lunated 

* This elongation of the bill is, I suspect, merely further carried out in Drepanis, 
Tem., v. Melithreptus (in part), Vieillot. 

562 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

by the nude soft membrane. Tongue as long as the bill, moderately 
extensile, cleft nearly to the base, and the prongs convolved and fila- 
mentous, forming a full brush : wings medial, the fifth quill longest. 
Tail nearly even and divaricate. Alars and caudals wedged and 
mucronate. Legs and feet strong and repert. Types, gularis, occipita- 
lis, and nigrimenta : the two former published ; the last new. 

" Y. nigrimenta, H. Above olive-brown ; below rufescent-yellow ; 
cheeks and throat white ; tip of chin, and lores, black : crest slaty- 
blue, legs fleshy. Bill dusky above, ruddy-fleshy below. Length four 
inches and a half; bill five-eighths of an inch ; wing two inches and 
one-eighth ; tail one and five-eighths ; tarse three-quarters of an inch ; 
central toe and nail half an inch ; hind seven-sixteenths. [Non vidi.~] 

" These birds are genuine Meliphagidce, with the brushed tongue of 
the type of that group. They feed on tiny insects that harbour in the 
cups of large deep flowers, such as the Rhododendrons, and to which 
the birds cling with their strong feet. They also take berries occa- 
sionally. They are exclusively monticolous, like our Saroglossa (J. 
A. S. XIII, 367), another Meliphague in the guise of a Stare, and 
therefore probably related to the Etourneau verddtre.* 

" Ixulus, H. Bill short, as in Brachypus \_Pycnonotus ?~\, but less 
stout, and the nares larger and more membranous. Tongue sim- 
ple. Head crested. Wings rather short, more or less acuminated, the 
first three quills gradated, and the three next subequal, the fifth being 
usually longest. Tail moderate, subfurcate. Legs and feet suited for 
clinging. Tarse elevate, stout, considerably plus the mid- toe and nail. 
— Anteal toes short, unequal, depressed, and considerably connected 
at their bases. Hind large, broad, equal to inner fore without the 
nails, and to the outer with them. Nails Parian. 

"Type L flavicollis" olim Yuhina flavicollis, As. Res. XIX, 167. 
The near general approximation of my Siva occipitalis to this species 
has already been noted (p. 552), although the beaks of the two birds 
are very different. 

The Indian Zosterops, (XII, 985,) it now appears, has been de- 
signated maderaspatanus by mistake. " There is properly," writes 
Mr. Strickland, " no such specific name as maderaspatanus for a 

* 1 differ from Mr. Hodgson respecting the affinities of the Saroglossa, which 1 
consider to be decidedly a Sturnidous bird, with meliphagous adaptations.— Cur. As. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 563 

Zosterops. Linnaeus only wrote it in his Syst. Nat. by a slip of 
the pen for madagascariensis, as the bird he called Motacilla ma- 
deraspatana was from Madagascar, and Gmelin properly corrected 
the name to madagascariensis" The Indian species is the Sylvia 
annulosa, Var. A, of Swainson's Illustrations, and will now rank as 
Z. annulosus, (Sw.) It seems peculiar to the hilly parts of the 
country, from the Himalaya to Ceylon. 

A second described oriental Zosterops, inhabiting Java and the 
Philippines, and probably the Malay countries generally, is the Di- 
caumflavum of Horsfield, Lin, Tr. XIII, 170. Dr. Horsfield informs 
me, that " it is nearly allied to the Indian species, but distinct." 

Z. 7iicobaricus, nobis, is a third common in the Nicobar islands. 
Length four inches, by six in extent of wings ; closed wing two inches ; 
tail one and a half ; tarse five-eighths of an inch ; bill to gape nine- 
sixteenths. Nostrils covered as usual by a soft impending scale ; and 
the tongue subdivided at tip into a pencil of thin filaments. Upper 
parts greyish olive-green, greenest on the forehead, wings, and 
upper tail-coverts : throat and front of neck pale yellowish, the 
breast and under-parts whitish, except the lower tail-coverts which 
are light yellow : eyes surrounded, as usual, by silky white feathers ; 
the lores and beneath the white orbital feathers blackish, the former 
surmounted by a yellowish line. Bill dusky, the base of the lower man- 
dible pale ; and the legs albescent-plumbeous. Upon dissection, the 
muscular coat of the stomach of a bird of this species was found to be 
considerably more developed than in Nectarinia, and both stomach and 
intestines contained numerous hard black seeds, about the size of No. 8 
shot : these had probably been contained in a pulpy berry ; and the 
fact of their passing the intestines is worthy of notice, as a Thrush fed 
upon haws invariably ejects the stones by the mouth. 

There are two or more species of this genus in the Isle of France : viz. 
Z. curvirostris, nobis. A good deal allied to the last in plumage, 
but having a more slender and distinctly incurved bill, rather longer than 
usual in the species of Zosterops ; the tongue subdivided at tip into 
numerous filaments, forming a tolerably large brush. Length about 
four inches, of wing two inches, and tail one and a quarter ; bill to 
gape five-eighths, and tarse three-quarters of an inch. Orbital fea- 
thers conspicuously white as usual. Head and fore-part of the neck 
dull ashy, tinged slightly with green ; the rump, wings, and tail, 

564 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

brightish olive-green : under-parts ashy, more or less pure, and pass- 
ing to rufescent- whitish on the belly ; the lower tail-coverts bright 
yellow ; and the throat whitish, slightly tinged with yellow in one of 
two specimens : bill dusky, the basal two-thirds of the lower mandible 
yellowish ; and the legs pale. 

The true Z. madagascariensis also inhabits the Mauritius : but this, 
as Mr. Strickland informs me, is a short-beaked species, and therefore 
cannot be the same as the foregoing; besides that the description 
of it does not sufficiently apply to Z. curvirostris. 

Z. (?) borbonicus, (Brisson). This is nearly allied to Zoster ops, 
but is without the white orbital feathers so characteristic of that 
genus ; it has also much the look of the British Curruca sylviella (upon 
a superficial view), but has no particular affinity for the latter.* It is 
probable that some more immediate congeners of this bird inhabit 
Australia, where not only the genus Zosterops attains its chief deve- 
lopment of species, but also more especially the great austral group 
Meliphagidce, to which Zosterops strictly belongs. The present spe- 
cies is also from the Isle of France. 

Genus Phyllornis, Boie, v. (subsequently) Chloropsis, Jardine and 
Selby. The gradual enrichment of the Society's museum enables me 
now to offer a more satisfactory synopsis of this genus than that at- 
tempted in XII, 955 et seq. 

A. With thicker bills, the upper mandible abruptly bent over (more 
or less so, indifferent specimens,) and sometimes quite hooked at tip. 
The shoulder of the wing uniformly green with the rest. Peculiar to 
the Malay countries. 

1. Ph. Sonneratii, (Jardine and Selby): Ph Mullerii, Tem. ; female, 
Turdus viridis et Chloropsis zosterops of Horsfield : young male, Chi. 

gampsorhynchus, Jardine and Selby. 

2. Ph. cyanopogon, Tem. : female, (or perhaps young male,) Chlo- 

* By the way, I may here notice that the Curruca sylviella (v. garrula), so 
called, of S. India, is conspicuously a larger bird than its European relative, having 
the wing fully two inches and three-quarters long, and the rest in proportion : the 
general tone of colour is also somewhat darker, and the bill and legs are proportionally 
larger and stronger, the tarse measuring from thirteen-sixteenths to seven-eighths of 
an inch. As for the roseate tinge on the under-parts mentioned by Sykes, this is 
common to fine specimens from either country. I certainly consider the Indian bird 
to be distinct, and shall therefore name it C. affinis. 

Prof. Behn also informs me, that the species assigned to C. orphea by Mr. Jerdon, 
is not the true C. orphea of continental Europe. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 565 

ropsis mysticalis, Swainson {Menag. p. 296), and described as that of the 
next species (which was erroneously referred to malabaricus,) in J. A.S. 
XII, 957. Exactly resembles the preceding except in its much small- 
er size, the male having rather less black on the throat, but a larger and 
broader azure moustache : the female has the throat and under- parts 
yellowish, with the blue moustache less developed Length six inches 
to six and a half, of wing two and seven-eighths to three and a quarter, 
and tail two and a half to two and five-eighths ; bill to gape thirteen- 
sixteenths of an inch, and tarse five-eighths. 

B. The bill tapering to its extremity, and slightly curved. The 
shoulder of the wing of an ultramarine colour, more or less extended. 
Hab., for the most part, India, Burmah, and probably China. 

3. Ph. cochinchinensis, (Lath., Gm.j, the adult male, and malabaricus 
apud Latham, the young male; Chi. cochinchinensis, Jardine's synopsis : 
Verdin de la cochinchine, Buffon ; Chi malabaricus apud nos, J. A. S. 
XII, 957 (nee fcera.), and probably of Eyton, P. Z S. 1839, p. 102 ; 
probably also Meliphaga javensis, Horsfield. This is the only species 
of the present subdivision which I have seen from the Malay countries ; 
and specimens from the vicinity of the Straits present a considerable 
approximation in the form of bill to the members of the preceding 
section, while those from Arracan have decidedly a more tapering- 
bill, less abruptly curved at the tip, and approaching therefore to the 
Indian type of Phyllornis. If I am right in identifying the Chi. mala- 
baricus apud Eyton with the present species (of which I have little 
doubt), that author states that " the female differs from the male in 
having the markings less distinct :" this is probably the case with the 
mature female ; but what I suspect is a young female from Singapore 
has the forehead, throat, and region of the eyes, green, and a fulvous 
tinge on the crown only, not any below ; and a presumed young male 
from Arracan has a strong fulvous tinge on the crown, neck, and 
breast, while the throat is greenish, with distinct verditer moustache, 
more developed than that of the female cyanopogon. In any state of 
plumage, the latter species may be readily distinguished from this 
other small one, by the total absence of blue on its wings and tail. 

The three foregoing species are all common in the vicinity of the 
Straits of Malacca, and I doubt if any of the following occur in the 
Malay countries. The two next are proper to the peninsula of India, 
No. 4 only extending to the hill regions of Bengal. 

566 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

4. Ph Jerdoni, nobis : Chi. cochinchinensis apud Jerdon, Catal . : 
the male described as the female of the next, in J. A. S. XII, 

5. Ph. malabaricus, (Gm.) ; le petit Merle de la cote de Malabar, 
Sonnerat : Chi ccesmarhynchos,* Tickell ; Chi. aurifrons apud Jerdon, 

And the two remaining species inhabit Nepal, Assam, Sylhet, and 
Arracan ; No. 6 extending into Bengal. 

6. Ph. aurifrons, (J. and S.) ; figured as Chloropsis malabaricus by 
Messrs. Jardine and Selby, as subsequently corrected by them in their 
synopsis of the genus. 

7. Ph. Hardwickii, (J. and S.) : Chi. curvirostris, Swainson ; Chi. 
cyanopterits, Hodgson ; Chi. chrysogaster, M'Clelland and Horsfield ; 
and Chi. auriventris, Guerin. 

I shall now essay to enumerate the Indian and Malayan Bulbouls, 
which are very numerous, and pertain to various genera. 

To commence with the genus Pycnonotus of Kuhl, comprising Hce- 
matornis of Swainson, nee Vigors. 

1. P. bengalensis, nobis: P. v. Ixos cafer, apud nos et alios, ante.\ 
Bengal, Nepal, Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah. 

2. P. hcemorrhous, (Lath.): Hcematornis pusillus et pseudoenfer, 
nobis, J. A. S., X, 841, &c. ; cafer apud Jerdon, Catal. Peninsula of 
India, and Arracan : common about Agra. 

3. P.jocosus, (L.) : Gracula cristata, Scopoli ; Lanius emeria, Shaw. 

* This unmeaning name, c&smarhynchos (apud Tickell), v. casmarhynchos (apud 
Gray), is merely a misprint for gampsorhynchus of Jardine and Selby: vide Griffith's 
' Animal Kingdom,' VI, 391. 

f In a letter lately received from Lord Arthur Hay, his lordship says—" I have 
been inspecting Buffon's figure of the true cafer from the Cape, and it does not agree 
in the least with the Bengal bird." Mr. Strickland, judging from the admeasure- 
ments alone (in the An. and Mag. N. H., Vol. XIV, 47), concluded them to be the 
same. The wide difference of habitat, however, would lead to a pre-supposition of 
their distinctness ; and presuming that they do differ, I now propose for the com- 
mon Bengal species, the specific name bengalensis. This name is, indeed, better 
applicable than such terms usually are, since it is very doubtful whether more 
than two species of the genus exist in Bengal, this and the jocosus, and the present 
one is by far the more abundant of the two. It is closely allied to P. hcemorrhous^ 
from which it differs in its larger size, and the greater extent of the black colouring, 
which spreads over the whole neck (excepting the ear-coverts, which are brownish), 
and low upon the breast, the back and belly also being much darker than in P. 
htzmorrhous, but the feathers of these parts are similarly margined with greyish. 
Length nine inches and a half, by twelve and a half in spread of wing ; the closed wing 
four inches, and tail the same. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 567 

India generally, extending eastward to Tipperah and A'rracan, and 
thence southward to Penang and even Malacca.* 

4. P. monticolus, (M'Clelland and Horsfield), Proc. Zool Soc. 1839, 
p. 160. Said to differ from the last by having "a scarlet ring about the 
eye, but no tuft beneath this organ." Kossia mountains, Assam. It 
rather requires verification. 

5. P. crocorrhous, Strickland, An. and Mag. N. H. 1844, p. 412: 
Muscicapa hcemorrhoussa, Var. B., Gm. ; Turdus hcemorrhous, apud 
Horsfield. Java. 

6. P. bimaculatus, (Horsf.), Lin. Tr. XIII, 147. Java. 

7. P. goiavier, (Scopoli): Muscicapa psidii, Gm. ; Turdus analis, 
Horsfield. Malay countries generally. 

8. P. leucotis, (Gould), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 6. Common in 
Scinde, and I am informed also in Guzerat. It is likewise enumerated 
in a list of birds " collected in the north-western provinces of the 
Bengal presidency, in north latitude 29° to 31°, and east longitude 77° 
to 88°", and consisting chiefly of inhabitants of the plains, but with a 
few from the Himalaya, in P. Z. S. 1842, p. 92.f 

9. P. leucogenys, (Gray), Hardwicke's 111. Ind. Zool. Common in 
the Himalaya, and in Kashmir. 

10. P. flavirictus, Strickland, An. and Mag. N. H. 1844, p. 413 : 
Tricophorus virescens, Tern., apud Jerdon. Southern India. 

11. P. plumosus, nobis. Length about seven inches, of wing three 
and a quarter, and tail three inches ; bill to gape three-quarters of an 
inch ; and tarse the same. This bird is remarkable for the extra- 
ordinary density and copiousness of its rump plumage, which has 
suggested the name bestowed on it. Colour of the upper parts darkish 
olive-brown, shaded with dull green, the wings and tail margined with 
brighter green ; coronal feathers rounded and scale-like, of a cinerascent 
hue, slightly margined laterally with greenish : under-parts pale brown, 
lightest on the throat, and the lower tail-coverts slightly ochreous. Bill 

* 1 have not actually compared Malayan with Bengal specimens, but have an im- 
pression that the crimson ocular tuft is considerably less developed in the former. 

f In this list are several names, which, I suspect, require to be corrected : viz. " Hir- 
undo ripariaV probably H. sinensis; " Oriolus galbula," probably O. kundoo ; 
" Malacocercus striatus," probably M. terricolor ; " Ianthocincla leucocephala," 
doubtless Garrulax leucolophos ; " Megalurus palustris, Sykes," probably Pellorni- 
um rufieeps, which is Megalurus ruficeps, Sykes ; and M Centropus sirkee," pro- 
bably Taccocua infuscata, nobis. 

4 H 

568 Notices and Descriptions 0/ various new [No. 164. 

dusky, and feet appear to have been reddish-brown. Two specimens are 
perhaps distinct, though very closely allied. In these the greenish tinge 
is wanting, even on the wings and tail, and there is no ashy tinge on 
the head, the feathers of which are much less scale-like ; the lower 
tail-coverts also have a less decided tinge of ochreous, and the throat 
is much less albescent. In other respects they are similar. These 
are from Malacca, and the former from Singapore. Should they prove 
distinct, the second may bear the specific name of brunneus.* One or 
both are probably alluded to as one of two varieties of P. goiavier, (v. 
Tardus analis, Horsf.,) mentioned by Sir Stamford Raffles. 

12. P. flavescens, nobis. So like the next in its general charac- 
ters and colouring, that it might be supposed to be the female of that 
species, differing from the male in wanting the yellow spots on the 
throat, and the yellowish colour on the crown, were it not that the tail 
is always considerably more graduated, its outermost feathers measur- 
ing three-quarters of an inch shorter than the middle ones ; whereas 
in P. Finlaysoni the difference is but half as much : it would, besides, 
be contrary to the analogy of all its congeners, for the sexes to pre- 
sent so marked a difference. Length about seven inches and three- 
quarters, of wing three and a quarter, and tail four inches; bill to 
gape seven-eighths of an inch, and tarse three-quarters of an inch. 
Colour dull greenish-olive above, the crown darker, with broader and 
more rounded coronal feathers than in P. Finlaysoni ; alars margined 
with brighter yellowish-green, and caudals less decidedly : under-parts 
paler, mingled with dull yellow, imparting a streaky appearance; the 
vent and lower tail-coverts bright yellow, paling on the belly : lores 
blackish, surmounted with yellowish-white. Bill and feet dark. Hab. 
Arracan, where much less common than the next species. 

13. P. Finlaysoni, Strickland, An. and Mag. N. H., 1844, p. 411. 
Common in Arracan. 

14. P. zantholaimus, Jerdon, MS. Length seven inches and a 
quarter and upwards, of wing three inches to three and a half, and 
tail three and a quarter to three and a half; bill to gape three-quarters 
of an inch to thirteen-sixteenths, and tarse three-quarters to seven- 
eighths. Upper parts ashy, tinged with green on the wings and tail, 
the crown yellowish-green, and throat and fore-neck pale yellow ; 

* Since the above was printed, I have received from Lord Arthur Hay a specimen 
of this brunneus, labelled by his lordship Brachypus modestus, A. Hay. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 569 

lower parts of a lighter ash-colour than the back, the tibial feathers 
and under tail-coverts pale yellow, and all but the middle tail-feathers 
tipped with yellowish-white, increasing in quantity to the outermost : 
bill and feet dark. Hab. Southern India. 

15. P. melanocephalus, (Gray), Hardwicke's ///. Ind. Zool. : Bra- 
chypus plumifer, Gould, Proc, Zool. Soc, 1837, p. 137; Vangaflavi- 
ventris, Tickell, J. A. S. II, 573. Himalaya, Assam, Sylhet, Tippe- 
rah, and Arracan ; also Central India. 

All the above are in the Society's museum, with the exceptions of 
P. crocorrhous, P. bimacutatus, and the somewhat dubious P. monti- 
colus. Also a common Chinese species, the P. sinensis, (Lath.), founded 
on le Gobe-mouche verddtre de la Chine of Sonnerat, and figured as 
Turdus occipitalis, Tem., by MM. Eydoux and Gervais, in the 
* Voyage de la Favorite'. Dr. Cantor procured this bird in Chusan, 
and the Society's specimens are from Macao. That figured by the 
French naturalists cited was obtained at Manilla. In general, how- 
ever, the ear-coverts have a central whitish spot, instead of being 
wholly blackish, as represented in the coloured figure adverted to. 
Another common Chinese species, which is in the collection of Lord 
Arthur Hay, is le Gobe-mouche a tete noire de la Chine of Sonnerat, 
v. P. atricapillus, (Vieillot).* 

The following Malayan species are, I presume, to be added to those 
already noticed. 

Ixos virescens, Tem. (pi c. 382, fig. 1), which would seem to be allied 
to P. plumosus. 

I. chalcocephalus, Tem. (p. c. 453, fig. I). 

Lanius xanthogaster, Raffles, Lin. Tr. XIII, 309. This, however, 
is more doubtful as a true Pycnonotus. 

Also two species from Southern India (in the Mysore district, bor- 
dering the Neilgherries), which Mr. Jerdon procured, but unfortunately 

* Since writing the above, P. atricapillus has been received on loan from Lord A. 
Hay. Its place in the series is between P. jocosus and P. leucotis, but with the 
crimson lower tail-coverts of the first, though more brilliant. Length nearly nine 
inches, of wing three and three-quarters, and tail four inches ; bill to gape seven-eighths, 
and tarse the same. Colour of the upper-parts light brown, with greyish edgings to the 
feathers, the upper tail-coverts and the entire under-parts brownish-albescent ; cap 
glossy black, the feathers not much elongated ; chin, lores, and beneath the eyes, also 
black; wings deep brown, the feathers margined paler; and tail dusky-black, gra- 
dually deeper on the terminal half, the caudal feathers being all tipped with white : 
bill black, and legs dusky-black. 

570 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

lost the specimens before he took a description of them. Coloured draw- 
ings of them, however, were taken by a native painter in Mr. Elliot's 
service, and from these Mr. Jerdon drew up the following notices. 
Vide * Madras Journal', No. XXX, p. 168. They were about six and a 
half or seven inches in length, the second being rather the smaller. 

" Yellow-eared Bulboul. Above yellowish-green, beneath yellow; 
ocular region black ; a plume of soft loose feathers over the ear tipped 
with yellow. • 

" White-eared Bulboul. Above light green, beneath greenish-yellow ; 
head, neck, and breast, dusky grey ; ear-spot white." 

Lastly, as a very aberrant species, I shall provisionally refer to this 
genus the bird considered by Mr. Jerdon to be the Turdus indicus., 
Gm., and ranged by him in the same division with Pycnonotus fiavi- 
7 ictus; but which Mr. Strickland thinks is considerably too small for 
Gmelin's indicus, and has therefore given it a new name, describing it 
as Criniger? ictericus, An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1844, p. 411. The 
only specimen in the Society's collection, and which was presented 
by Mr. Jerdon, accords in its dimensions with those given by Mr. 
Strickland ; but Mr. Jerdon gives the length as from seven and a half 
to eight inches, wing four inches, and tail three and a half, which last 
admeasurement only, holds true in the Society's specimen : and if the 
species ever attains those dimensions, I think there can be no objec- 
tion to identifying it as the indicus of Gmelin.* 

Alcurus striatus, (Blyth) Hodgson, J. A. S. XI, 184. This differs 
little from Pycnonotus in form of bill, but its large size and thick 
heavy body ally it to Criniger (v. Tricophorus), in which genus I ori- 
ginally placed it, while Mr. Hodgson first assigned it to Pycnonotus. 
It does not, however, range well with any other species known to me, 
and at my recommendation Mr. Hodgson applied the name Alcurus to 
it, which I here adopt. 

Genus Criniger (subsequently Tricophorus), Temminck. 

I. Cr. ochrocephalus, (Gmelin) : Tricophorus crispiceps, nobis, J. A. 
S. XI, 204. Malay countries generally, and the Tenasserim provinces. 
It is a favorite cage bird with the Malays. 

* It is remarkable that a common African Bulboul fPycn. chrysorrhoeus ) has 
recently turned up in Ireland. Vide An. and Mag. N. H. 1845, p. 3U8 : the whole 
group of Bulbouls being, otherwise, extra-European, and there is nothing approaching 
to the form in all America. Neither do I remember a single Bulboul genus in 


1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 571 

2. Cr. flaveolus, (Gould), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 6. Common in 
the Himalaya, and in the hill ranges of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan. 
An allied South African species is figured by Dr. Andrew Smith, as 
Tricophorus flaviventris. 

3. Cr. Tickelli, nobis : doubtfully referred to Ixos virescens, Tem., _Jl" c *~~"— — 
by Capt. Tickell, J. A. S. II, 573, but evidently a distinct species of 
the present genus, allied to the preceding one. From near Midnapore. 
( Non vidi.J 

4. Cr. gularis, (Horsfield), Lin. Trans. XIII, 150. Allied in plu- 
mage to Cr. flaveolus, but crestless, and the beak remarkable for its 

Vanga-hke, or Lopkocitta-Yike, form, with the tip of the upper man- 
dible abruptly bent over. Malay countries generally. 

N. B. I may here remark, that the genera Lophocitta, Vanga, and 
Prionops, form together a peculiar group of Bulbouls, of which the 
only known oriental species is Lophocitta galericulata, (Cuv.), common 
near the Straits of Malacca : but the Lanius coronatus, Raffles, Lin. 
Tr. XIII, 306, would seem to be nearly allied.* The habits of Prio- 
nops talacoma, as described by Dr. A. Smith, are quite those of the 
ordinary Bulbouls. 

Spizixos, nobis, n. g. General structure of Pycnonotus, but dif- 
fering greatly in the shortness and (for a member of this group) 
extraordinary thickness of the bill, the lateral outline of which 
approaches that of Conostoma cemodius, Hodgson, J. A. S., X, 856, 
except that the tip of the upper mandible curves more decidedly down- 
ward over that of the lower mandible, being also pointed and dis- 
tinctly notched, with a sinuation corresponding to the notch in the 
lower mandible : as viewed from above, however, the resemblance to 
the beak of the Conostoma ceases, for that of the present bird narrows 
evenly to a point from a tolerably wide base : the ridge of the upper 
mandible is obtusely angulated, and it is distinctly arched, rising at base 
where concealed by the feathers of the forehead. Rest as in Pycno- 
notus, but approaching to Criniger. 

Sp. canifrons, nobis. Length about eight inches, of wing probably 

* Mr. G. It. Gray, I observe, gives, as synonymes of Lophocitta galericulata, the 
Lanius scapulatus, Licht., L. coronatus, Raffles, and Vanga cristata, Geoff., figured 
in Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom'; but the figure adverted to has a much flatter bill, 
which is coloured white, and the primaries are coloured rufous. Mr. G. R. Gray 
refers Lophocitta to the Jay group, in which I cannot agree with him. — The Society 
has now received Lanius coronatus, Raffles, which is obviously the female of Loph. 

572 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

three and three-quarters (but the first primaries were growing in the 
specimen), and of tail three and a half: bill to forehead a little exceed- 
ing half an inch, and to gape three-quarters ; tarse also three-quarters 
of an inch. General colour bright olive-green, becoming yellowish- 
green and more vivid on the rump and margins of the primaries, and 
inclining also to yellow on the belly and more decidedly on the lower 
tail-coverts: forehead and chin pale ashy; the nape, with the sides 
and front of the neck, somewhat darker, passing into blackish on 
the throat ; and the crown black, its feathers lengthened to form a 
crest nearly an inch high : tail-feathers largely tipped with blackish. 
Bill yellow ; and legs brown. Hab Cherra Poonjee, or the hill ranges 
bordering on Sylhet to the northward. 

HemixoSy Hodgson, n. g. " Eill to gape rather longer than the head, 
[moderately slender,] inclining to arch, with terminal notch, and erect, 
entire, trenchant tomice. Tongue cartilaginous, and simply bifid. Rictus 
bristled. Nares lunate, lateral, shaded above by a small unarched nude 
membrane, which is set over by small nareal bristles. Legs and feet very 
short, but stout : the tarse strong and smooth. Toes short, very un- 
equal, depressed ; the fores basally connected, the outer one as far as the 
joint, the inner less so. Nails strong, acute, and highly curved. Wings 
medial, round, acuminate; the fifth quill longest: the first two much, 
and the two next slightly, gradated. Tail ample, very firm, even, but 
-^ inclining 4o furcation. 

" H. flavala, mihi. Length eight inches and a third ; expanse twelve 
inches ; closed wing four inches ; tail three and a half; bill to gape an 
inch; tarse (to sole) thirteen-sixteenths ; central toe nine-sixteenths; 
outer seven-sixteenths ; inner three-eighths ; hind five-sixteenths. 
Weight 1 oz." General colour ashy, with dusky wings and tail, the former 
having the secondaries and tertiaries, with their great range of coverts, 
broadly margined with bright greenish-yellow, and the tail a little 
tinged with the same externally : throat and lower tail-coverts white ; 
the belly greyish-white, and the breast of a paler ash-colour than the 
back : lores and streak from base of lower mandible black ; the ear- 
coverts brown, and crown dusky-greyish, the coronal feathers lengthen- 
ed and pointed, as in Hypsipetes. Bill black, and legs plumbeous. 

44 This type," remarks Mr. Hodgson, "is compounded of the charac- 
ters of Hypsipetes and of those of the Bulbouls, between which it claims 
a place. Its manners, like its form, are intermediate. It feeds mostly 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 573 

on pulpy berries, but likewise takes soft and imperfect insects. It does 
not sing, nor is caged ; and it seems to be wholly confined to the hills, 
being unknown below. The sexes arealike in colouring, but the male 
is rather the larger bird. The stomach is muscular, and of consider- 
ably unequal thickness in its outer coat ; the inner being tough and striate. 
Intestinal canal eight inches and a half, the cceca very small and rudi- 
mentary. Contents of stomach commonly berries, rarely soft and im- 
perfect insects, and also some perfect and hard ones chiefly in winter.'' 
(Hodgson's MSS.) It appears to be very common along the sub-Hi- 
malayan ranges, extending to those of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan. 

lole, nobis, J. A. S. XIII, 386. This distinct form, I am now 
satisfied, falls under the Bulboul group, being allied to the preceding, 
and to Hypsipetes. The coronal feathers are pointed, as in both ; and 
the beak is that of Hypsipetes, shortened and widened, and thus de- 
viating in the Flycatcher direction ; the whole form being also short- 
ened, or as in an ordinary Bulboul.* 

/. olivacea> nobis, J. A. S. XIII, 386. Common at Malacca. Fine 
specimens attain a length of seven inches and a half, wing three and a 
half, and tail three and a quarter. 

/. virescens, nobis. Length about six inches and a half, of wing 
three inches, and tail the same ; bill to gape seven-eighths of an inch, 
and tarse eleven-sixteenths. Colour olive-green above, paler and more 
yellowish below, the throat inclining to albescent, and the lower tail- 
coverts tinged with ochreous, as is also the tail : a slight shade of the 
same prevails upon the crown, Back, and wings. Bill dusky above, pale 
below ; and feet light brown. Younger specimens have the throat more 
yellowish, and the coronal feathers are less pointed and distinct. Com- 
mon in Arracan. 

/. cinerea, A. Hay. For the loan of an example of this fine species 
I am indebted to Lord Arthur Hay. It has the Hypsipetes character 
of the coronal feathers more developed thau in either of the other?. 
Length about seven inches, of wing three and three-quarters, and tail 
three and a quarter ; bill to gape seven-eighths, and tarse three- 
quarters of an inch. Upper parts cinereous-brown, the forehead and 

* This species will have been named by M. Temminek, as also my Tephrodornis 
grisola, J. A. S. XII, 180, Phoenicura leucoptera, XI 1, 962, and Muscicapula 
melanoleuca, (Hodg.), XII, 940; as all of these have now been received by the Society 
from Java. 

574 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

above the eye ashy, which also margins the pointed feathers of the 
crown ; throat, middle of belly, and lower tail-coverts, white, the flanks 
and across the breast pale ash-brown. Bill and feet dusky, the latter 
having apparently been brown. From Malacca. 

Hypsipetes, Vigors. The species of this genus exhibit a consider- 
able gradation : the first two being typical, with sub-furcate tail, a 
character which is less marked in the second. These have also coral- 
red bills, ashy plumage, and black crown. 

1. H. psaroides, Vigors. Common in the Himalaya, extending to the 
hill ranges of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan. 

2. H. neilgherriensis, Jerdon. Neilgherries and Ceylon. 

3. H. ganeesa, Sykes : figured in the 2nd series of the ' Illustrations 
of Ornithology', by Sir W. Jardine and Mr. Selby. This species I 
have never seen. It is proper to Western India, and is probably com- 
mon in the Mahabuleishwa hills. 

4. H. McClellandii, Horsfield. Bill dusky, paler below : wings and 
tail green, the latter nearly square, but having its two or three outer- 
most feathers successively a trifle shorter. This species takes the same 
range as H. psaroides. 

From the above, we pass to more aberrant species, with the bill 
stronger, and the tail shorter and more rounded. 

5. H. philippensis, Strickland, An. and Mag, N. H. 1844, p. 413. 

6. H. malaccensis, nobis. This approaches nearly to the descrip- 
tion of the last, but has the crown of the same olive-green with the 
back, and no trace of rust-colour on the cheeks and chin. Length 
about eight inches and a half, of wing four inches, and tail three and a 
half, its outermost feathers a quarter of an inch less : bill to gape an 
inch and one-eighth ; and tarse three-quarters of an inch. Upper parts 
dull olive-green, the wings and tail brownish-dusky, margined with the 
colour of the back : throat and breast ashy, with whitish centres to the 
feathers, the abdomen and lower tail-coverts dull white : bend of the 
wing underneath, and the axillaries, pale yellow. Bill and feet horn- 
coloured. Feathers of the crown pointed, but this character is less deve- 
loped than in the more typical species. In two specimens, some old 
unshed secondaries and wing-coverts have a rufescent tinge, but there 
is no trace of this in old birds. The rictal bristles are considerably 
more developed than in the typical species, (as in Hemixos and lole,) 
while in H. McClellandii they are intermediate. Common at Malacca. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 575 

A specimen from the Nicobars is perhaps the young, having the 
wing but three inches and a half long, and the secondaries, terti- 
aries, and edges of the primaries, rufous-brown ; tail slightly tinged 
with the same : coronal feathers tinged with dusky-ash, and less pointed ; 
the throat and fore-neck white, tinged with yellow ; and the rest of the 
under-parts mixed yellow and white, with olive on the sides of the 
breast : bill also shorter, tinged with yellow, and approaching in form 
to that of the next group, as indeed does the whole figure of the bird ; 
so much so, that if the above characters prove to be permanent, I 
would propose for it the name Ixocincla virescens. 

A form requiring, I think, distinction from Hypsipetes, may be 

Ixocincla, nobis. It differs from Hypsipetes, in its more bulky 
form, stouter and more meruline bill, and in the greater size of the legs 
and toes ; but in other respects is nearly allied. 

^ I. olivacea, (Jardine and Selby); the female erroneously figured 
as Hypsipetes ganeesa, in the ///. Orn., 1st series, pi. CLXVIII, and 
(as I am informed) subsequently named Hyps, olivacea in the second 
series of the same work, where a figure of the true H. ganeesa is 
given. This bird has a much more meruline aspect than in true Hyp- 
sipetes, and it is known as the Merle to the colonists of the Isle of 
France. Length eleven inches and a half, of wing five and three- 
eighths, and tail four and five-eighths ; bill to gape an inch and three- 
eighths, and tarse an inch. Male having the upper-parts dusky, the 
feathers margined with dark dingy greenish ; wings and tail uniform 
dusky-brown, the tertiaries slightly margined with ashy : cap blackish, 
the feathers pointed as in true Hypsipetes ; lores deeper black, and 
a slight grey supercilium from the nostrils to the occiput, lighter- 
coloured from the nostrils to the eye : under-parts uniform dusky ash- 
colour, purer on the throat, and paling on the belly and under tail- 
coverts, which last have a faint tinge of ferruginous : bill bright orange- 
yellow; and the legs appear to have been yellowish-brown. Female paler, 
with the greenish margins to the feathers much more developed, and 
the ash-colour confined to the throat, ear-coverts, and front of the neck. 
Turdus borbornicus, Lath., is perhaps a second species of this type. 

The generic name Brachypus, it seems, must now be abandoned, at 
least in Ornithology, and it appears never to have been employed in 
a very definite signification. At all events, very different forms of 

/ «« 

*^*jfc<'-^'t, c '** r w - ^ ^-Hn.3^ 

576 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

Bulbouls have been brought together under this appellation. Swainson 
gives Turdus dispar, Horsf., as the type ; and Gray and Gould have 
applied it to species of true Pycnonotus ; viz. Br. leucogenys and 
Br. melanocephalus, Gray, in Hardwicke's ' Illustrations,' and Br. plu- 
mifer, Gould, a synonyrae of the second species cited : P. leucotis, 
however, is referred by Gould to Ixos ; and his Br. gularis would seem 
to be a true congener of Br. dispar, (Horsf.,) Sw. To the type of the 
two latter species, I shall now provisionally give the name Rubigula ; 
and then there remains that of Lanius melanocephalus, Gm., and its 
congeners, for which I can find no appellation, and shall therefore de- 
signate Brachypodius. 

Rubigula, nobis. There is unfortunately no specimen in the mu- 
seum from which I can define this group, but of the present series it 
makes the nearest approach to Pycnonotus, and has the rump uniformly 
coloured with the back, and a subquadrate tail, unlike the next form. 
The species (at least in the male sex) are remarkable for the brilliant 
ruby, or sometimes orange-ruby, hue of the throat, the feathers of 
which are rigid and glistening. Three species would appear to have 
been ascertained. 

1. R. dispar, (Horsfield), Lin. Tr. XIII, 150. Malay countries. 

2. R. gularis, (Gould), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, p. 186: Brachypus 
rubineus, Jerdon. {Southern India. ^ , , ** / -z* ~ 

3. R. , (Temminck), p. c. 3B2, fig, 2, as noticed in Griffith's 

1 Animal Kingdom,' VI, 390. Java. 

Brachypodius, nobis. 

1. Br. entilotus, (Jardine and Selby), ///. Orn , 2nd series. { Non 
vidi.J Hab. Malacca. 

2. Br. poiocephalus, (Jerdon). Southern India. 

3. Br. melanocephalus, (Gmelin) : Turdoides atriceps, Temminck. 
Malay countries, extending northward to Arracan and Tipperah. 

4. Br. cinereoventris, nobis. Differs from the last in having the 
nape and under-parts to near the vent of a deep ash-grey, and in its 
tail-feathers being less deeply tipped with yellow, which is also less 
bright, while the green of the upper parts is darker and much less 
yellowish. Length of the wing three inches and a quarter. Inhabits 

5. Br. tristis, nobis. Also allied to Br. melanocephalus, but remark- 
able for its very plain brown colouring. Length about seven inches, or 

1845.] » or little known Species of Birds. 577 

nearly 80, of wing three and a quarter, and middle tail-feathers three 
inches, the outermost five-eighths of an inch shorter ; bill to gape 
three-quarters of an inch, and tarse half an inch. Colour plain brown 
above, darkest on the crown, wings and tail, the caudal feathers being 
dusky, with pale tips to the outer ones ; under-parts paler, especially on 
the abdomen and throat i the plumage of the rump copious, as usual, 
and of a dusky colour, with dull yellowish-brown terminal fringes : 
bill deep horn-colour, and legs brown. For permission to describe 
this species, I am indebted to Dr. Theodore Cantor, whose very ex- 
tensive collection of Malayan birds, &c. when these come to be un- 
packed and examined, will doubtless yield other novelties. Br. tristis 
inhabits Penang, where it is not very common. 

Lastly, as a very aberrant species, may be provisionally ranged 

6 ? Br. ? criniger,* A. Hay. The beak in this bird is vertically much 
less high than in the others, and altogether the species has a good deal 
the character of an Alcippe (nobis, J. A. S. XIII, 384), excepting in its 
very small tarsi and toes. Length about six inches, of wing two and 
seven-eighths, and tail the same, its outermost feathers a quarter of an 
inch less ; bill to gape eleven-sixteenths, and tarse nine-sixteenths, the 
middle toe and claw but half an inch. Colour olive-green above, the 
coronal feathers, wings and tail, brunnescent ; lores, ear-coverts, and 
the whole under-parts, yellowish, brightest on the belly and lower tail- 
coverts, passing to whitish on the centre of the throat, and mingled with 
olive-green on the breast and flanks : three outermost tail-feathers 
slightly tipped with yellowish on their inner webs. Bill dusky above, 
and pale below : legs and claws white. The coronal feathers are 
rounded, and of very different texture from those of the back ; the rictal 
setae are well developed ; and there is a remarkable nuchal tuft of eight 
or ten straight black hairs, the longest of which are an inch and five- 
eighths in length in the specimen examined. Inhabits Malacca. 

Microtarsus, Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 102. This is nearly 
allied to the preceding group. 

1. M. melanoleucos, Eyton, ibid. Common at Malacca. 

Finally, Ixodia, nobis. Allied to the last genus, and in its squared tail 

to Rubigula. Bill small and compressed, widening very little at base, 

the tip of the upper mandible but faintly emarginated, and the gape 

* Can this be the Setornis criniger of Lesson, the description of which 1 have not 
seen ? It certainly ranges most properly as a distinct division. 

578 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

unarmed. Rest as in Mierotarsus ; the head being crestless, and the 
coronal plumage uniform in texture with the other feathers. The 
lower tail-coverts of the only ascertained species are bright yellow, as 
in various species of Pycnonotus. 
Ix. cyaniventris, (nobis,) J. A. &,XI, 792 : Turdus, No. 6, Raffles, Lin. 
Trans. Xllf, 311. Common in the vicinity of the Straits of Malacca. 

The next is a very remarkable group, which begins now to ex- 
hibit a variety of species, and of generic modifications of form, which 
will ultimately indicate its true place in the system. Not long ago, 
its only ascertained representative was the Paradoxornis flavirostris of 
Gould : but the following may now be referred to it. 

1. Conostoma cemodius, Hodgson, J. A. S. X, 856. Nepal. 

2. Paradoxornis flavirostris, Gould, P. Z. S, 1836, p. 17; Mag. ZooL 
and Bot. 1838, p. 513 ; Icones Avium, pi. VI : Bathyrhynchus brevi- 
rostris, McClelland, Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 513. Especially characterized, 
generically, by the deep sinuation of the tomise of its mandibles. Hab. 
Eastern Himalaya, and the mountains of Assam. 

3. Heteromorpha unicolor, Hodgson, J. A. S., XII, 448. Nepal. 

4. H. ruficeps ; Paradoxornis ruficeps, nobis, J. A. S., XI, 177. 
Bootan mountains, and those of Arracan : Darjeeling. 

Chleuasicus, nobis, n. g. Nearly allied to Suthora, Hodgson (Ind. 
Rev. 1838, p. 32, and J. A. S. XII, 449/, from which it is dis- 
tinguished by the considerably larger proportionate size of the legs, 
and by the rather larger and decidedly broader bill, the outline of which 
(as seen laterally) is still more tumid and anomalous-looking. Rest as 
in the other genera of the group. 

5. Chi. ruficeps, nobis. Length five inches and a half, of which the 
tail measures two and three quarters ; wing two and five-eighths ; bill 
to forehead (through the feathers) three-eighths of an inch in a straight 
line ; and tarse seven-eighths ; the latter, with the toes and claws, 
thicker and stouter than in Suthora. Colour as in my Heteromorpha 
ruficeps, but the under-parts white, or less tinged with rufescent : i. e. 
the head and neck are bright ferruginous ; the rest of the upper parts 
olive-brown, more or less inclining to ferruginous, especially towards 
the shoulder of the wing ; and the entire under-parts are white : bill 
whitish horn-colour, apparently tinged with green in the recent spe- 
cimen ; and the legs appear to have been greenish-plumbeous. From 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 579 

6. Suthora nipalensis, Hodgson. Nepal, Darjeeling. 

7. S. fulvifrons, Hodgson. Length five inches, of which the tail 
measures two and a half, its outermost feathers an inch and a quarter 
less; wing two inches and one-eighth; bill to forehead (through the 
feathers) a quarter of an inch; and tarse three-quarters. Upper parts 
light rufescent-brown, inclining to fulvous on the forehead, throat, and 
breast, with a broad pale duskyish streak along each sinciput ; secon- 
daries, and base of caudals, broadly margined with bright chesnut-ful- 
vous; the belly and flanks albescent-greyish. Bill pale, dusky along 
ridge of upper mandible ; and legs light brown. From Nepal. 

In XII, 443, I expressed an opinion that the division Heteromorpha, 
Hodgson, should merge in Paradoxornis ; but I have since seen Mr. 
Gould's figure of P. Jiavirostris in the Icones Avium, which induces 
me now to follow Mr. Hodgson's arrangement, and also to refer No. 4 
of the above list to his genus Heteromorpha. 

The Indian Nuthatches and Tree-creepers may be enumerated as 
follow : — 

1. Sitta formosa, nobis, J. A. S. XII, 938, 1007. Darjeeling. Beak 
scarcely at all compressed, and tapering almost evenly from the base, 
as seen from above. 

2. S. himalayana, Jardine and Selby, ///. Orn. 1st series, pi. 
CLX1V ; to which I suspect must be referred S. cinnamoventris, nobis, 
J. A. S. XI, 459, though it does not quite accord either with the 
figure or description. The sexes differ as in S. castaneoventris, 
but the under-parts of the male are not quite so dark as in the cor- 
responding sex of that species; and the deep, rufous-brown colouring 
extends up to the throat, and in some specimens leaves little white on 
the chin, but the sides of the throat over the jaw are always white, as 
equally in «S. castaneoventris. S. himalayana is stated to have the tail 
black, except its middle pair of feathers, the rest having " the basal 
half [^probably a mistake] of the inner webs white ; on the outer 
feather there is an oblique white bar, and the second has a round 
white spot on the tip of the inner web." In S. cinnamoventris, the 
outermost tail-feather has an oblique white bar towards the middle of 
its external web, and a larger white spot near the extremity of its 
inner web ; and the next two feathers have each a successively smaller 
spot on their inner webs ; the bill also is much longer than that of 
S. himalayana is represented in the figure, and is black with more or 

580 Notices and Descriptors of various new [No. 164. 

less white at base ; and the legs are certainly not yellow, as those of 
<S. himalayana are coloured in the plate, but appear to have been 
plumbeous, with yellow on the soles. Another discrepancy of 5. 
cinnamoventris with the figure of S. himalayana, consists in the black 
of the loral region not extending upon the forehead, whereas it would 
appear represented to do so in the figure of the other. Nevertheless, 
I still suspect that they will prove identical. As for the Indian 
Nuthatch of Latham {Gen. Hist IV, 73), it is not very clear to which 
species this is to be referred. The beak of S. cinnamoventris is dis- 
tinctly compressed, but broad and stout. It appears to be peculiar 
to the Himalaya. 

3. S. nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. V, 779. Himalaya. A small 
species, with remarkably short bill, tapering evenly from the base, as 
viewed from above. 

4. S. castaneoventris, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 121 ; J. and S., 
77/. Orn. 1st series, pi. CLXV. Hilly regions of the Indian peninsula, 
extending to the Uajmahl district of Bengal. Bill very much com- 
pressed and narrow. 

5. Dendrophila frontalis, (Horsf.) Swainson: Sitta corallina, Hodg- 
son, «/. A. S. V. 779. Hilly parts of India generally, from the Himalaya 
southward, and also of the Malay countries: common in Arracan. 

A D. flavipes is likewise alluded to by Mr. Swainson in his 'Classi- 
fication of Birds', p. 318, citing " pt. V, No. 130," it may be presumed 
of Temminck's Planches coloriees. 

6. Tichodroma muraria, (L.) Illiger. The Rock or Wall Creeper of 
Southern Europe. Common in the Himalaya, as also in Western Asia. 
Mr. Vigne remarks, that it " is found throughout the Alpine Punjab, 
displaying the delicate scarlet patch upon its grey wings, as it flits 
over the perpendicular banks, with the movements of a butterfly ra- 
ther than of a bird." Travels in Kashmir, &c. II, 20. 

7. Certhia himalayana, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174. 

8. C. discolor, nobis. Distinguished by having the entire under- 
parts uniform dingy brown, or very much sullied albescent (inclining 
in some to whitish on the abdominal region), and no ferruginous on 
the flanks, but only on the lower tail-coverts ; whereas in the preceding 
species the under- parts are pure white, tinged with ferruginous on the 
sides of the breast, and the flanks as well as the lower tail-coverts are 
deep ferruginous : the upper-parts also are a shade less rufous than in 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 581 

C. himalayana, and the pale central spots to the feathers are more 
diffused (i. e. much less defined), especially those of the head. Upon 
a first view, it might be thought that the under-parts of C. discolor 
are merely dirty ; but the colour is not to be washed out, and five 
specimens before me are all quite similar, while in three Nepal spe- 
cimens of the other the white is alike pure, and the flanks deep ferru- 
ginous. It is indeed possible that neither of these is the true C. 
himalayana, in which case the Nepal species might be designated C. 
nipalensis, Hodgson. C. discolor is common at Darjeeling. 

There is a Certhia spilonota, Franklin, P. Z. & 1831, p. 121, with 
" tail soft and flexible (!), in which respect it differs from the type of 
the genus, but it agrees in all others." It therefore cannot, however, 
be properly classed in Certhia, and requires to be re-examined. Neither 
Mr. Jerdon nor myself have been able to identify it. " C. supra gri- 
seo-fusco, albo maculata ; capite albo graciliter striato ; gula abdomine- 
que albidis, hoc fusco fasciato ; caudd albo fuscoque fasciatd. Longi- 
tudo b\ unc" Major Franklin's specimens were collected on the 
Ganges between Calcutta and Benares, and in the Vindhyian hills 
between the latter place and Gurrah Mundelah, on the Nerbudda. 

Accentor mollis, nobis. This fourth species of Himalayan Accentor 
(vide «/. A. S. XII, 958 et seq.,) is about six inches long, of which the 
tail occupies two and a half ; wing three and a quarter ; bill to frontal 
feathers five-sixteenths of an inch ; and tarse three-quarters of an inch. 
Colouring soft and delicate. Upper parts a rich brown, passing into 
pure dark ash-colour on the head and neck, and into maronne on the 
scapularies and tertiaries, and less deeply on the hind part of the back ; 
coverts of the secondaries pure dark grey, those of the primaries, with 
the winglet, black, as are also the primaries, these last having their 
unemarginated portion externally bordered with pale grey ; tail grey- 
ish-dusky ; frontal feathers to above the eyes margined with white, the 
lores blackish, and the entire under-parts slightly embrowned deep ash- 
colour, as far as the vent, which is pale and tinged with ferruginous, 
the under tail-coverts being deeper ferruginous, and the hind portion 
of the flanks dark ferruginous : bill blackish ; and feet pale, having pro- 
bably been tinged with yellow. From Darjeeling. 

" The species of this genus," remarked Mr. Yarrell not long ago, " are 
very limited in number, only five, I believe, being at present known. 
Two are figured in this work [' History of British Birds,'] as belonging 

582 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

to England [one of these, however, being there only known as an exces- 
sively rare straggler] ; two others are found in the north and east of 
Europe* ; and a fifth has been received from the Himalaya mountains. 
M. Temminck includes A. alpinvs in his catalogue of the birds of 
Japan." The discovery of four Himalayan species, all different from 
those of Europe, is accordingly no small accession to the known spe- 
cies of the present group ; and it is likely that the mountain ranges of 
Central Asia will be found to yield several more. 

, Locustella .rubescens, nobis. Without having a specimen of the 
British L. Rail for comparison, I sufficiently well remember that 
bird (of which I have shot many) to be enabled to state that the pre- 
sent one is a true Locustelle, having merely a rather shorter tail, and 
the legs (I think) are somewhat stouter than in its British congener. 
The general characters, however, are quite the same. Length six inches, 
by seven and three-quarters in spread of wing ; the closed wing two 
inches and a half ; and tail two inches, its outermost feathers half an 
inch less ; bill to gape three-quarters of an inch, and tarse seven- 
eighths. Irides dark hazel. Bill dusky horn, pale at base of lower 
mandible ; and legs light brown. Colour of the back ruddy-brown, 
with black centres to feathers ; of the crown dusky, with olivace- 
ous lateral margins to each feather ; sides of neck plain olivaceous, 
as are also those of the breast ; throat and belly white, the front of 
the neck tinged with fulvescent-brown, which is likewise the hue of the 
flanks ; lower tail-coverts fulvescent-brown, the longer of them darker 
with whitish tips ; rump and tail dark ruddy-brown, all but the mid- 
dle feathers of the latter slightly tipped with grey, with traces of 
barred markings of the same underneath ; wings dusky, the coverts 
margined with olivaceous, and the large alars with ruddy-brown ; tips 
of the tertiaries a little albescent ; a narrow whitish line from bill 
to occiput, and slight medial dusky lines on the hindmost feathers 
of the flanks. A single specimen of this bird was shot in the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta, in the month of March. On dissection, the 
muscles of its legs were observed to be very thick, with stiff rigid 
tendons, as in the British Locustelle. 

* Surely that of northern Europe here alluded to, is not the so-called A. calliope 
of M. Temminck, v. Calliope camtschatkensis, (Lath.)?: a bird common in Low- 
er Bengal during the cold season, but certainly having no particular affinity for 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 583 

Tribura luteovenlris, Hodgson. Nearly allied in form to the pre- 
ceding, but the tail much more graduated (as in Locustella Rati), and 
the bill rather more compressed, with the ridge of the upper mandible 
more decidedly raised and acute towards its base. I suspect that it 
pertains to the division Pseudoluscinia, Bonap. Length about five 
inches and a half, of which the middle tail-feathers measure two and a 
half, the outermost being an inch shorter ; wing two inches ; bill 
to gape nine-sixteenths of an inch, the latter quite smooth (as in 
Locustella) ; tarse three-quarters of an inch ; claws fine, and but 
moderately curved, the hind-claw measuring half an inch. Upper 
parts uniform olive-brown ; the lower paler, except the flanks, which 
are also a little rufescent ; throat aud middle of the breast and belly 
inclining to whitish ; bill dark horn-coloured above, and pale below ; 
and legs light brown. Inhabits the Kachar region of Nepal. 

Mr. Hodgson gives the following generic characters of his Tribura. 
" Bill equal to the head (measured to gape), straight, compressed, at 
base high as broad, with the ridge raised and keeled between the oval 
nares : tip of upper mandible very slightly inclined, but distinctly 
(though minutely) notched : rictus quite smooth. Wings short and 
rounded, the two first quills conspicuously and equally gradated, the 
three next subequal and longest. Tail somewhat elongated and gra- 
dated equally throughout, rather cuneated than fan-shaped. Tarse 
medial, stout [or rather, of moderate strength], smooth, longer than 
the middle toe and nail : toes and nails slender and simple, compressed 
and elongate ; inner lateral with its nail exceeding the outer ; the hind 
toe least, and not broad. Feet of terrene model/' — being much as in 
the British Locustelle, which bird 1 have seen on the ground, among 
furze bushes, I think with an ambulatory gait. 

Dumeticola, nobis, n. g. A specimen sent by Mr. Hodgson with the 
MS. name Salicaria affinis, would fall under M. Temminck's division 
of Bee-fins aquatiques, but would scarcely have been referred by Mr. 
Selby to his Salicaria (now dismembered, and its component species 
assigned to previously established divisions). Nearly allied to the 
last species, it departs further from the Salicaria model, and approaches 
more to that of Prinia, and especially of Horeites (hereinafter describ- 
ed) : having comparatively full and puffy plumage, and a less cuneated 
tail, inasmuch as the three middle pairs of feathers graduate but 
slightly ; the first primary is also rather shorter, and the second rather 

4 K 

584 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

longer, than in Tribura (v. Pseudoluscinia ?) luteoventris. The bill 
is shaped somewhat as in Cinclus, but is proportionately shorter, 
with the peculiarities of that form less developed ; the nareal apertures 
are quite basal ; and the gape smooth, as in the preceding : feet also 
similar, but the claws slightly longer and straighter. 

D. thoracica, nobis. Length five inches, of which the tail measures 
two inches, its outermost feathers seven-eighths of an inch less ; wing 
two and one- sixteenth ; bill to frontal feathers three-eighths of an 
inch, and to gape above half an inch ; tarse three-quarters, and hind 
claw five-sixths of an inch. Upper-parts dark olive-brown, with a 
faint ruddy tinge on the lower part of the back ; throat and above the 
lores white, passing into ashy on the breast, which, with the fore-neck, 
is marked with largish round dusky spots ; lower portion and sides of 
the breast plain brownish-ashy, the medial portion of the belly white, 
and the flanks fulvescent-brown ; under tail-coverts dark olive-brown, 
with whitish tips : bill dusky, and legs and claws pale. Inhabits Nepal. 

Horornis, Hodgson, is placed by that naturalist as a subgenus of his 
Tribura f Pseudoluscinia ? Bonap.), having "the bill feebler, and the 
tarse sometimes distinctly scutellated : wings and tail as in Nivicola" 
(note to p. 585). — I have a hasty note of the second species below de- 
scribed, (from a specimen taken to England by Mr. Hodgson,) as being 
11 intermediate to Prinia and Tesia, having the bill slender and com- 
pressed, much as in Locustella, with the rictorial hairs scarcely percep- 
tible ; tail rather short, and much graduated ; wings the same, the first 
quill but half the length of the second, the fourth and fifth equal and 
longest, a little exceeding the third and sixth." 

B.flaviventris, Hodgson. ( Non vidi.J "Above olive-green, below 
pale yellow ; chin and line over eye albescent ; legs fleshy ; bill 
dusky-brown. Length four inches and three-eighths ; bill half an inch ; 
tail an inch and five-eighths ; wing under two inches ; tarse thirteen- 
sixteenths ; central toe and nail eleven-sixteenths ; hind nine-sixteenths. 
Hab. the Cachar, or juxta- Himalayan region of the hills." 

H. fortipes, Hodgson. " Bill slender, with notch and inclination 
distinct ; rictal hairs distinct. Tail broad, soft, fan-shaped. Legs 
strong, and frequently smooth. Wing as in Tribura, more or less 
pointed, and not absolutely rounded as in Horeites. Above olive- 
brown ; below white : the flanks, vent, and eye-brows, yellowish. 
Legs and bill fleshy-white ; the bill more sordid. Length four inches 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 585 

and five eighths ; bill half an inch ; tail under two inches ; wing two 
and one-sixteenth ; tarse above fifteen-sixteenths ; central toe and nail 
eleven-sixteenths ; hind nine-sixteenths. Hab. the Cachar." Hodgson's 

MSS . The following description was taken by myself from the 

specimen before alluded to. Length about four inches and a quarter, 
of wing two inches, and tail an inch and a half, its outermost feather 
half an inch shorter : bill to gape five-eighths of an inch ; and tarse 
three-quarters of an inch. Colour uniform dark olive-brown 'above, 
below pale ochraceous-brown, approaching to albescent ; flanks and 
lower tail-coverts dark brown, the latter margined paler ; bill dusky 
above, below paler ; legs also pale. 

Horeites, Hodgson. " Bill shorter than head, quite straight, usually 
distinctly notching ; nares covered with a scale. Wing as in Prinia. 
Tarse high, as in Prinia, but the toes less repent, ambulant in fact, 
with the laterals equal and freer, and the central longer ; nails slen- 
der and Sylvian, not Parian as in Orthotomus. Tail short [or 
rather, I should say, of moderate length], narrow QI should rather 
term it somewhat broad], rounded as in Orthotomus, but without 
the Merops- like elongation of the centrals." Hodgson's MSS. — Ac- 
cording to my ideas, these birds approach a good deal to the genus 
Tesia, particularly to T. flaviventris ; but have a more slender bill, 
a well developed, cuneiform, broad and soft, tail the feathers of which 
are much graduated, and the general character tends distinctly to- 
wards Pseudoluscinia and its allies. Mr. Hodgson describes two 
alleged species, " exclusively confined to the northern region of the 
hills, near the snows." 

H. brunnifrons, Hodgson. " Above olive-brown, [slightly] redder 
on wings and tail; cap red-brown. Below sordid white [[pale ashy], 
pure centrally. [Bill dusky above, pale beneath ; and the legs pale.] 
Length four inches ; bill half an inch ; tail an inch and five-eighths ; 
wing the same [varying from this to nearly two inches] ; tarse three- 
quarters ; central toe and nail five-eighths ; hind seven-sixteenths." 

H. pollicaris, Hodgson. " Above dark olive, below and the eye- 
brow yellowish. Legs and bill fleshy-grey. Length three inches and 
a half; bill seven- sixteenths ; tail an inch and five-eighths; wing the 
same ; tarse thirteen-sixteenths ; central toe and nail five-eighths ; 
hind half an inch. Has a slender, Begultts-Wke, bill, and very short, 
extremely rounded, wings. Its tarse is remarkably elevate, and scutellate 

586 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

to the front, and its toes are compressed and ambulant, but with a 
remarkably large thumb for such a foot." From a specimen taken to 
England by Mr. Hodgson, I took the following note. — " Probably 
only the young of H. brunnifrons, from the adults of which it differs 
in the colour of the head being uniform with that of the back, and the 
under-parts less albescent and devoid of any ashy tinge, being slightly 
washed with yellowish. " These birds constitute a nivicolan or 
northern hill group, representing the Prinice of the plains of India." 
Hodgson's MSS.* 

Tesia, Hodgson (February, 1837) : Microura, Gould (August, 
1837). Of this curious genus, the following species may now be enu- 

1. T. cyaniventer, Hodgson, J. A. S. y VI., 101 : Saxicola? olivea, 
McClelland and Horsfield, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 161. Bright olive-green 
above, slaty below. Nepal, Darjeeling, Assam. 

2. T. castaneo'coronata, (Burton), P Z. S. 1835, p. 152: T. 
flaviventer, Hodgson, 1837. Bright olive-green above, vivid yellow 
below, with the crown and ear- coverts a lively reddish-chesnut. 

3. T. squamata, (Gould), Icones Avium : var. A, T. rvfiventer, 
Hodgson, J. A. S. VI, 102; Var. B, T. albiventer, Hodgson, ibid.; 
Var. C, T. concolor, Hodgson, MS. I believe these to be all different 
phases of plumage of the same species, and therefore venture upon 

* The following, to judge from specimens presented to the Society by Mr. Hodgson, 
so far from being generically different, appears to me to be identical in species with 
Horeites brunnifrons, presenting at most but an individual diversity, such as may 
commonly be seen in different specimens of Prinia inornata, or Cysticola cursitans, 
shot out of the same little society ; but 1 nevertheless give Mr. Hodgson's diagnosis, 
as follows : — 

Nivicola, Hodgson, " Bill still shorter, feebler, Regulus-MkeyV/hh the notch 
evanescent: wings and tail broader, firmer, ampler than in any of the above: tail 
fan-like. Wings not absolutely round; the fifth quill longest ; the two first nearly, 
the next little, and both inter se equally, gradated. Tarse medial : toes simple, 
ambulant. Habitat the Cachar, near the snows. 

" N. schistilata, H. Above olive-brown, below white, and laterally pale slaty-blue. 
Legs fleshy, bill pale. Cap on crown brunnescent. Coloured very like our Horeites 
brunnifrons, but decidedly different in structure, with longer wings, broader and 
firmer tail, and more ambulant feet, of which the central digit is long, the laterals 
equal and nearly free, and the hind least and compressed. Length four inches and a 
quarter; bill half an inch; tail two and one-sixteenth; wing one and fifteen- 
sixteenths; central toe and nail ten-sixteenths; hind half an inch, or less." Hodgson's 
MSS. p , 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 587 

adopting the specific name bestowed by Mr. Gould, in preference to 
either of those given by Mr. Hodgson, as being alone applicable to the 
species generally. However stringently rules may be drawn up, such 
as the very excellent " Series of Propositions for rendering the Nomen- 
clature of Zoology uniform and permanent," adopted as the Report of 
a Committee appointed by the ' British Association' for the consider- " 
ation of this subject, cases will still arise, now and then, in which a 
naturalist must rely upon his own judgment, and indeed the present 
one may be brought under § 1 1 of the " Propositions," by which " a 
name may be changed when it implies a false proposition which is 
likely to propagate important errors." For a precedent, I cite the 
Neomorpha Gouldii of Mr. G. R. Gray, it having been ascertained 
that the N. acutirostris and N. crassirostris of Gould were merely the 
different sexes of the same bird. At the same time, I most fully con- 
cur in the remark, that " this privilege is very liable to abuse, and 
ought therefore to be applied only in extreme cases, and with great 
caution." In the present instance, it may be justly urged in favour of 
Mr. Gould's specific name, that the bird having been figured by that 
naturalist as Microura squamata, it is already better known by that 
denomination than by any other, and that the proposed alteration, so 
far from being likely to induce confusion, is, on the contrary, calculated 
to remove a source of error, such as would result from the exclusive 
adoption of either of Mr. Hodgson's appellations to the species in all 
its phases. I might even have hesitated in proposing an entirely 
new name for the bird in question ; but that given by Mr. Gould 
has not only already obtained currency, but was besides very nearly 
contemporaneous with the partially applicable ones bestowed by Mr. 
Hodgson. Certainly, the characters and dimensions of the three 
alleged species correspond exactly ; and it will be seen that Mr. 
Gould's second figure represents a specimen just midway between 
T. albiventer and T. rvfiventer, while an example presented to the 
Society by Mr. Hodgson of his T. concolor, is of a uniform brown 
colour all over, with a slight ashy shade on the under parts; but 
retains two or three white-margined feathers on the breast resembling 
those of ordinary albiventer, with which it quite accords in all other 
particulars, and is decidedly of the same species. A second specimen 
is plain brown above, with white throat, and white margins to the 
feathers of the breast and belly, decreasing on those of the flanks. A 

588 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

third has pale terminal specks on the feathers of the upper parts, 
larger and elongated on those of the head, and the white of the under- 
pays much as in the last, but rather more developed. This variation 
of plumage is instructive, and a knowledge of it may prevent a mul- 
tiplication of factitious species. Inhabits Nepal, and Darjeeling. 

4. T. pusilla, Hodgson, n. s. Size and proportions of the next, but 
the bill rather longer, and the tail barely exceeding half an inch. In 
general aspect it much resembles the rufiventer variety of the last. 
Upper parts dark brown, the wing-coverts having terminal pale dots : 
lores and under parts of a light wood-brown, the feathers slightly mar- 
gined with black ; those of the flanks chiefly dark, with brown mar- 
gins, and the extreme edge black, like the rest. Bill dusky above, 
and legs horn-brown. Inhabits Nepal. 

5. T. caudata, nobis. Length three inches and five-eighths, of 
which the tail measures an inch, being considerably more developed 
than in the other species of analogous tone of colouring ; wing an inch 
and three-quarters ; bill to forehead seven-sixteenths, and tarse eleven- 
sixteenths. Upper parts dark and rich olive-brown, the feathers very 
slightly margined with black, and having also black shafts ; throat 
ferruginous, paling on the breast, where the feathers have black centres 
and are further tipped with black ; the belly similarly marked with 
dusky-black and white : wings uniform dark reddish-brown ; and tail 
inclining to the same, being also very soft and flexible : lores and 
orbital region ash-grey : bill blackish ; and legs brown. From Darjeeling. 

To these may be added the Troglodytes microurus of Ruppell, which 
shews the form to be likewise African. 

Mr. Hodgson proposes to restrict Tesia to T. cyaniventer and T. 
Jlaviventer, and applies a new name to the others, which, however, if 
deemed separable, would rank under Microura of Gould : unless, in- 
deed, the latter be pre-occupied, in which case the name Pnoepyga, 
Hodgson, would be admissible. The two species cited have a more 
developed tail ; but so has my T. caudata, which nevertheless decidedly 
belongs to the Microura section ; and Mr. Hodgson further points out 
that T. cyaniventer has the bill flatter at base, while in T. Jlaviventer 
the nareal scale, conspicuous in the others, is barely traceable : neverthe- 
less, I do not see that they can be justifiably separated. According to 
the same naturalist, " these singular birds are solely mountaineers, 
dwelling in humid retired woods, where under-cover abounds. They 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 589 

are solitary and silent ; and they breed and nestle on the ground, and 
feed on insects and small seeds. Stomach a perfect gizzard."* 

Troglodytes nipalensis, Hodgson. Differs from the European Wren 
in its much darker colouring, in having the back a great deal more 
barred, the under- parts throughout distinctly barred, and more closely 
so than the upper- parts, and the bill somewhat shorter and a little more 
widened at base. Length of wing an inch and seven-eighths. Nepal. 

T. punctatus, nobis. Size of the European species : the bill shorter, 
and vertically much deeper. Length of wing an inch and three-quar- 
ters, and of tail an inch and a quarter. Upper parts fuscous-brown, 
with a pale speck at the extremity of each feather, some of these specks 
being white or nearly so ; tail barred as in the European Wren, but 
the feathers softer and more graduated ; tertiaries comparatively broad, 
their ground-colour a dark mahogany, as is likewise the colour 
of the bars on the outer webs of the primaries. Under-parts 
delicately mottled, a good deal in the manner of the scapularies of a 
Wryneck ( Yunx torquiltaj, but the pale spots much more numerous 
on the breast, and nearly obsolete on the belly, which last has a ful- 
vous tinge. Bill dark horny ; and the legs appear to have been pale. 
Inhabits Darjeeling. 

Orthotomus cineraceus, nobis. This nearly approaches the Orth. 
edela, f Tern., v. Edela ruficeps of Lesson, and Motacilla septum of 
Raffles, nee Orth. sepium, Horsf., vide J. A. S. XIII, 378j, except 
that the upper- parts are pure ash-grey, without any tinge of green, 
whereas in Orth. edela, according to Raffles, the '.' back, wings, and 
tail," are "dusky green." The forehead and sides of the head are 
light ferruginous, palest on the cheeks, and there is a slight tinge of 
the same upon the chin ; crown tinged with olive-brown ; lower parts 
white, passing to light ashy on the sides of the breast ; tail somewhat 
brownish, with terminal dusky band, and whitish extreme tips to its 

* There is an allied (or rather, analogous,) South American form, which, I understand, 
is the Leptorhynchus of Menetries, but which name is pre-occupied ; and the following 
species of it appears to be undescribed, in which case it may bear the specific name sub- 
luteoventris .. Length two inches and seven-eighths; of wing one and five-eighths; tail 
five-eighths: bill to gape nearly five-eighths ; and tarse the same, being with the toes 
much smaller than in Tesia. Upper-parts black, the feathers laterally margined 
with light brownish-yellow; lower-parts clear yellowish-white, whitish on the throat : 
a dark line from base of lower mandible ; and central dark lines to the feathers of the 
sides of the neck, and of the fore-part of the breast. Bill dusky above, pale beneath ; 
and legs albescent-plumbeous. Probably from Guiana. 

590 N otices and Descriptions of various new [No. 1G4. 

outer feathers ; tibial plumes rust-coloured, the tarsi and toes red- 
brown, and bill dusky above, the lower mandible pale. The middle 
tail-feathers are not elongated in the only specimen under examina- 
tion. Length about four inches and a half, the wing an inch and thir- 
teen-sixteenths, and tail one and five-eighths ; bill to gape three-quar- 
ters of an inch, and tarse five-eighths. Common at Malacca. 

Prinia, Horsfield. Of this genus, I have no species to describe 
additional to those noticed in Vol. XIII, p. 376, but may remark that 
Mr. Jerdon considers that two or three are at present confounded 
under Pr. inornata : considerable variation, however, certainly obtains 
in individuals shot out of the same flock ; and it may be noted that 
this bird extends its range into Arracan. Pr, Franklinii, nobis, (v. 
macroura, Franklin, nee Latham), being the Sylvia longicaudata of 
Tickell, J. A. S. II, 576, will now bear that as its specific name : 
and Pr. cursitans, Franklin, as I am informed by Mr. Strickland, " is 
decidedly congeneric with the European Cisticola schcenicola, but dif- 
fers in being more rufous, &c. I have compared them," he adds, and it 
may be further noticed that the cursitans is common in Lower Bengal.* 

Neornis, Hodgson. This name was applied by Mr. Hodgson to my 
Culicipeta (J. A. S. XII, 968 J, but he has since referred to it two 
alleged species as aberrant representatives of the form, which appear 
to me to have an obvious claim to typify a distinct genus, in deno- 
mination of which I propose that the above name should be retained. 
General form of Prinia^ but with the bill and the colouring of Phyllos- 
copus, and long hair-like rictal setce. 

N. Jlavo/ivacea, Hodgson. " Above olive-green ; below and the eye- 
brow, luteous-yellow [dull pale yellowish]. Length five inches ; bill 
half an inch ; tail two inches and three-eighths ; wing two and five- 
sixteenths ; tarse five-sixteenths ; central toe and nail five-eighths ; hind 
nine-sixteenths." Hodgson's MSS. Bill dusky, base of lower mandible 
pale ; legs brown, the tarse pale externally. Nepal. 

N. cacharensis, Hodgson. " Above luteous-olive ; below buff; eye- 
brow pale. Length four inches and three-quarters; bill nine- six- 
teenths ; wing two inches : tarse seven-eighths ; central toe and nail 

* Since the above was written, I have seen three specimens of Pr. socialis from 
Agra, which, though similar in plumage, are smaller than one sent by Mr. Jerdon 
from S. India, and have the bill considerably smaller. — A species very closely allied 
to (if indeed different from) Pr. sylvatica, Jerdon, has also been received from Java. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 591 

five-eighths ; hind half an inch." Ibid. N. B. I greatly suspect that 
this is merely the young of the preceding, from comparing a specimen 
sent by Mr. Hodgson of the latter, with a description I took of the 
former from a specimen which that naturalist took with him to 

The Prinia olivacea and Pr. icterica, Strickland, P, Z. S., June, 
1844, are two species from Fernando Po, which are probably referable 
to this type. 

PhylloscopuSy Boie. This genus is greatly developed in India, and 
the species may be ranged into three sections. 

Firstly, those immediately allied to Ph. trochilus, &c. of Europe, of 
which I have already described six, as occurring in the vicinity of Cal- 
cutta during the cold season. These are, — 1. Ph. fuscatus, nobis, J. A. 
S. XI, 113. Of this I have now obtained several specimens, and one or 
two have been forwarded from Arracan, — 2. Ph. javanicus, ( ? Horsf.) ; 
Ph. magnirostris, nobis, J. A. S. XII, 966. Rare in the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta, and occurs likewise in Arracan, — 3. Ph. lugubris, 
nobis, XII, 968. Common, and also occurs in Southern India, — 
4. Ph. viridanus, nobis, XII, 967. Very common, and abundant also 
in the Himalaya and in Arracan, — 5. Ph. tristis, nobis, XII, 966. 
Common in swampy places, wherever there is jungle ; and diffused 
generally over India,* — 6. Ph. niiidus, nobis, XII, 965. India gene- 
rally. To these may now be added — 

7. Ph. brunneus, nobis. Length about four inches, of wing two and 
three-sixteenths, and tail one and three-quarters ; bill to gape exceed- 
ing half an inch, and tarse three-quarters. A plain brown species, 
distinguishable from Ph. tristis by the more cinerascent shade of its 
upper parts, by the absence of any yellow on the axillaries and beneath 
the shoulder of the wing, which is replaced by faint rufous, by the 
pale colour of the lower mandible and of the legs, and by the shape of its 
tail, of which the outermost feathers are a quarter of an inch shorter 
than the middle ones ; lower parts brownish-albescent. From Arracan, 
where procured by Captain Phayre. 

8. Ph. affinis, (Tickell), J. A. S. II, 576 : Sylvia indica, Jerdon. 
Indian peninsula. (Non vidi, and the identification of these is due to 
Mr. Jerdon.) 

* I also found this species in great abundance in a mango tope near Hooghly, where 
there was no marshy ground in the immediate vicinity. 

4 L 

592 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

There are others in the Himalaya, which I formerly considered 
identical with Ph. trochilus and Ph. rufa of Europe; but I had no 
specimens of the latter to compare them with. Ph. trochilus is stated 
by Mr. Gould to have been received from Western India, and by 
M. Temminck from Japan ; and Ph. sibilatrix is enumerated in 
Dr. Royle's list, but the allied Ph, nitidus may have been mistaken for 
it. The species of this genus require very minute examination. 

Mr. Hodgson separates those which have a pale coronal mesial line, 
and, in some instances only, rather a thicker bill, approaching in form to 
that of Phyllopneuste, by the same Abrornis. I can only regard them 
as forming a slight section of the genus : and the next might form an 
analogous third section. 

Ph. schisticeps, (Hodgson). Resembles Culieipeta Burkii (J. A. S. 
XII, 968, v. Muscicapa bilineata, Lesson, v. Cryptolopha auricapilla, 
Swainson,) in colouring, except that the head and nape are uniform 
deep ash-grey ; having the rest of the upper-parts bright yellowish- 
green, the entire under-parts deep yellow, and the two outer tail-fea- 
thers white on their inner web : the bill, however, is not depressed, as in 
the Culieipeta, but is thicker than usual (approaching in this respect to 
Phyllopneuste), and comparatively short : the claws also are shorter, 
stronger, and more hooked, than in Culieipeta, better adapted for clinging, 
as in other Phylloscopi. Length about four inches and a quarter, of wing 
two inches to two and one-eighth, and of tail an inch and five-eighths ; 
bill to gape half an inch ; and tarse five-eighths : colour of bill blackish 
above, yellow below ; and of feet yellowish. The young have looser 
plumage, and all the colours less intense. Inhabits the Himalaya, and 
the mountainous parts of Arracan. 

Of the species with pale mesial coronal streak, I have already de- 
scribed Ph. reguloides, J. A. S. XI, 191, and XII, 963,— and Ph. 
modestus, (Gould), ibid., — both of which occur likewise in the Hima- 
laya and in Southern India, and the latter in Arracan. To these may 
now be added — 

Ph. pulcher, (Hodgson). Allied to Ph. modestus, but larger, and 
distinguished by having the three outer tail-feathers wholly white, 
with the exception of the terminal half of their outer webs, together 
with the tip of the inner web of the ante-penultimate, and slightly of 
the penultimate feathers. Colour of the upper- parts dark olive-green, 
with a rufous cast, and two pale rufescent bars across the wings; 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 593 

beneath dingy pale green ; a light streak over the eye, and trace of 
another upon the centre of the crown. Bill dark above, and pale 
beneath ; the feet brown. Length about four inches and one-eighth, 
of which the tail measures an inch and five-eighths ; wing two and 
three-eighths, the space between the tips of the first and second pri- 
maries three-quarters of an inch : bill to gape half an inch ; and tarse 
nearly three-quarters. Inhabits Nepal. 

Abrornis castaniceps, Hodgson. " Above vernal-green : belly, vent, 
and croup, deep yellow. Chin to belly white, passing laterally to soft 
plumbeous. Top of head chesnut, bounded by black to sides. Legs 
and bill pale. Length four inches ; bill three- eighths ; tail an inch 
and five-eighths ; wing one and fifteen-sixteenths ; tarse three-quarters ; 
central toe and nail seven-sixteenths ; hind five-sixteenths of an inch." 
Nepal. (Nonvidi) 

Phyllopneuste, Meyer, 1822: Ficedula, Koch, 1811. The latter 
term, though having the priority, is objectionable as conveying the 
idea that these birds are fruit-eaters, like the Fauvettes, which deci- 
dedly is not the case. 

Ph. indicus, nobis. Nearly allied to the European Ph. hippolais> 
termed Hippolais salicaria by the Prince of Canino, and Sylvia po- 
lyglotta by Vieillot. Length about five inches and a half, or nearly 
so ; of wing two and five-eighths to two and three-quarters, its first 
primary measuring three-quarters of an inch, and the second an inch 
and one-eighth more, and reaching to within three-eighths of an inch 
of the extremity of the wing ; tail two inches and a quarter ; bill to 
gape five-eighths ; and tarse three-quarters of an inch. Colour dark 
olive-green above, a little infuscated, especially upon the crown, with 
a well defined dull pale yellow supercilium ; breast tinged with ashy, 
mingled with dull pale yellowish, the rest of the under-parts dull 
yellowish-albescent ; a slight band on the wing formed by the pale 
yellowish tips of some of the greater coverts : bill dusky above, and in 
part below, the rest yellowish, with conspicuous hair-like rictal setae ; 
and the legs appear to have been pale leaden. Sent from Nepal by 
Mr. Hodgson, and from Southern India by Mr. Jerdon. 

2. Ph. occipitalis, Jerdon. Smaller and paler, with a light yellow- 
ish mark on the middle of the occiput, flanked on either side with 
blackish, and then with pale yellowish-green, continued as a superci- 
liary streak from the bill ; the first of these markings corresponding 

594 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

with the termination of the coronal streaks of Culicipeta Burkii, of 
Phylloscopus reguloides, and of certain other species of the latter genus. 
Colour ashy-green, purer green on the wings and rump; a slight 
whitish cross-band on the wing, formed by the tips of the greater coverts ; 
lower-parts dull albescent throughout; shoulders of the wings infe- 
riorly, with the axillaries, yellow : bill duskyish above, pale yellow be- 
low ; and legs yellowish-brown. Length four inches and three-quar- 
ters, of which the tail is an inch and seven- eighths ; wing two inches 
and three-quarters ; bill to gape five-eighths ; tarse eleven-sixteenths. 
Southern India, where discovered by Mr. Jerdon. 

3. Ph. rama, (Sykes), P. Z. S. 1832, p. 89. Common in Southern 

Caiamoherpe, Boie (1822). Three species of this genus are com- 
mon in Bengal, and it would seem over India generally ; visiting the 
plains, however, only during the cold season. 

1. C. arundinacea, (? Lin.)f : Sylvia turdoides, Tern.; Agrobates 
brunnescens, Jerdon. This bird requires, however, to be actually 
compared with European specimens. Length of a female seven inches 
and three-quarters, by ten and a half in expanse; wing three and five- 
eighths ; tail three and three-eighths ; bill to gape an inch and one- 
sixteenth ; and tarse one and one-eighth. 

2. C. montana, (Horsfield). Very common, and comes a good 
deal into gardens, frequenting pea-rows and the like. In wilder 
marshy districts, such as the swampy thickets in the vicinity of the 
salt-water lake near Calcutta, not one is to be met with, while both 
the other species abound ; and the next is rarely seen in the haunts 
of C. montana. Prinia flaviventris and Phylloscopus tristis frequent the 
same places as C. agricola, but keep more to the higher jungle where 
there happens to be any ; and I have observed no other Phylloscopus or 
Prinia in the localities proper to those above mentioned. C. montana 
measures five inches and three-quarters, by seven and a quarter ; wing 

* I have just been looking over the series of these birds with Lord Arthur Hay, and 
it is his lordship's opinion that nitidus should be referred to Phyllopneuste, (in which 
case I believe that the British sibilalrix should accompany it,) and that reguloides and 
pulcher should rank in Culicipeta; which, L think, would certainly bring schisticeps 
into the same division. His lordship does not quite agree with me in referring modes- 
tus to Phylloscopus, but I cannot bring myself to accede to placing this last bird as a 

t Prof. Behn assures me, that this is certainly distinct from Turdus arundinaceus, 
Lin., of Europe ; in which case it must stand as C. brunnescens, (Jerdon). 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 595 

two inches and a quarter to two and three-eighths ; tail two and a 
quarter : bill to gape three-quarters ; and tarse seven-eighths of an 
inch. As compared with the British C. salicaria, (Sylvia arundinacea, 
apud Temminck,) the tinge of the upper-parts, breast and flanks, is 
much less brown, and the beak is less compressed, although vertically 
deeper. The next species has a nearer affinity for the British bird, 
both in form and colouring ; but is smaller, with a distinctly smaller bill, 
and the supercilium is carried backward beyond the eye, which is not 
the case in C. salicaria. 

3. C. agricola, Jerdon. Less than the preceding, with a propor- 
tionally smaller bill, and more rufous colouring. Length four inches 
and a half, by six and seven-eighths ; wing two and a quarter ; tail 
the same ; bill to gape five-eighths ; and tarse seven-eighths. A 
specimen procured at Cabool by the late Sir Alexander Burnes 
agrees perfectly with others obtained near Calcutta and in Southern 

Arundinax, nobis. This genus was first detected by Mr. Jerdon, 
among a number of specimens of Calamoherpe arundinacea (?), which 
the only species as yet ascertained a good deal resembles, on a superficial 
view. Several specimens were soon after procured by myself in the 
vicinity of Calcutta ; and Captain Abbott also sent it from Ramree, 
Arracan. Its true affinity, however, is with Sphenura and its allies, 
and not with the preceding group. The bill is somewhat more pro- 
duced and tapering, slenderer and less laterally compressed, than in 
Sphenura, with barely discernible emargination of the upper mandible, 
and the rictal bristles are smaller and more slightly curved ; rest as in 
Sphenura, but the tail-feathers narrow and much graduated. 

Ar. olivaceus, nobis. General aspect of Calamoherpe arundinacea (? ), 
but at once distinguished by its shorter and thicker bill, and much 
more graduated tail-feathers. Length eight inches, of which the mid- 
dle tail-feathers measure three and three-quarters, the outermost an 
inch less ; wing three and one-eighth ; and tarse an inch. Colour uni- 
form olive-brown above, a little rufescent towards the tail ; throat 
whitish, and the rest of the under-parts tinged with fulvous- brown ; 
lores also pale : bill dark brown, the lower mandible pale carneous ; 
and legs plumbeous. My impression is, that the sexes are equal in 
size, as are all the specimens before me, — unlike the sexes of Sphenura 
and Megalurus ; but I have omitted to note down the fact. 

596 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

Gampsorhynchus rufulus, nobis, J. A. S. XIII, 371. Four speci- 
mens of this curious bird are now before me, of which two are from 
Darjeeling, and the others from the mountains of Arracan : and it is 
remarkable that all of these appear to be partially affected with albinism. 
All four resemble in having the under-parts vivid white, with a tinge of 
ferruginous on the flanks; and the upper are bright olive-brown in- 
clining to ferruginous, the tail-feathers tipped paler: all, too, have more 
or less white on the shoulder of the wing, though reduced to a single 
feather upon one wing only, of one of them, while another has about 
half an inch of the shoulder of each wing white, and the rest shew a 
greater or less admixture of white on the same part: but the crown 
varies most remarkably, being either pure white or bright ferruginous, 
or the two variously intermixed, and without either depending on age 
or season, as new feathers may be seen growing of both. In its affini- 
ties, this genus exhibits a very close approach to Sphenura, more so 
than I had recognised upon the examination of the first specimen only ; 
but the more developed bill, and distinctly notched and hooked upper 
mandible, with the diminished curvature of the rictal bristles, which 
however are equally rigid, and longer and more tapering, fully autho- 
rise its separation from the form of Sphenura striata, though it is 
likely enough that species will eventually be found to connect them 
by intermediate links. 

We have accordingly now the following Indian genera of this 
group: — Sphenura, Licht. (v. Dasyornis, Vig. and Horsf.) ; — Gamp- 
sorhynchus, nobis ; — Arundinax, nobis ; — Laticilla, nobis (olim Eury- 
cercus, J. A. S. XIII, 374, which name cannot be retained, as it was 
previously applied to a genus of Entomostraca by Dr. W. Baird, in the 
An. and Mag. Nat. Hist, February, 1843, p. 88); — and Schcenicola, 
nobis, XIII, 374: all these being distinct from the extra-Indian (so 
far as at present ascertained) Sphenceacus, Strickland, which again is 
closely allied* : so also is Megalurus, Horsf. (vide XIII, 372) ; and we 

* U le Fluteur of Levaillant, which is the type of Mr. Strickland's Sphenceacus, 
be correctly figured by Mr. Swainson (who terms it Malurus africanus) , it would 
have a much thicker bill than Sph. gramineus, Gould, figured in the " Birds of Aus- 
tralia," so much so that the two could scarcely range together in the same minimum 
group, though in other respects they would seem to resemble very closely. The Cm- 
clorhamphus cruralis of Gould, founded on the Megalurus cruralis, Vig. and Horsf., 
is a^form nearly allied to true Megalurus, and like the latter and also Sphenura, the 
female is very much smaller than the male, this disparity being even greater than in 
its Indian affines. I have never had an opportunity of observing the habits of Mega- 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 597 

have the Malacocercus caudatus, (Dumeril, v. Timalia chatarrhaa, 
Franklin, and Megalurus isabellinus, Swainson), and the Suya criniger 
of Hodgson, connecting the present group respectively with the long- 
tailed Malacocerci, and with the Prinice. Indeed, I hardly consider 
Suya to be separable from Prinia. 

The genus Malacocercus treated of in XIII, 367 et seq., has since 
been further developed by Mr. Jerdon, in the second No. of his ' Illus- 
trations of Indian Ornithology'; and this naturalist now considers that 
the species which he formerly referred to Somervillei of Sykes, and 
which I followed him in so doing in XIII, 368, is distinct from Col. 
Sykes's bird ; for which reason he has given it the name malabaricus. 

The proposed genus Orthorhinus, nobis, J. A. S. XIII, 371, 
proves to have been founded on a young example of a new species of 
Pomatorhinus, and must therefore be cancelled : but the species will 
stand as 

Pomatorhinus hypoleucos, nobis. Adults, received from Tipperah 
and Arracan, merely differ from the young before described in the 
firmer texture of their feathers, and in the elongation and curva- 
ture of the beak, as in the other species of the genus to which it 
is now referred : but the beak is less curved and less compressed 
than in the majority of the species, in which respect, as in size and 
colouring, P. erythrogenys makes the nearest approach to it. Colour 
above olive-brown, a little cinerascent on the head, and a rufous 
streak commences behind the eye and expands into a patch on the 
sides of the neck beyond the ear-coverts : lower-parts white, mar- 
gined with ashy on the sides of the breast ; and the flanks wholly 
ashy, with a tinge of brown : wings and tail a little rufescent, the 
lower tail- coverts more deeply so. Bill dusky, with more or less of its 
terminal portion horny-white ; and the legs appear to have been greenish. 
Length ten to eleven inches, of wing four and a quarter, and tail four 
inches ; bill to gape one and three-quarters ; and tarse one and a half. 
P. ferruginosuSy nobis. This beautiful species measures about nine 
inches long, of which the tail is four and a quarter ; wing three and 
a quarter ; bill to forehead an inch to one and one-eighth ; and tarse 
an inch and three- eighths. Colour greenish olive- brown above, the 

lurus palustris, but am informed that it keeps much more to the reeds than seems to 
be the case with Cinclorhamphus australis, though it, in like manner, mounts singing 
into the air. 

598 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

cap black in the male only ; lores and ear-coverts also black in both 
sexes, extending a little along the sides of the neck ; a long white su- 
percilium, tinged with rufous on the sides of the forehead in the male ; 
throat, towards the chin, also white, but the rest of the under-parts 
bright ferruginous, fading on the belly : bill deep coral-red ; and legs 
dusky-brown. It is unusual, if not previously unexampled, for the 
sexes in this genus to present any marked difference of colouring. The 
species inhabits Darjeeling, and the mountains of Arracan. 

Here, then, are two more species of Pomatorhinus, to be added to 
the ten (or eleven) enumerated in J. A. S. XIII, 946. I may remark, 
also, that specimens of P. schisticeps from Tipperah and Arracan have 
the rufous sides considerably brighter than any I have seen from the 
Himalaya, though this difference may, after all, be merely sexual ; and 
that there seem to be two marked varieties of P. erythrogenys, one 
having white under-parts with merely faint traces of darker spots, the 
other with the throat and breast densely mottled with greenish-olive, 
much as in the darker specimens of P. rtificollis, though the latter 
species has always a white throat. 

Genus Garrulax, Lesson. A more satisfactory reduction of the de- 
scribed species of this extensive genus may now be offered, than that 
given in Vol. XII, 948 ; but as there is no occasion for repeating here 
the synonymes which are there brought together, I shall merely put 
the word ante as a reference to them. 

1. G. Belangeri, Lesson, ante. Tenasserim and Pegu. 

2. G. leucolophos, (Gm.) : probably Ianthocincla leucocephala, Gould, 
mentioned in P. Z. S. 1844, p. 92. Himalaya, Assam, Sylhet, and 

3. G. perspicillatus, (Gmelin), ante. China. ( Non vidi.J 

4. G. chinensis, (Scopoli) : G. auritus, fyc, ante. China. 

5. G. albogulariSy (Gould), ante. Himalaya. 

6. G. gularis, (McClelland). Assam. (Non vidi.J 

7. G. Delesserti, (Jerdon), ante. Neilgheries. 

8. G. pectoralis, (Gould): var. G. melanotis, nobis, ante. Hi- 
malaya, Arracan. In the latter province, black-eared and silvery-eared 
individuals occur commonly in the same flock, with every intermediate 
grade ; but I have only seen the silvery-eared variety from the Himalaya. 

9. G. moniliger, (Hodgson). Himalaya, Tipperah, Arracan. 

10. G. McClellandii, nobis, ante. Assam. (Non vidi.J 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 599 

11.6? ccerulatus, (Hodgson). Himalaya : not. rare at Darjeeling. 

12. G. ruficollis, (Jardine and Selby) : G. lunaris, (McClelland), 
ante. Darjeeling, Assam, Sylhet. 

13. G. rufifrons, (Swainson), Menag. p. 290 : G. rubrifrons, Les- 
son. Java. (Non vidi.) 

14. G. ocellatus, (Vigors). Himalaya. 

15. G. rufogularis, (Gould), ante. Himalaya, Sylhet.. 

16. G. squamatus, (Gould), ante. Himalaya. 

17. G. subunicolor, (Hodgson). Young, described in J. A. S. XII, 
note to p. 952, and again in An. and Mag. N. H , May, 1845, p. 
326. The adults are as follow : — Length ten inches, of which the tail 
measures four and a half, its outermost feathers an inch and a half less ; 
of wing three inches and a half; bill to forehead five-eighths, and to 
gape seven-eighths ; tarse an inch and three-eighths. Upper parts as 
in G. squamatus, but slightly greener, the feathers of the crown dashed 
with dusky-cinereous, and but very slightly margined darker ; lores 
blackish ; the ear-coverts and feathers immediately below them a little 
margined with silvery-ash : under-parts nearly resembling those above, 
but the breast and belly paler, with the dark margins to the feathers 
less intense : outer primaries and the emarginated portion of the rest 
narrowly edged with pale ash, the rest broadly with bright yellow, as in 
G. chrysopterus and some others : tail aureous olive-green where seen 
above, the remainder of the feathers blackish with narrow white tips : 
bill dusky, and legs brown. Common at Darjeeling. 

18. G. affinis, (Hodgson). Himalaya. 

19. G. chrysopterus, (Gould). Himalaya. 

20. G. erythrocephalus, (Vigors). Himalaya. 

21. G. variegatus, (Vigors). Himalaya. 

22. G. phceniceus, (Gould), ante : probably erythropferus, Hodgson, 
mentioned in XII, 954, note. Himalaya. 

23. G. cachinnans, (Jerdon), ante. Neilgherries. 

24. G. lineaius, (Vigors) : Cinclosoma setiferum, Hodgson ; proba- 
bly C. striatum of Royle's list. Himalaya, 

25. G. imbricatus, nobis. Bootan. 

Of the above list, twenty of the species are illustrated by mostly 
very fine specimens in the Society's museum : the desiderata are the 
Neilgherry G. Delesserti, the Assamese G. gularis and G. McClel- 

4 M 

600 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 164. 

landii, the Javanese G. ru/ifrons, and the Chinese O. perspicillatus, 
which last Mr. G. R. Gray identifies with G. Belangeri, though I sus- 
pect erroneously. In my former synopsis, are included also a G. Rein- 
wardii and G. capistratus ; but the former has proved to inhabit Sene- 
gal (vide Swainson's ■ Birds of W. Africa', I, 276, Nat. Libr.), and the 
form of this species, which is the type of Crateropus, Sw., would ap- 
pear intermediate to Garrulax v. lanthocincla, and Malacocercus, Sw., 
so that lanthocincla appears to have been erroneously identified by 
Mr. Swainson with his Crateropus, and the two groups are recognised 
separately by Mr. G. R. Gray ;— and the latter species, or G. capis- 
tratus {Cinclosoma capistratum of Vigors,) proves also to be the Sibia 
nigriceps of Hodgson, the Hypsipetes gracilis of McClelland and Hors- 
field, and it is in all probability the Cinclosoma melanocephalum of 
Royle's list ; wherefore it will now range as Sibia capistrata, (Vigors). 

It may here be added, also, that Leiocincla plumosa, nobis, J. A. S. 
XII, 953, is the Actinodura Egertonii of Gould ; and that Cincloso- 
ma ? nipalense, Hodgson, v. Sibia nipalensis, H., though allied to Ac- 
tinodura y will not range therein (as has been suggested), but remain as 
the type of Ixops, Hodgson (XII, 958), connecting Actinodura with 
Sibia. Accordingly, the four supposed species of the latter genus 
enumerated in XII, 958, are now reduced to two, from the ejection of 
the first, and identification of the second and fourth ; nor are the two 
species that remain very closely allied to each other, 

The following is a Crateropodine genus, allied to Pellornium, and 
bearing some vague resemblance to the Malacopteron group. 

Ma/acocinc/a, nobis. Bill as long as the head, rather stout, high, 
much compressed, the tip of the upper mandible pretty strongly hook- 
ed, but indistinctly emarginated, and its ridge obtusely angulated to- 
wards the base, the remainder scarcely angulated ; gape but little 
widened, and feebly bristled ; nostrils large and subovate, with oval 
aperture to the front, a little removed from the base of the bill: tarse 
of mean length and strength, as long as the middle toe with its claw ; 
the claws suited for perching, compressed, and moderately curved, 
that of the hind toe rather large. Wings moderate, with the first 
primary reaching to about their middle, the second much shorter than 
the third, and the fourth longest : tail rather short, weak, and even, 
except that its outermost feathers are a little shorter than the rest. 

1845.] or little known Species of Birds. 601 

Plumage full and lax, the coronal feathers somewhat elongated and of 
a spatulate form. 

M. Abbotli, nobis. Length about six inches, or a trifle more ; of 
wing three inches ; and tail two and one-eighth : bill to gape not 
quite an inch, and tarse the same. Colour plain olive-brown above, 
tinged with rufous on the rump and tail, the upper tail-coverts ferru- 
ginous-brown : under-parts paler, the throat and middle of the belly 
white, the ear- coverts, sides of the breast, and flanks, rufescent, and 
the lower tail-coverts weak ferruginous. Bill chiefly pale horn colour- 
ed ; and legs light brown. Discovered by our industrious contri- 
butor, Capt. Abbott, in the island of Ramree, Arracan ; and since sent 
by Capt. Phayre from other parts of the same province. 

Alcippe Phayrei, nobis. This genus is defined, and four species of it 
described and others indicated, in J. A. S. XIII, 384. The present 
one is most allied to A. poiocephala, (Jerdon,) and also to Siva nipa- 
lensis, Hodgson, of the Leiotrichane series : but is distinguished by its 
much less rufescent hue, especially on the tail and its upper and 
lower coverts, which are devoid of such a tinge, or the upper tail- 
coverts retain it only in a very slight degree. Length about five 
inches and a half, of wing two and three-quarters, and tail two and a 
half; bill to gape under three-quarters; and tarse seven-eighths of an 
inch. Upper-parts slightly fulvescent olive-brown, the crown ashy, 
and wings, particularly the large alars, margined with somewhat 
deeper fulvescent; lower-parts fulvescent-whitish, whitest on the 
throat and middle of the belly : bill dusky above, below pale ; and 
legs light-coloured : outermost tail-feather five-sixteenths of an inch 
shorter than the middle ones. Inhabits Arracan, where discovered by 
Capt. Phayre. 

In naming the two preceding species, I have merely rendered 
homage due to two gentlemen who have made great efforts to investi- 
gate the Natural History of the districts which have been placed under 
their administration. It is a kind of honour which is in the power 
of the naturalist to award ; but it has been so much and so egregiously 
abused, that the distinction is no longer a very marked one, such as 
originally it was intended to be. The evil, however, it is to be hoped, is 
now working its own cure : and there is reason to believe that natu- 
ralists in general begin to feel the impropriety of underrating their 

602 little known Species of Birds. [No 164. 

privilege of perpetuating the remembrance of the benefactors of their 
science, and especially of those who have contributed largely to the stock 
of materials from which information is derived ; — a privilege which 
assuredly should be exercised charily, and with due judgment and 
discrimination ; such as would really render it an honorable and covet- 
ed distinction, and be understood to serve for a lasting memorial and 
acknowledgment of services that had been done for science. 

Iora, Horsfield. In J. A. S. XIII, 380-1, I indicated three de- 
scribed species of this genus, which had been erroneously considered 
identical; but at the time of writing that notice, I was acquainted only 
with the female of I scapularis, which alone is figured and described 
by Dr. Horsfield. Both this and /. typhia are common in the vicinity 
of the Straits of Malacca — the male I. scapularis having the throat 
and fore-neck dark green, uniform with the upper parts, and no yellow 
except on the orbital feathers. According to Mr. Strickland, Dr. Hors- 
field has lately obtained a new Iora equal in size to the small Orio- 
lus xanlhonotus ; and Mr. Strickland regards this approximation of 
size as tending to corroborate his opinion that the genus Iora is allied to 
Oriolus, — an opinion to which, however, with all deference, I do not 
feel disposed to accede. To the synonymes of /. zeylonica (which speci- 
fic name was based on the Ceylon Blackcap of Brown's Illustrations,) 
must be added Muscicapa melanictera, Gm., founded on Brown's Yellow- 
breasted Flycatcher, also from Ceylon. 

Chrysomma, Hodgson : founded upon Timalia hypoleuca, Franklin, 
v. T. Horsfieldi, Jardine and Selby. With reference to Mr. Frith's 
statement {J. A. S. XIII, 360,) of there being a second species of 
this form in Bengal, differing from the common one in being about half 
larger, I may remark that Chr. hypoleucos is subject to some variation 
of size, and especially of depth of colouring, more particularly upon the 
crown ; some having this part dusky-vinaceous, with a tinge of the same 
on the rest of the upper parts, while others have the whole upper parts 
paler, and of an uniform rufescent-brown, brightest on the wings : the 
latter, however, appear to be younger birds, and certainly are not dif- 
ferent in species from the dark-headed ones. Chr. hypoleucos appears 
to be very generally diffused throughout India. 

August, 29th 184.5. 

( To be continued. ) 


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A notice of the Alphabets of the Philippine Islands. Translated from 
the " Informe sobre el Estado de las Islas Filipinas," of Don 
Sinibaldo de Mas, Madrid January 1843. Vol. I. p. 25. By Henry 
Piddington, Sub-Secretary Asiatic Society, %c, $c. With a plate. 

The Indians were not strangers to the art of reading and writing. 
I give (fig. 1. of the annexed plate) some Alphabets of different pro- 
vinces which I have procured. It will be seen, at once, that they have 
all a common origin, or rather that they are one and the same. The little 
communication amongst these people for many years or ages, intro- 
duced alterations in their caligraphy as in their language, which was 
also probably at first but one stock. 

Father Juan Francisco de San Antonio says, that they write like the 
Chinese, in perpendicular lines, and this error was copied by Father 
Martinez Zuniga, M. Le Gentil and others, who have written on the 
Philippines. Nevertheless, by documents which I have had in my pos- 
session, particularly from the archives of the convent of St. Augustin, 
in Manilla, I have ascertained that it is read from left to right, like our 
own. In fig. 2, is represented a fragment of a transfer of landed property, 
written in Bulacan in 1652, on Chinese writing paper : 

And in fig. 3, two signatures with their equivalent renderings of the 
names, in our characters. To this same family of written characters 
would appear to belong (fig. 4) an inscription cut on a plank, which was 
found in 1837, by a detachment of Troops, in the mountains inhabited 
by the savage tribes called Igorrotes. 

But withal, no books nor any kind of literature in this character are 
to be met with, except a few amatory verses written in a highly hyper- 
bolical style, and hardly intelligible. It would appear, that their letters 
partook of this oriental redundancy. 


Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes for the year 1843. By 
Lieutenant R. Baird Smith, F.G.S., Bengal Engineers. 

1. Earthquake of the 2nd January, 1843. — This shock was experi- 
enced at Manilla, at a quarter-past one on the morning of the 2nd Ja- 
nuary. It consisted of two distinct vibrations with a very short interval 
between them, the first having a duration just perceptible, the second 
lasting nine seconds. I include in this Register all shocks in localities 
connected with the great Volcanic band of the Moluccas, because the 
northern extremity of this band is found in our own Territories, and the 
whole becomes thus connected with India Proper. The shock under 
notice appears to have been slight, but it was the forerunner of a series, 
one of which was of great violence. 

2. Earthquake of the 4th January, 1843. — This earthquake occurred 
at Singapore, about midnight of the 4th, and on the same date and 
about the same hour two shocks were experienced at Malacca. My 
information relative to these shocks is very limited, being confined to a 
notice of their occurrence. 

3. Earthquake of the 6th January, 1843. — The greatest force of the 
shock of the 6th January, so far as our information extends, was felt at 
Pulo Nias, in the vicinity of Java and Sumatra. For the following ex- 
tract from the " Singapore Free Press," detailing the effects of the 
earthquake, I am indebted to H. Cope, Esq. 

Singapore. Below will be found an account of an earthquake at Palo 
Nias, translated from the "Java Courant," which we have received from 
our correspondent. It will be observed, that this earthquake occurred 
about the same time with the shocks which were experienced in Manilla, 
Singapore and Penang ; but that it was of a much more violent nature, 
and attended with disastrous circumstances, which were happily unknown 
in other instances. In this case the phenomenon partook of all those 
fatal and violent effects which have usually been the accompaniments of 
similar convulsions of the earth in Java and Sumatra. 

Account of an Earthquake at Pulo Nias. 

(Translation from the Java Courant, April 5th, 1843.) 

Ignorant of the dismal scenes on which it would rise next morning, 
the sun set peaceably behind the Goenong (mountain) Sie Foli, (Island 
of Nias) on the evening of the 5th of January last. 

1845.] Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes, \^\Z. 605 

At 6 p.m. the Thermometer (Fahrenheit) marked 83°, the sky was 
clear, the sea calm, the air pleasant and mild, only a breeze from the 
Westward (a circumstance of rape occurrence in these parts) was felt. 

The inhabitants of Nias, not aware of the fate that awaited them, 
were enjoying the repose of sleep, when at or about midnight they were 
roused by heavy shocks of the earth, which at first were felt in a slight 
degree from the wind shifting to the Northward, but became every 
moment more violent ; so that no fixed direction could be given to them, 
the shocks subsiding into a complete trembling of the earth, so that at 
every instant it was expected the whole Island would disappear. 

The shocks continued without intermission during nine minutes, the 
ground was moved up and down, like the rocking of a swing ; to stand 
up or to walk was alike impossible ; houses were destroyed, burying 
beneath their ruins the ill-fated inhabitants. 

A portion of the Mount Horiffa, close to Goenong Sie Foli, together 
with the fortifications of the Benting and the other Government build- 
ings, with the exception of the barracks and Commandant's house, were 
totally destroyed ; Coco and other large trees which for upwards of a 
century had withstood the hand of Time, were torn up by the roots, 
and the ground divided itself, shewing deep yawning chasms from which 
trickled a blackish frothy liquid. 

No subterraneous noises were heard, being probably drowned by the 
dreadful din of falling mountains, houses and trees, joined to the thril- 
ling shouts of the population. 

About nine minutes passed in the fear of immediate destruction, the 
inhabitants began gradually to recover from the trance in which they 
lay plunged by this sudden calamity, people appearing from beneath 
the ruins of a house, or from an abyss into which they had been plung- 
ed ; the one to save an aged mother, the other his helpless child. 

The dreadful scene was lit up by the most beautiful sky and spark- 
ling stars. Not long the unfortunate Islanders were permitted to exult 
in the hope of their miraculous escape. Again, the earth began to 
tremble, and repeated shocks were felt with new force. Suddenly a 
tremendous wave rose from the South-East, and with awful noise, 
spreading itself over that part of the Coast, bore every thing before it, 
sweeping away men, women, cattle, houses, and even whole villages ; 

606 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes QNo. 164. 

so that in a single moment, the same spot where cattle were grazing, 
had become the abode of fishes. 

The large Campong Mego, about one Dutch mile, South of Goenong 
Sie Foli, was entirely washed away by the wave ; and many days after- 
wards the dead bodies of the victims of this woeful destruction might 
be seen on the beach. 

The same wave penetrated into the neighbourhood of Goenong Sie 
Foli with such violence, that the prows lying in the river were thrown 
upon the shore, 1 00 or 1 60 paces from their anchorage ; among the 
number was the Government Cruising Schooner, No. 23. The new 
Bazar, consisting of wooden houses, and situated on the left side of 
the river, was also entirely washed away. The inhabitants who escaped 
fled to the Benting, 60 or 100 feet above the sea, to implore the 
succour of others as miserable as themselves. 

This phenomenon continued until half- past four in the morning, the 
shock being felt at intervals of two minutes, when another earthquake 
was experienced, which was more violent than the first one, and continued 
for about six minutes. The shock generally came from the West, going 
to the North, changing however directly to the South. The trembling 
of the ground, although more slightly, was felt for several days after- 

The authorities here have immediately caused the necessary measures 
to be taken, and despatched a Government vessel to give assistance to 
the unfortunate inhabitants of the island of Nias. — D. F. S. 

Padang, 23rd March, 1843. 

Pulo Nias, the seat of the catastrophe just detailed, is a small island 
off the West Coast of Sumatra, in about 2° N. Lat. and 98° E. Long. 
The intensity of the Earthquake, however great in Pulo Nias, would 
appear to have diminished much at a short distance from it, since no 
notice of its effects on the adjoining coast of Sumatra is given, and 
from the silence of the writer of the above account, we are led to infer 
that the shock if felt at all at Padang, was there very slight. 

Pursuing a North Easterly direction, this same Earthquake was ex- 
perienced at Singapore and Penang. The following extract from the 
" Penang Gazette," details the effects of the shock at these two places. 

1845.] for the year 1843. 607 

" We noticed in our paper of the 7th instant, that a shock of an 
Earthquake had been experienced here about half-past 12 on the morn- 
ing of the 6th, and we observe from the " Singapore Free Press" of 
the 12th, that a shock had been felt there precisely at the same time. 
In both places it was very slight, but here more generally, and on the 
hill at least, more severely felt than at Singapore. It is rather remark- 
able that on the 8th, when we had a repetition of the Earthquake about 
2£ p. m. the shocks on that occasion were also more distinctly felt on 
the hills than in the valley. The oscillations were in both places of 
very short duration, and in Penang, as far as we can learn, the direction 
was from South to North or the contrary, but at Singapore it is stated to 
have been from East to West. For some time preceding this subterrane- 
ous commotion, the weather at Singapore had been unusually dry and 
hot for the season, the atmosphere clear, and the wind from the North 
East, and nothing indicated a change, until half an hour before the 
shock, when the heavens became ' quite black and chilly.' Here also 
it was preceded by the same kind of weather, which however is usual 
with us at this season, but no sudden change or phenomenon of any 
kind was noticed immediately to precede the shock, excepting that, as 
we have learned, the rats in a house in town were heard to be parti- 
cularly noisy and riotous about the roof. In both places, however, a 
marked change followed the convulsion. At Singapore, at 7 a. m. the 
following morning, heavy rains set in, and continued unremittingly for 
eleven days ; and in Penang we experienced for several successive days 
sudden gusts of wind interrupted by calms, and in the evening squalls 
from the N. and N. E. with heavy clouds, rain and thunder in these 
directions, no rain however fell upon the Island, excepting a short par- 
tial shower on the 15th, and the weather has again resumed its dryness 
and clearness. At this time not a blade of grass is to be seen, and 
vegetation of every description is suffering excepting where water is 

" Shocks of Earthquakes have on several occasions been felt at Penang ; 
within the last ten years we have had four different shocks, and with 
the exception of the last, they have always happened during the latter 
months of the year. The first took place in November 1833, the 
second in August 1835, the third in September 1837, and the fourth on 
the 6th instant, as above stated. It appears therefore that here they 
occur periodically, and that the last interval has been more than double 

4 N 

60S Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

the usual length. Of these, the shock in September 1837, was, by all 
accounts, the most severe, and the oscillations, as in the present case, are 
said to have come from South to North, and to have lasted full a minute 
and a half. It is said that on that occasion, several herds of cattle in 
the neighbourhood were observed running in the utmost confusion in 
all directions, that lamp and picture-frames oscillated, that the Roman 
Catholic Church bell rang of its own accord, that quantities of large 
shot piled up in the Fort were thrown down and scattered about, that 
a stone wall of a substantial building in town was rent, and the whole 
inhabitants were thrown into a state of consternation. The shipping 
in the harbour did not experience this shock, nor did the sea appear 
agitated ; five days subsequently however another smart shock was felt, 
and was followed by a very heavy squall from the N. W. and great agi- 
tation and rise of the sea in the harbour. The tide overflowed the 
Northern beach, and flooded the compounds and lower rooms of the 
houses in the neighbourhood. The convulsion was experienced at the 
same time at Achen and along the Pedier Coast, and it is said that these 
places sustained considerable damage. By the late shock a clock in 
town was stopped, and some felt a dizziness in the head and a sensa- 
tion like sea-sickness, but we have not heard of any other phenomenon 
attending this Earthquake. It may be that neither this shock nor any of 
the previous ones we have noticed are to be supposed the effects of con- 
vulsions taking place immediately below us, but to have been transmit- 
ted from some neighbouring region within the range of Earthquakes, 
such as Sumatra. The recent one may be described as having been a 
mere tremor of the ground, more than a shock." — Penang Gazette, 28M 
January, 1843. 

From the facts now detailed, it appears, that the point of greatest 
intensity of the shock of the 6th January 1843, was in the immediate 
vicinity of, if not directly beneath, the island of Pulo Nias. The south 
coast of the island suffered most, since it was upon it that the destruc- 
tive wave first broke. The facts stated are not sufficient to warrant 
any conclusion as to the cause of this great wave ; it may have arisen 
from violent volcanic action in the adjoining bed of the sea, or it may 
have been the reflux of a wave generated by the sudden upheavement of 
the coast of the island itself. In both cases it is probable, the sea 
would first have receded from, and then returned in force upon the coast, 
and in the latter part of the upheavement would have remained, but no 

1845.] for the year 1843. 609 

indication of any such phenomena are given, and the point must remain 
an undecided one. 

The general direction of the shock was from South- West to North- 
East ; from the relative geographical positions of Pulo Nias and Singa- 
pore, the direction in the latter island would be from West to East, 
just the contrary to that specified in the extract above given ; in Penang, 
on the other hand, the course would be from South to North, as cor- 
rectly stated by the writer in the " Penang Gazette." 

Indications of atmospheric disturbance accompanied the shock at 
Singapore and Penang, and most probably at Pulo Nias also, although it 
is not so stated in the published notices. At Singapore, nearer to the 
focus of the shock, these disturbances were greater than at Penang, and 
it is a fact to be noted, that at the former place, very heavy rain imme- 
diately followed the convulsion. 

4. Earthquake of the 8th January, 1843. — This shock, which was 
very slight, was experienced at Penang, about midnight of the 8th 
January. It was not accompanied by any phenomena requiring special 
record, and was the last of the series which in the early part of 
the month of January were experienced throughout the Eastern 

5. Earthquake of the Sth February, 1843. — This shock was experi- 
enced at Ahmedabad in Goojerat, at 2 a.m. on the 8th February. The 
direction was from N. E. to S. W., and four distinct vibrations of the 
earth were observed, the entire duration being about eight minutes. 
Before the shocks were felt, there was a great rumbling noise as if carts 
or carriages were passing by. 

These shocks were evidently of slight intensity and limited range, 
there being no notices of their having been experienced elsewhere than 
in the neighbourhood of Ahmedabad. So far as inference may be made 
from their direction, they would seem to have emanated from the tract 
of the Vindayas. 

The early part of the month of February 1843, was remarkable for 
other indications of volcanic activity. On the 6th, one of the small vol- 
canic hills on the Arracan coast, near to the station of Kyouk Phyoo, 
exhibited a sudden eruption ; some particulars of which are given in the 
following extract from a letter to the address of H. Piddington, Esq., 
kindly forwarded to me by that gentleman. 

610 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

" Kyouk Phyoo, 1th February, 1843. 

" We however had last night a most magnificent volcanic eruption. 
The mountain, which is of moderate height and shaped somewhat like 
a pyramid, is about three or four miles from the station, which was ren- 
dered as light as noonday, although it was midnight at the time. The 
eruption commenced at about 1 1 p.m., unaccompanied by any rumbling, 
but throwing up masses and particles of lava to an immense height, and 
presenting a most magnificent spectacle, visible all round the country. 
The weather had been for some evenings previous, close and threaten- 
ing, although the glass kept up, varying from 30-12 to 29-98 for the 
last five or six days. The fires gradually went out, and all was still 
again by about half an hour after midnight. This eruption takes place 
from what I hear, generally once in two years, sometimes annually." 

6. Earthquake of the 1st April, 1843. — The Earthquake of the 1st 
April 1843, was experienced in the Deccan ; I shall trace its course so far 
as the materials available permit, from North to South. 

The most northerly point at which the shock was experienced was 
Sholapore; (Lat. 17°40' North and Long. 76° 3' East) the effects of the 
Earthquake at this place are detailed in the following extract from the 
" Bombay Times." 

" The following extract from a letter, dated Sholapore, 1st April 1843, 
gives an account of an Earthquake which seems to have visited the 

" I was suddenly awakened this morning about half-past 4, by a 
loud rumbling noise very like thunder, only more continuous and mo- 
notonous ; and while speculating on what the possible cause could be, 
my bed began to shake in a very unequivocal manner, so as to leave no 
doubt of an Earthquake ; the noise apparently came from the South or 
South- West, preceding the shock and lasting about two minutes, and 
the shock, which though slightly felt in a tent, was more severely 
apparent in houses, and continued, I should think, about two seconds, 
perhaps hardly so much. I hear however, that in the town at the foot of 
the hill of Sholapore, the shock was much more severe, that the ground 
rocked considerably, and plaster fell from the roofs and walls of the houses 
causing infinite alarm to the people, such an event never having occur- 
red here before within the memory of any one. One of my Tappal (post) 
runners informs me, that the noise and shock met him about six miles 

1845.] for the year 1843. 611 

North-East of this, and that the ground rocked so much that he ran to a 
date tree for support ; but this moving also, he threw himself on the 
ground, and did not venture to move till all was over. I suppose the 
course of the Earthquake therefore to have been nearly South- West and 
North-East ; and if you hear more of its beginning and ending, this may 
serve to give you some idea of its course ; of the breadth of its influence 
I have of course no idea. All yesterday was remarkably sultry and 
oppressive, nor was there a breath of air all night, a very unusual thing 
here. What between the earthquake and comet, the people here are 
much perplexed, and wise Brahmins are prophesying wars, tumults, and 
famines, to the terror of the lieges. 

" An old gentleman who has just called, informs me, there was an 
Earthquake here, the year Tippoo was disposed of ! I have no means of 
ascertaining the truth of this ; but is this country in the track of any 
volcanic current or influence ? Certainly Earthquakes are not common 

The next place from which we have a notice of the shock, is Mucktul 
(Lat. 16° 43' N. Long. 77° 35' East). This notice is contained in the 
following extract from the "Madras Spectator" of the 26th April, 1843. 

" A correspondent at Mucktul has favoured us with the following 
notice of the shock of an Earthquake felt there, as at Bellary and 
Sholapore on the 1st of this month. We apprehended with our corres- 
pondent, that the maximum intensity of the shock passed through 
Bellary in a line parallel to the direction of the Western Ghauts, its 
violence subsiding further Eastward, as at Mucktul. 

" The Earthquake was felt here very distinctly on the morning of the 
1st about a quarter to 5 o'clock. The undulating motion was not suf- 
ficiently perceptible to enable one to judge of the direction of the shock ; 
here was merely a slight tremulous motion accompanied by a rumbling 
noise similar to that of a carriage passing a drawbridge. I suspect 
from your remark in your paper of the 12th instant, that its maxi- 
mum point of intensity was at Bellary, or between this and Bellary. At 
Singsoorgoor and Shorapore, both places nearer Bellary than this is, it 
was felt much stronger than here ; but at Hydrabad, about one hundred 
miles from this station, I suspect there was no shock, otherwise I should 
have heard ; Bellary is also about one hundred miles from Mucktul. The 
morning of the 1st was here also excessively hot and close." 

612 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

Our next notice of the shock is from Bellary (Lat. 15° 5' N. Long. 
76° 59' East), where the following phenomena were observed, and are 
detailed in the '■ Madras Spectator :" — " We are indebted to a friend at 
Bellary for notice of the shock of an Earthquake which was felt there 
on the 1st instant, at about a quarter before 5. That morning a rumbling 
noise was heard described as resembling the well known sound (to rail- 
way travellers) of blowing off the steam from the engine. The sound 
increased in loudness to that of a moderate peal of thunder, and with it 
an undulating motion was felt, which increased in intensity till the whole 
cantonment shook. ' My bed,' says the writer, * trembled till I felt 
almost giddy ; the sound then decreased, and with it the agitation sub- 
sided.' The direction of the shock appeared to be from South- East to 
North- West, the atmosphere seems to have sympathised with this sub- 
terranean disturbance, the previous night having been a very stormy one, 
and at 4 on Saturday morning it suddenly became oppressively hot 
and still." 

I am indebted to H. Piddington, Esq. for the following interesting 
notice by Captain Newbold, Madras Army, of the effects of the shock 
of the 1st April 1843, at Kurnool. This notice ought to have preceded 
that from Bellary, but it was accidentally omitted. 

"Kurnool, IZrd February, 1844. 

" Observing from the pages of your Journal that some researches 
are being instituted into the phenomena of Earthquakes, the following 
extract from my memoranda of an Earthquake that was felt here last 
year, may add to the recorded data on this head. 

" Kurnool, Long. 78° 7' Lat. N. 15° 50' : approximate height above the 
sea 900 feet. April 1st 1843, about 5 a.m. awakened by the shock of 
an Earthquake, accompanied by a subterranean noise like that of the 
rumble of Artillery at a distance. It lasted only some seconds ; the 
noise appeared to come from the North-East, and died away to the S. W. 
It appears to have been felt at Bellary, which is about seventy-three 
miles direct distance W. S. W. from Kurnool, about the same time. There 
was nothing particular in the state of the weather. The comet which 
I first observed here on the 4th of the preceding month, was then 
visible, and its advent had been accompanied by a sudden and unusual 
rise of the Tumbuddra, which had swept off the numerous native gardens 
in its bed, a catastrophe which both the Affghans and Hindoos of this 

1845.] for the year 1843. 613 

place concurred in attributing to the inauspicious influence of the 
' Tailed Star.' 

" Some of the older natives of this part of India assure me, that Earth- 
quakes usually happen in the hot season. East of this in the Jemaconda 
district, separated from Kurnool by a high chain of the Eastern Ghauts, 
slight shocks of Earthquakes are more frequent than in other parts of 
South India. This district is situated on the plutonic, hypogene, and 
basaltic rocks which form a platform between the trap of the Deccan — 
the largest known continuous sheet of ancient lava in the world — and 
the great active volcanic band that runs Southerly down the Bay of 
Bengal, crosses the Equator by Sumatra into the Eastern Archipelago, 
thence Easterly embracing Flores, Java, and Timor, and the whole chain 
of the islands to New Guinea : whence the main trunk proceeds Nor- 
therly by the Moluccas and Philippine Islands, terminating to the North 
in the Peninsula of Alaska, in about the 59th degree of longitude. 

" Kurnool is situate about 76 miles in a direct line W. by S. from 
Jemaconda, on the great line of drainage of this part of India, at the 
confluence of the Tumbuddra and the Hendri, on the limestone associ- 
ated with the diamond sandstone, which here overlie the plutonic rocks 
previously alluded to ; the latter constitute the base of the whole of 
Southern India, and are seen outcropping immediately in the vicinity of 

" The most Southerly point to which the shock under notice would 
appear to have reached, is Hurryhur, Lat. 14° 30' N. Long. 75° 59' 
East.' The following is the account of the shock as felt at that place. 
April 2nd. A slight shock of an Earthquake was felt here a little after 
4 o'clock yesterday morning, attended by a dull noise, as if it were the 
rolling of a carriage at a distance. 

" It was predicted the day previous by the Bramins, that a phenomenon 
resembling a blazing man with a sword in his hand would be observed 
the same night in the heavens, and numerous have been the spectators 
anxiously expecting its appearance the greater part of the night ; but for 
all their trouble (although many were up till 4 a. m.) they were dis- 

" The weather previous to the above shock had been exceedingly 
warm, but since we have had a few showers of rain, and it is now cooler." 

From the preceding details, the ascertained limits of the shock of the 
1st April are Sholapore on the North and West, Kurnool on the East, 

614 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

and Hurry hur on the South. The intensity would appear to have been 
greater at the intermediate point, Bellary, than at any other, leading 
to the inference that this place was nearer to the focus of the shock 
than the other stations at which observations were made. The general 
direction of the shock was evidently parallel to that of the Western 
Ghauts, namely from South- West to North- East. A peculiar state of the 
atmosphere was observed at four of the five stations where the shock was 
felt ; an oppressive closeness of the air and great heat preceded the 
shock, and after it passed, a change was experienced at Hurryhur by 

Earthquake of the 6th April, 1843. — This shock was experienced in 
various parts of Assam. The following extracts give details : 

Extract from the " Friend of India :" — " A letter from Sibsagur, 
dated April 7th, says, a very singular meteoric appearance was 
observed here a few evenings since. It occurred a little before 9 
o'clock on the evening of the 4th; a very brilliant light suddenly 
illuminated the whole atmosphere, and on looking up a large cluster 
of falling stars was seen rapidly descending towards the East in an 
oblique direction. These disappeared in a few seconds, and about 
a minute afterwards a loud report was heard resembling that of cannon, 
resulting doubtless from explosion of the luminous mass. The report 
was also heard at Jaipore. Last evening at half-past 8, we had several 
very severe shocks of an Earthquake ; the vibrations lasted for about 
five minutes. Another slight shock was felt at a quarter-past 1 o'clock 
this morning." 

The following extract from Captain Hannay's Journal, kindly com- 
municated to me by Mr. Piddington, gives an account of the shocks as 
experienced at Debrooghur : — " After a very hot day and close sultry 
evening, a severe shock of an Earthquake at Debrooghur, lasted several 
minutes. The motion, however, was only trembling ; affecting those 
houses which had posts built up by walls. Direction appeared to be 
from W. to S. W. 

" April 7th. — Slight shocks at Debrooghur at midnight. Both these 
Earthquakes felt at Sibsagur, Jeypore, and all over Upper Assam." 

At Jeypore the shock is thus described, under date 7th April : 

" Last night, nine or ten minutes past 8, we felt a smart shock of an 
Earthquake, and in four or five minutes more, another shock more severe 
than the first, and which lasted, I should think, full two minutes. The 

1845.] for the year 1843. 615 

doors and windows rattled at a great rate, and one of our lads, who 
was standing on the bank of the river at the time, said he was near being 
thrown into the stream : it was the most severe shock I ever felt in 
Assam. Its course appeared to be from East to West ; some of the resi- 
dents think there were three shocks, but I only noticed two. The 
weather has been unusually warm for the last two or three days. — 
Hurkaru Paper. 

8. Earthquake of the l\th April, 1843. — This shock was felt very 
smartly at Landour, and occurred about five minutes past 8 a.m. The 
doors and windows of the houses shook and rattled loudly. From obser- 
vations made on the undulations of liquid in a cup, the direction was 
from North to South, or from the interior of the hills towards the 
plains ; the duration of the shock was estimated at thirty seconds. 

The same shock was experienced about the same time at Hurdwar 
and Meerut, at both places being very slight, and unaccompanied by 
any circumstances worthy of note. 

9. Earthquake of the 12th May, 1843. — The following is an account 
of this shock as experienced atPenang, taken from the " Penang Gazette" 
of May 13th : — " Yesterday about 1 p.m. an Earthquake was felt here ; 
the motion was very distinct, it was like a succession of waves, and very 
different from the quick vibration of the shock experienced in January 
last : after the first two or three waves a slight pause, when it continued, 
the undulation being greater ; persons sitting were moved from side to 
side or backwards and forwards in their chairs in a direction from West 
to East, or from N. W. to S. E., and hanging lamps were swayed to and 
fro in the same line. It lasted five or six seconds. It came in the direc- 
tion of Sumatra." 

We have no account of this shock from any other point than Penang. 

10. Earthquake of the 3rd of June, 1843. — This shock was also of 
very limited range and slight intensity ; the only place where it would 
seem to have been felt being Titalayah, at the base of the Sikkim hills, 
on the road to Darjeeling. The following extracts from the " Hurkaru" 
newspaper furnish details. 

" By a letter, which we have just received from Titalayah, it appears 

that that place was visited by an Earthquake on the morning of the 

3rd instant. A smart shock of an Earthquake was felt here this 

morning ; I could not note the precise time, not having any time- piece, 

but I think it was about 10 o'clock. It appeared to pass from North 

4 o 

616 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

to South- West, and lasted about three seconds, accompanied with a 
rumbling noise, like distant thunder. 

" The weather for the last three days has been very sultry, with great 
masses of heavy dark clouds in the North : but this morning about 
7 o'clock a thunder-storm passed from North to South- East, with heavy 
rain, continuing for upwards of two hours ; it was perfectly calm at the 
time of the shock, but the wind rose immediately afterwards, blowing 
in sudden and heavy gusts from the North-East, with distant thunder 
from the Westward. 

"No damage has been done that I am aware of, but the natives were 
much alarmed ; some, who were at work on the road before my house, 
threw down their tools and ran away." — Bengal Hurkaru, 10th June. 

11. 12. 13. Earthquakes of the \5th, \6th and 17 th June, 1843.— 
This series of shocks was experienced in Assam. The first, that of the 
15th, is thus noted in Captain Hannay's Register — " At 11 a.m. a smart 
shock of an Earthquake, with a vertical motion." 

The second, that of the 16th, is thus described in a letter from Jeypur : 
" On the 16th, fifteen minutes past 8 p.m. we felt the most severe shock 
of an Earthquake I have noticed in Assam ; we had a slight shock the 
day previous at noon." Mr. Masters, in a list of Earthquakes felt in 
Assam, forwarded to me by Major Jenkins, the Commissioner, to whom 
I am indebted for many similar acts of kindness, thus notices the same 
shock — " At 8h. 45m. p.m. a smart shock at — ." 

The last of the series is described in Captain Hannay's Register in the 
following terms : — " June 17th, 8 p.m. a very smart shock ; at first slight 
and followed by a severe one, motion undulating, and from the position 
of a clock which was stopped, must have come from S. W. or W. It 
lasted altogether about a minute ; the weather rainy, with occasional light 
squalls from S. W. These shocks were felt at Delava, Jaipur, and Sa- 
cherah ; that of this date at a few minutes past 8, reported by the Officer 
at Sacherah to have thrown down a portion of the bank of the Bur- 

14. Earthquake of the Mth June, 1843. — This shock is of interest, as 
being the only instance of an Earthquake in Ceylon of which any notice 
has been obtained ; reference is made in one of the extracts that follow 
to a shock in 1823, that affected this Island, and these two cases are all 
that have as yet been found on record. 

The following extract from the "Colombo Observer" of the 19th 

1845.] for the year 1843. 617 

June, details the effects of the shock as experienced at Colombo :• — " On 
Saturday morning, at about half-past 12, a slight shock of an Earth- 
quake, which lasted half a minute, was felt at Colombo. 

"Persons who happened not to have gone to bed felt the ground to 
tremble, and heard furniture and even roofs of houses to crack. Many 
amusing anecdotes are told of those who were awoke by the shock ; 
some supposing tricks were being played upon them, others that rob- 
bers were in their houses, and several that people were under their 

The " Ceylon Herald" of the 20th, gives the following particulars : 
" On Friday night, the 17th, at about half-past 12, Colombo and its 
vicinity were visited by an Earthquake, the most terrific of all natural 
phenomena. It was however so slight, that many people were not 
at all aware of it, and what was worse, they would hardly believe it 
when they were informed. 

" Three distinct shocks were felt at very short intervals, all three not 
perhaps so long as a minute ; great numbers were aware of two shocks, 
and all agree that the last was the smallest. Most people having retired 
for the night, they were awakened by their beds being moved upwards 
in a most remarkable manner, while the curtains moved backwards and 
forwards, doors and windows shook, and occasionally a creak was heard 
from the rafters and crockery in the godowns ; but although fears were 
entertained that injury was done to the houses, not a single instance of 
the kind has been brought under notice. 

"The officer on guard felt the guard-room vibrate; and in another 
quarter of Colombo a gentleman writes, that his whole house moved 
the same as a ship when struck by a heavy sea. 

" From Galle we learn, that it was felt there at the same time, and with 
no greater force. As yet we have heard nothing of its being felt in 
the Central Province. It is very rarely that Earthquakes happen 
either in Ceylon or Southern India; we have heard of one in 1823, 
which at Hambantotte caused the glass on the sideboard to jingle, and 
it was pretty generally felt throughout the Island. 

"It frequently happens, that an extraordinary fall of the Barometer is 
observed to precede an Earthquake, but we have not heard yet whether 
this symptom of its approach was noticed here or not ; such a fall of the 
Barometer lately attracted considerable attention on the Coast, in con- 
nexion with the late storms, and it will be curious to know whether it 

618 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

was observed on this occasion. Not long after the Earthquake, we had 
one of those violent squalls which have been so frequent of late as to 
pass almost without observation ; but we have been assured by some 
of the oldest residents here, that for many years past there have not 
been such violent storms of wind and rain. As if the electricity in the 
earth and atmosphere, or whatever else causes storms and Earthquakes, 
were exhausted, we have had since Saturday a sudden transition to 
settled weather, with every appearance of its lasting for some time." 

With the exception of its locality, there is nothing requiring note in 
this shock. 

15. Earthquake of the 10th August, 1843. — Two notices of this shock 
has reached me ; one from A. Campbell, Esq. at Darjeeling, the other from 
E. Ravenshaw, Esq. at Patna. Dr. Campbell writes as follows, under 
date 11th August, 1843. 

"At 15 minutes to 5 p. m. yesterday, 10th August, by my watch, 
which was 15 minutes fast by sundial time, we had a shock of Earth- 
quake here, which lasted 20 seconds. Its course was N. W. by S. E. The 
motion was horizontal : no damage done to any thing. 

" As you have expressed a wish to be furnished with information 
regarding Earthquakes, I have the pleasure to inform you, that a slight 
shock was experienced at Patna on the 10th instant, at about 4£ p. m. 
A letter from Tirhoot (Muzufferpoor) mentions, that it was also felt 
there on the same date and about the same hour." 

In a very interesting letter, under date the 9th September 1843, 
Mr. Ravenshaw communicates the following information : — " A few 
days after I wrote to you about the Earthquake of the 10th August, 
my Sheristadar told me he had heard springs of water (Bumbas) 
had suddenly made their appearance in several villages of the 
district. I immediately told him to send a man to the spot to 
bring me some of the water, and all the particulars he could collect 
regarding the date of their appearance ; their number, site, &c. The 
man returned with seven bottles of the water, and a note in Per- 
sian from a person on the spot, stating seven Bumbas had appeared at 
Dostmahommedpoor, Purgunnah Azemabad, about twenty miles East of 
Patna. Of these two were large and flowing rapidly, and five small ; about 
a koss West of the village there were seven or eight more, of which 
three were constantly flowing, the others smaller and less active. He 
said that others had been heard of at Moza Tilwur, Purgunnah Bhum- 

1845] for the year 1843. 619 

poor, and at Jugutpoor Chedee, Purgunnah Gyaspoor, to the Eastward 
of Dostmahommedpoor. Another native told me he had heard of a simi- 
lar occurrence at Moza Soojava, near Jehanabad, half way between this 
and Agra ; some of them are said to be hot springs. I tasted some of the 
water with oxylate of ammonia, and it proved to be strongly impreg- 
nated with lime, like all the water of this district. The Persian letter 
reported that the Bumbas made their appearance, or rather were first 
observed, on the 13th Sawun, or Monday 24th July, which is 16 days 
before the Earthquake ; but I think this must be a mistake, as they were 
not mentioned to me until several days after I had written to you : it is 
possible however there may have been another Earthquake, which was 
not felt at Patna. At any rate I have thought it right to send you 
this information, which, if not useful, may be interesting. 

" Any connection between the appearance of these Springs and the 
Earthquake is doubtful, the evidence being against, rather than in 
favour, of such connection ; at the same time the occurrence is rare and 
interesting, and deserves to be recorded, although its causes are too 
obscure to be traced satisfactorily. 

16. 17. Earthquake of the 3rd September, 1843. — These shocks were 
felt in Assam, and are recorded by Captain Hannay, in whose memoran- 
dum the following remarks occur under the above date : — "After a hot 
and sultry day (the 2nd) as ever I felt, the clouds gathered to the 
South-West, indicating rain, but passed off without any ; night very 
close and sultry : awoke by a smart shock of an Earthquake, cannot 
speak as to direction." Again, under the same date, at 1\ p. m. it is re- 
marked, " After a very hot day clouds gathered at S. E., very close and 
sultry. Squall came on a little before sunset ; vivid lightning all round 
the heavens : previous to squall breaking heard an extraordinary noise 
in the heavens overhead, like the falling of heavy rain on distant jungle, 
or like the rushing of wind through a funnel : with the noise was heard 
an occasional growl, like distant thunder. When the rain fell, this noise 
had continued for some time, thunder very high in the heaven, but the 
lightning one blaze all round ; whilst at dinner a smart shock from 
the South." This latter shock is interesting, from being preceded by 
the peculiar noise in the air, and accompanied by an excessive display 
of electricity in the atmosphere. Both shocks, in common indeed with 
all experienced in Assam, were slight in intensity. 

620 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes [No. 164. 

18. Earthquake of the 30th October, 1843. — This Earthquake oc- 
curred at Sandoway in Arracan, and is thus described under date 31st 
October 1843, by a correspondent of the " Englishman :" — " Yesterday 
morning, at a quarter to 8 o'clock, this place was visited with a severe 
concussion of an Earthquake, which continued about two minutes ; the 
oscillations appeared to take a North and Southerly direction, no injury 
was done, and the general face of the surrounding country remains 
unaltered : the morning was exceedingly fine, and the Thermometer at 
75°. I have written to friends at all stations North of this, to ascertain 
whether the shock was felt at those places, and have also got natives 
to write to their friends, in the hills and towards Bassein, to learn 
whether it was felt in these directions, and if it presented any uncom- 
mon phenomenon." 

At a subsequent date, the same writer adds the following particu- 
lars : — " Having promised you the results of my enquiries connected with 
the Earthquake which was felt here on the 30th October last, and with 
the volcanic eruption which took place some time ago off that Island, 
near Cheduba, I have now the pleasure to forward you all the infor- 
mation I have been able to collect on the subject, premising, however, 
that being totally unacquainted with the science of geology, many 
minutiae have doubtless escaped my enquiry, which would have at- 
tracted the attention of a scientific man. 

" Regarding the Earthquake, it appears to have proceeded from the 
South, extending itself along the line of coast as far North as the 
Town of Ramree, at which place it was but slightly felt ; and still 
fainter at Kyook Phyoo, which is situated at the North of Ramree 
Island. The shock was very perceptible at Cheduba, scarcely at all so in 
the Yoomadong mountains, but very severe at ' Gookhcomg,' which is 
about ninety miles South of this, and on the sea shore. The Soogree 
(or head man) of that district, with whom I have fortunately had an 
interview, describes it as having so agitated the place, as to cause a great 
rustling in the trees, and loose stones to roll down the hills ; but he 
states he has neither seen nor heard of its having been attended with 
any remarkable incident. It has in all probability been felt in Moul- 
mein, and if you have not already had some information on the subject 
from thence, it would perhaps be a point worth ascertaining.* 
* No notice of this, &c. &c. 

1845.] for the year 1843. 621 

" With reference to the Volcano, which left a transient Island forma- 
tion, it took place in July last, and continued in an igneous state for 
eight days. The water in the wells on Flat Island rose considerably, 
and no noise or agitation preceded the eruption, or was experienced 
during the period of its action. The native from whom I gained my 
information, describes it as having been a most magnificent sight, 
particularly at night ; flaming forth with fierceness, as to cause the 
columns of smoke to ascend till lost in the heavens. The Island which 
is mentioned as having been thrown up out of the sea, and subse- 
quently disappeared, could have been nothing more than an accumula- 
tion of ashes, cinders and lava, ultimately removed by the influence of 
the tide, and the severity of the South- West monsoon. The situation 
of it appears to have been a little South of Flat Island, in the intersec- 
tion of two lines, one drawn through the two volcanoes in Cheduba, 
and the other through the volcano near Kyook Phyoo and Flat Island ; 
this leads one to the supposition, that it might have some relation to 
the two former volcanoes. I have seen a number of geological specimens, 
which were subsequently brought from Flat Island, among which I 
could recognise quartz, limestone, iron pyrites, shale and scoriae, 
besides some others of an igneous nature, the minerological composi- 
tion of which I could not ascertain." 

19. Earthquake of the \4th November, 1843. — The following extract 
of a letter, under date the 25th November 1843, from Major Jenkins, 
gives an account of a shock on the 14th November, as felt in parts of 
Assam : — " This is just to mention, that a smart shock of an Earthquake 
was felt at Gowhattee and through Kamroop on the morning of the 
14th instant, about from 1 to 3 o'clock; it was so severe as to awaken 
all the gentlemen out of their beds. 

" I did not feel it in my boat, nor did any of the gentlemen at Sib- 
sagur (Rungpoore) feel it. Mr. Masters now with me, among others, 
neither felt it, nor heard that the natives had perceived it." 

As far as Assam is concerned, it has been partial it would seem, as 
no intelligence of this shock having been experienced elsewhere than 
above stated having reached me, Major Jenkins's reference as to its local 
character is probably correct. 

20. Earthquake of the \%th December, 1843. — This shock was also 
confined, so far as collected intelligence would shew, to lower Assam. 
The following extract of a letter from Captain Butler to Major Jenkins, 

G'2'2 Register of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes, 1843. [No. 164. 

kindly forwarded to me by the latter, gives details : — " Gowhattee, 19th 
December 1843. Yesterday whilst sitting in Court, at twenty minutes 
past 4 p. m. we felt a very severe Earthquake, with a rumbling noise 
from South to North : the motion was very great, and had it con- 
tinued a moment longer, I was prepared to rush out of the building. 
These Earthquakes appear to becoming more violent than I ever re- 
collect before in Assam, from what cause I cannot imagine ; but a little 
more would bring down our Courts and large Bungalows." Major 
Jenkins mentions, that this shock was not felt in Upper Assam, nor is 
there any reason to believe it was felt towards Sylhet and Bengal ; so 
that, if the Earthquakes are really becoming more severe, they would 
appear still to preserve their strictly local and limited character. 

This concludes the Register for 1843, shewing a total of twenty 
shocks during the year, of varying intensity and character. I refrain 
at present from attempting any detailed arrangement of the phenomena 
they present, as this can best be done when a large number of observa- 
tions come under discussion. I now, in closing this paper, will merely 
annex a Summary of its contents in a Tabular Form. 

Tabular Summary of Indian and Asiatic Earthquakes for the year 1843. 





















January 2d, 

„ 4th, 

„ 6th, 

„ 8th, 

Feb. 8th, . . 

April 1st,. . 

,, 6th,,. 

„ 11th,.. 
May 12th,.. 
June 3d,.. . 

„ 15th... 

„ 16th,.. 

„ 17th, . 

,, 17th,.. 
Aug. 10th,. 
Sept. 3d, . . 

„ 3d,.. 
Oct. 30th... 
Nov. 14th,, 
Dec. 18th,.. 

Locality affected, 

Manilla, . . . 
Singapore, . 
Pulo Nias, .. 
Penang, . . .. 


Himalayas,. . 
Penang, ... .. 








Arracan, . . , 


[Singapore, &c. 
extended to Penang, 



Very severe, 


Slight. [&c. 

Severe, felt at Sholapore, Belgaum, 


Smart, extended to the Plains. 







Slight, extended to Patna, &c. 








On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. By Capt. T. Latter, B. N. I., 
Assistant Commissioner, Arracan. With two plates. 

My dear Sir, — I do myself the pleasure of forwarding, for the in- 
spection of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, the accompanying portions 
of a Boodhist Sculpture, (fig. 1 .) brought by me from the old town of 
Arracan ; and as they present some peculiarities, I have no doubt that 
the following remarks will be acceptable. 

They formed the upper part of a figure, one of which was sculptured 
on each side of the entrance into the court of a sort of small cave tem- 
ple ; and they are interesting on account of the Rose which surmounts 
the figure, and which is identical with the Rosette of Architecture. It 
was the only one of such emblems, to which I could not at once apply 
a Boodhistical interpretation ; and the discovery of this one in a position 
that could not admit of a doubt of its meaning, and that meaning 
exactly in conformity with what I expected it would have been, was a 
source of much pleasure to me. 

I will then now proceed to give you a Boodhistical view of the em- 
blems of masonry, and I do so with some hesitation at the risk of being 
accused of riding my hobby, " jusqu' a l'outrance ;" as I am aware that 
my remarks are of a speculative character : still, as they are the only 
attempt that has been made, as far as I am aware, at explaining these 
architectural emblems on philosophical grounds, they may be both in- 
teresting, and the means of drawing the attention of others to similar 

No. 165. No. 81, New Series. 4 p 

624 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

In the following pages I shall confine myself to the explication of 
those emblematic ornaments which occur in the Doric order, that " first- 
born of Architecture," because, being the most antient, its emblems are 
of the most pure and simple type, and have none of those confused 
and meretricious additions which we find abounding in the later orders, 
as the Corinthian and Composite. 

I have already had occasion* to remark, that I considered Boodhism 
to have been a metaphysical system emanating from an Egyptian foun- 
tain ; that it was introduced at a very early period into Hindustan ; that 
it there became influenced by local circumstances, as also probably by 
fresh importations from the original source. Boodhism appears, thus, 
not only to have acquired various local types, but likewise, after being 
so altered, to have diffused itself, as it were, from new centres of mo- 
tion, and thus to have given rise by mutual interferences, to varied and 
mixed results. We find this illustrated in the history of modern 
Boodhism, (that of Gaudama). We read of its being imported, from a 
certain source, into regions where it was previously unknown ; of its 
dying away from negligence, or persecution, in its early strongholds ; of 
its again drawing fresh life from its young offshoots ; and thus, finally, 
presenting in its original seat, a phase modified by the provincialisms, 
with which it had been imbued. This is the case with the Boodhism 
of Ceylon ; which was imported into trans- Gangetic India, became 
afterwards nearly extinct, and was revived by fresh supplies from Siam, 
&c. I, in the same paper, endeavoured to trace the mental process by 
which Boodhism progressed into heathenism ; viewing it in fact, as the 
incipient stage of what is usually styled Idolatry ; leading naturally into 
the degrading cult of Fetichism. I also pointed out how that Boodh- 
ism, in its early, and comparatively pure state, (influenced by that 
craving after substantiality inherent in human nature) endeavoured to 
realise its ideas, first by numbers, next by symbols consisting of numeri- 
cal combinations, and finally, by employing living animals, and their 
representations as types. Considering Boodhism then as I did, as 
emanating from an Egyptian source, I naturally was led into compar- 
ing it with those systems which were acknowledged to have had such 
an origin, and especially with those which delighted in expressing 

* Vide " Note on Boodhism," published in McClelland's Journal. 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 625 

themselves by symbols, and representations. We know that those 
antient mysteries, a lineal descendant of which has come down to the 
present day, obeyed this description ; they were Egyptian in origin, and 
were symbolic, and emblematic in predilection. It was in these mys- 
teries in which was locked up the craft of Architecture ; and it is on 
the results of that science that we are likely to find impressed the ap- 
pearances we have alluded to. 

The emblematic ornaments then, to which I would draw your attentin, 
are the Triglyph, the Dentals, the Bull's or Ox's skull, and the Patera 
or Rosette. And before entering upon them I must premise that, if 
we were to view a building with the eyes of that craft, to whom 
through a long line of ages was consecrated their structure, and their 
charge, the ornamental parts would aptly be emblematic of " perfec- 
tion." Or to use the phraseology of the speculatists, having reared 
up a mental structure complete in all its parts, and comely in all its 
proportions, we proceed to add to it those ornaments, and to enrich it 
with those gifts, which, though not necessary to its usefulness, add to 
its grace and beauty. It would be needless for me to go through the 
pages of antient authors to illustrate this point, but we find it 
abundantly instanced in the writings of Paul, who deeply conversant 
with those mysteries himself, not only continually endeavoured to point 
out their hidden purport, but likewise was anxious to connect them 
with the high spiritualism of the new faith he had embraced. Thus 
he declares, that Jesus Christ is the " chief corner-stone," (Ephes. 
ii. 20,) " the true foundation," (1 Corinth, iii. 11.) He then tells his 
hearers to build upon this foundation, and he reminds them that " every 
man's work shall be made manifest; ((jxivspov yEvrjaerai, "shall 
become publicly known,") for the day shall declare it (crjXiocrei, shall 
expose it) ; that it must stand the test of fire, before the workman 
(pioQov \r)\ptTai,) shall take his wages ; and he curiously adds, that 
if however " any man's work shall be burned," (i. e. not be able to stand 
the test of fire) 6^iw0»?(7£rcu " he shall be fined,"* but he himself shall 
be saved, yet so as by fire." (lb. v. 13. et seq.) All these are technical 

* This is the most correct and literal rendering of this word, for it is the 3rd person 
singular ('« he") 1st future indicative (" shall") passive voice " be") of the verb of 
V^ia 9 which in this voice can only make sense, by having accorded to it its general 
acceptation of " mulct, punishment by fine." 

626 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. QNo. 165. 

allusions that must speak to many of my readers ; and further to 
identify them, he actually employs a still more technical phraseology, 
and commences (v. 10.) by alluding to himself <*>c <ro(f>og apyjLTtKTwv 
" as a wise master mason," rendered in the established version •• as a 
wise master builder." On another occasion he refers to that Great 
Architect of the Universe, whom he declares ra iravra Karaar- 
Kevacrag, hath " built all things," (Heb. iii. 4.) And again he emphati- 
cally declares, that it was by revelation that was made known to him 
the true purport of these mysteries (fcara airoKaXvipiv eyvvpwe pot 
to fj,vGT7)piov. Ephes. iii. 3.) '* the revelation of a mystery which had been 
kept in silence (asaiy rifitvov ) since the world began." (Rom. xvi. 25.) 
He asserts, that he was peculiarly sent to enlighten all men upon what 
this " fellowship of the mystery" really is, (^wrtVai iravrag Tig rj 
Koiviovia tov pvcmipiov. Ephes. iii. 9.) And a little further he gives a 
climax to his spiritualising interpretation of this " fellowship of the 
craft" by picturing its consequent to be a comely structure harmoniously 
joined together, and cemented by the secretion of every joint (oia 
ira<jt)Q acj>rig Trig em^opriyiag) in the proportionate and individual 
action of each separate part, which thus progresses £'C oiKocopriv 
zavTOv svayawy to the building, (literally, house building) of itself in 
Love. (Ephes. iv. 16.) Thus closing with the watch- word of those 
mysteries to which he referred.* 

I shall have again occasion to revert to this portion of my subject, 
and place beyond a doubt not only the intimate acquaintance that Paul 
had with these mysteries, but likewise shew that his writings prove 

* What I have advanced here is simply thus : that not only was Paul initiated into 
those antient and secret mysteries, which were associations of brotherhood ; but that 
he wanted to point out that their inculcations of fellowship and love, and of the per- 
formance of high morality were in themselves insufficient; that they required the 
vivifying Grace of that Being, whose faith he had adopted, and that this mental edi- 
fice required to be built up, not upon one's own foundation, but upon the foundation, 
and in the spirit of Him, whose Apostle he was. Thus he declares, that the true view 
of these mysteries had not till then been pointed out. Indeed the whole circumstance 
is one of many instances exemplifying Paul's transcendent qualities as a Pleader; 
wherever he may be, whoever he may be addressing, he invariably seizes upon some 
existing peculiarity, some belief identified with local predilections, on which to fix the 
consecutive glories of the magnificent cause he was advocating ; and thus disarming 
suspicion, and unopposed by prejudices in the outset, he proceeds in one train of 
powerful induction, to enunciate the startling truths of which he was possessed* 

1845.] On tlie Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 627 

that he truly was, as he declares himself to have been, ap^ireKrwv 
" a master mason ;" for that he alludes, as far as he was enabled by his 
obligations to do, to certain appearances in that grade, which can be ap- 
preciated only by the initiated. 

Having then thus premised that the ornamental parts of a building 
were aptly emblematic of perfection, it is only in connection with the 
idea of objects of perfection, that we must endeavour to search for a 
resolution of their meaning. 

The Triglyph, (" a." fig. 2.) 

The earliest edifices having been of wood, and the more antient 
type of stone buildings conforming in a great measure in their simplicity 
to what we might consider the early wooden buildings must have 
been, most practical masons endeavour to account for the origin of 
the Triglyph, by viewing it, as a representation in stone, of three 
props, which were stuck up between the architrave, and that part of 
the cornice in which the ends of the beams that support the roof, pro- 
ject. And this view seems at first sight plausible, as they invariably 
occur immediately under the mutules, which last have very much the 
appearance of the ends of projecting beams. But if the construction of 
the Triglyph be examined, this will be at once shewn not to be the 
case ; independent of which it is much more probable that the primitive 
builders put a solid oblong block, to support this most important part 
of the edifice, instead of leaving it to the strength of three slim sticks, 
or bits of planks. In fact, it was a solid block which, from the impor- 
tant functions it had to perform, viz. to support in the first instance the 
whole weight of the roof, and in the second to keep it clear of the 
architrave, was happily impressed with the most sacred of all emblems, 
in all ages, among all nations, the Triglyph. 

This quadrangular block was the prototype of that hewn and 
" cubic stone," which plays so important a role, in modern masonry. It 
was, according to Duteil, emblematic of legal, as the unhewn stone was 
of natural, justice ; and was consequently employed in early ages as the 
seat of judges, and is, he says, the Qecrrog \iOog placed by Homer, in 
the third Odyssey, before the portals of Nestor. It is likewise an em- 
blem found on Boodhist coins, and has by some been taken for an 
altar. It will be remarked by examining the Triglyph of Architecture 
(fig, 3,) that it is so constructed as to leave no dispute of its meaning ; 

628 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

two of the glyphs being complete, (a a) the third being split down the 
centre, and one- half being on each edge of the block of stone, {b b). The 
Triglyph, or combination of three scores, has been throughout all ages 
the symbol of the Deity, the Tri-une God ; we find them variously 
combined ; sometimes in the form of a star | 3 sometimes in that of 
a c * which is the early type of the sacred Tau,* so expressive a cha- 
racter among the antient Egyptians ; and generally held to be symbolic 

of " eternal life." They may be found again thus |X| And in many 
other forms, such as -Jf which is the simplified form of the Cabalistic 
Abraxas, (fig. 4,) typifying the sun, or thus ^ emblematising the most 
simple as it is the most powerful resolution of forces, and the one to 
which all others may be reduced. On the three Yods impressed on the 
Hebrew Abraxas, (fig. 5,) and the three wings of a hawk, symbolic of 
the idea " God," found on that of the Egyptian, (fig. 6.) I have already 
had occasion to remark, (Note on a Boodhist symbolic Coin, published 
in the Transactions of the Society,) that these three scores compose the 
word *XJJ Allah, the term for " God," among the Mohammedans, and 
which becomes the more marked in the Cufic characters,! composing 
that word. It is a very common, and abundant figure in Boodhist 
symbolism, and the interpretation given to it in the paper on the coin 
just referred to, was immediately acquiesced in by several learned 
natives and Boodhist priests, to whom it was shewn on my return to 

* Vide some remarks on this character by the Author, " Introduction to Grammar of 
the Language of Burmah," p. xxxix. 

f In those characters (^J|jlO the final a is shewn to be a member of the word, 
and to be radical, the same as in its Hebrew analogue DTl/M alahim, in which last 
the plurality of the root is evident. Thus in the plural number it is the word used for 
" God," in many parts of the Bible; and throughout the first chapterof Genesis, espe- 
cially verse 26. TWV^ OV6tt "VJW1 "Then said the Alahim (God,) we will make, 
&c. &c." The discussion of the characters that compose the Arabic word jJJ} is foreign 

to my present purpose, but I will merely say that I consider the initial \ alif, in no 
wise belonging to the word itself, but being a sort of formative prefix, article, or epi- 
thetic; that the second character now pronounced, and considered a A lam, was 
originally, perhaps long before the existence of alphabetical characters, pronounced as 
an " alif;" and that the expressive part of the word consisted, like the Hebrew term, 
of the sounds of simply Alif, Lam, and He. Some of the modern compounds of the 
word place the view I have given, if not beyond a doubt, at least far within the realms 
of probability. 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 629 

I have proposed to myself in this paper to confine myself to a Boo- 
dhistical view of these emblems ; and such view enables us happily to 
explain the reason why, whilst two of the glyphs are entire, the third 
should be complete, and yet not whole. According to Boodhism, there 
first existed Boodha, " Supreme Wisdom." From this emanated Dham- 
ma, " the Law." And from Dhamma, come those who fulfil it, Theng- 
gha, " the Congregation of the Saints." These are necessary sequences 
the one of the other ; no second among them being able to be, without 
that which precedes. Boodha has existed, and therefore its emblematic 
glyph is represented entire, and complete ; Dhamma has existed, and 
its emblematic glyph is likewise entire, and complete ; but Thenggha has 
not yet perfected its existence, and therefore its glyph is represented 
as existing, but not perfect and entire. 

The Dentals, (fig. 2. " &.") 

Immediately under the Triglyph, and on the face of the architrave, 
we find a number of triangular drops, or figures called from their shape, 
Dentals, or Dentils. In some cases they are six in number, but in others, 
the more correct and antient, they are five. I have remarked, in the 
case of modern Architecture where there has been a vitiated triglyph 
composed of three whole triglyphs, (fig. 7.) that the Dentals are six 
in number ; whereas when they occur in connection with the true 
triglyph, they are five. The number five in the mind of a Boodhist typi- 
fies the five commandments, in fact the law ;* but it is singular, that 
if such a one, speaking the Pali dialect, were to draw the attention of 
another person to these Dentals, he would employ the term pegnytseng, 
(pronounced something like peentseng) to identify them ; and this is the 
technical term employed to express the five commandments. f This 

* Conf. Grammar of Burmese Language, p. 90. 
f As it bears upon the typical value of the number "five," I have inserted the 
following portion of a note published in the work already alluded to " the name of the 
number five" (pegnytsa,) in the Pali language is composed of pegnya, which implies 
" wisdom, understanding;" the final tsa, is an expletive in very common use in the 
Pali language. It has been shewn (p. 90) that, in the eye of the modern Boodhist, the 
number 5 typifies the five commandments, in fact the law. It will be self-evident 
to the intelligent mind, how naturally that the fulfilment of the law was identified 
with " wisdom," and " understanding." Examples might be multiplied to show that 
it was so in the minds of the early races of mankind : " Behold, the fear of the Lord, 
that is wisdom; and to depart from evil, that is understanding." (Job. xxviii. 28.) 
"Give me understanding, and I shall keep thy law; yea, I shall observe it with my 

630 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

word is composed of the roots pegnytsa, or peentsa, " five," and anga, 
" parts." The term anga, however, has a somewhat peculiar power, it 
not only means the " part" of a " whole," or the " member" of a 
" body ;" but it implies that such " part" or " member," as far as re- 
gards its own individuality, is a complete object in itself. Thus, 
(Judson's Burm. Diet, in voce.) the cavalry, infantry, elephants, and 
chariots of an army, are styled angas, of that army. And it i3 thus 
that these five distinct Dentals having each an individual complete- 
ness in itself; but going towards the composition of a whole, would 
be styled pegnytseng, " the five angas." I have already observed that, 
speaking Boodhistically, from " Supreme Wisdom" " (Boodha) pro- 
ceeded the Law," (Dhamma). Or to speak in other words, it (Dhamma) 
may be said to be the mode in which Boodha (" Wisdom") mani- 
fests itself to the Thenggha, or " Congregation." Thus, as far as 
regards that " Congregation," Dhamma is " Wisdom." Or to speak 
so as to be understood by Christians, the Deity can only be ap- 
preciated by his followers in what he reveals of himself; now the 
revelations of himself by the Deity, to be consistent with the awful 
grandeur of his character must necessarily be commandments, the dic- 
tations of His Will. For it would be utterly inconsistent with a proper 
appreciation of that Being, to hold that he converses, in the usual ac- 
ceptation of that term, with His creatures. This idea is carried out in all 
Eastern dialects ; a term such as the Persian /o^^o *.3 firmoodun, which, 
when applied to the act of an equal, would imply " to order ;" when re- 
ferring to that of a superior, simply conveys " to speak, say." I have 
been particular in explaining, how that in one point of view the Deity 
{Boodha, " Wisdom") and His Law (Dhamma) are identical, and have 
mentioned that this Dhamma is typified by the number " five ;" for 
thus is explained how the Pali name of that number (pegnytsa) is de- 
ducible from pegnya, " wisdom ;" and it may guide us to the under- 
standing of Hor Apollo, where he says (Lib. I. c. 13.) that among the 

whole heart." (Ps. cxix. 34.) The same connection between "knowledge, wisdom, 
and understanding," and the precepts of the law, exist in the Burmese language. 

The pure Burman term for these five commandments is OOOOC o thiedeng, which 

implies " news, information ;" and is composed of the root QQ thie, " to know, per- 
ceive, understand," and QQ Q teng, (with, or without the points) "to contain, hold, 
&c." Introduction to Grammar of Burmese Language, p. xi. 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 631 

antient Egyptians a star represented " the Mundane God, likewise fate, 
likewise destiny," likewise the number "five" This Star was five- 
rayed, and is used in those mysteries, which have come down to us to 
represent the same idea that it did among that people ; and, from what 
has been said, it is probable that it did not exactly represent the idea 
of " God," but of that revelation of Himself alone appreciable by men, 
viz. His Law. The five commandments composing this Law are mere- 
ly inculcations of those duties, the performance of which is absolutely 
necessary for the preservation of social order, and happiness ; in fact, 
they are the five points of fellowship, viz. refraining from, 1st, panatie- 
pata, " destroying life ;" 2dly, ddiennadana, " theft ;" Sdly, kamethoomiets- 
tshatsara, " adultery ;" 4thly, moothawada, " falsehood ;" and 5thly, thoo- 
ramerayamadzdzhapamadathtana, " intoxicating drinks." It will be re- 
marked how truly all these may be styled points of fellowship, referring 
as they do solely to those duties necessary for the maintenance of order 
in society, and not, as in the Decalogue of the Hebrew, inculcating any 
of the obligations due to one's God. Another connection between the 
number "five," and a "god" in Boodhism, is shewn by the circum- 
stance that Boodhism holds that there are " five Boodhs,"* who charac- 
terise the present world ; four of whom have appeared, and the fifth 
who is yet to appear. We find a similar connection existing in refer- 
ence to their sacred number, in Brahminised Boodhism as it obtains 
among the Nepalese, for they hold that the number of Boodhs is 
" seven ;" (vide, Hodgson's Tracts on Boodhism,) that being a sacred 
number in Brahminism, and among the Semitic families of the globe, 
but enjoying no particular sacred value in true Boodhism. 

Having thus discussed the Triglyph and Dentals, we will proceed to 
those ornaments which are generally placed on the metopes of the 
frieze. These generally are the head of a dead Bull, or Ox ; or a Rose, 
or Rosette, generally styled a " Patera." I have already remarked, 
that it is only in connection with the idea of perfectibility that we must 
endeavour to realize the symbolism of these emblematic ornaments. 
We have already seen how that Boodhistically viewed, the Triglyph em- 
blematises the union of Boodha, Dhamma, Thenggha; forming when 

* A Boodh, comes nearest among them to the definition of a God, being the sole 
true object of worship. 

4 Q, 

632 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

united the Tharanagoon, " the Supreme and decisive attributes." It is 
thus that in the Burmese (a Boodhistical) language, when the term 
thoon, " three," is applied in an attributive signification to a person, in 
fact if it be said, " so, and so threes," it implies that he performs those 
moral duties and obligations, that make him a member of the Theng- 
gha, that " Congregation" who fulfil the ■* Law," thus making himself 
one of the Three. I have also endeavoured to shew how that viewed 
in a similar light, the Dentals would admirably represent Dhamma. 
And now I proceed to point out how that the Ox's, or Bull's skull, and 
the Rose, in the same way, represent the numbers of the Thenggha. 

We will recapitulate that the earliest symbols by which Boodhism 
endeavoured to represent her ideas were numbers. This we have shewn 
by the attributive signification of certain numbers in Boodhistical lan- 
guages, which only can be accounted for by their allusions to certain 
tenets of the Boodhist faith. For instance, if it was held that such 
and such, or so many components, or qualities, existed in the various 
individualities of the physical and metaphysical world, then the name 
of that number necessarily conveyed the idea of, and typified them. 
The next step was materialising into tangibility these numerical types ; 
this was done by the corresponding number of marks or scores. This 
class of symbols appears to have been more used for the illustration of 
those higher objects and ideas, which did not pertain to mankind, and 
his converse here below. Soon, however, certain objects of the animal 
creation were chosen, on account of certain peculiarities in their temper, 
conformation, or mode of existence, to represent cognate ideas, especi- 
ally in connection with the correspondent qualities among mankind. 
Thus, there are three grades in the Thenggha. 1st, the Boodhithatwa ; 
2ndly, the Pratyeka Boodha ; 3rdly, the Thrawaka. The first was 
typified by an Ox, the second by a Deer, and the third by a Sheep. 
(Conf. Travels of Foue Koe Ki, by A. Remusat, p. 10.) The first then 
is the one to which we must look for the interpretation of this Ox's 
or Bull's skull,* which we find forming an ornament of these friezes, 
(fig. 2. "c") I am aware, that it has been generally attempted by 
practical masons to explain the presence of this skull, by holding it to 

♦This mode of representation by synecdoche is very abundant in hieroglyphic, and 
emblematic sculptury ; the head being employed as an abbreviation of the whole ani- 
mal : thus we say, so many " head of cattle." 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 633 

refer to the sacrifice of bulls and oxen;* but then in that case, it 
would have been the representation of the head of a live animal. Duteil 
considers, that the circumstance of its being the head of a dead animal, 
(referring to the instance of the representation being that of dead 
Ram's head,) alludes to the destruction of the world by fire, when by the 
precession of the equinoxes the sun shall again lead the opening year 
in the constellation of Aries. (Diet, des Hierog.) Dupuis likewise 
(Origine de tous les Cultes,) declares the worship of the Bull originated 
at the period when that luminary opened the year in Taurus. Indeed 
he considers that all the various religious myths referred to the sun. 
That Hercules in his twelve labours was the sun in his twelve zodiacal 
signs ; that Jason in search of the fleece of Colchis, was a mythologi- 
cal allusion to the god of day entering Aries ; he supports the accu- 
sation, brought by its early opponents, that Christianity was a species 
of Mithraism, and declares that the birth of Christ was nothing but a 
spiritualism of the sun in Virgo. Without disputing these positions, we 
have still to account how this animal was held in such high veneration, 
as to have had accorded to it, with others, this stellar apotheosis, neces- 
sary to have enabled their version of the myth to have had an origin. 
We see how Boodhism explains this by having employed them as types, 
and the animal under discussion, as the representative of the highest 
moral perfection that humanity is capable of; and I shall proceed to 
show how perfectly in keeping it was that the crowning point of this 
perfection should be held to be " Death." 

It is the Boodhithatwa " the perfector of wisdom," who alone is able 
directly to attain Niebhan, " the not to be," without having to undergo 
any more transmigrations. It is for this state of annihilation that 
every Boodhist pines ; and it can be attained but by death alone. In 
all those mysteries which were held in such high veneration by the 
Antients, and the types of which have descended in a chain of unbroken 
succession even to our own days, the attainment of the crowning point 
of the craft was typical of Death. It was alone by passing through 
the vale of its shadow that perfect light could be obtained. Apuleius, 
in the eleventh book of his Metamorphosis, or Fable of the Golden Ass, 

* It is singular to remark how rapidly this mistaken idea was adopted by the Greeks ; 
for we find very often the friezes of the Corinthian order occupied by a long sacrifi- 
cial procession. 

634 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

describes minutely this completion of initiation : the night-like dark- 
ness ; the approach to the confines of Death ; and then in the very midst 
of this darkness, the light revealed to him. In some of the various 
versions of these mysteries, it is said that the candidate was shrouded 
in the shudder- cloth of Death, was placed in that narrow home to which 
we all must go, was raised again, and went forth the new-born, and 
perfect craftsman. In others, it was represented by the candidate pass- 
ing through an oval, symbolising that as he entered into this scene of 
woe, so must he go forth again. Thus was it that we find Death styled 
in antient writ " the portal of life." It was thus that clefts in trees, 
and openings in rocks were ever held in veneration among the vulgar 
of all nations ; passing one's body through them is a regenerating process 
gone through by Hindoo devotees in the present time, and even in our 
own land the practice it is said exists in some parts of the country of 
passing children through such openings to cure them of the rickets. 
A similar ceremony is the bathing in those khonds, (typical of the 
opening of the womb,) or still pools, where a river enlarges into a 
circle, and which is held in India as a regenerating process. 

We find the Apostle Paul referring in a most marked manner to certain 
appearances in the celebration of this grade, and he too yearns for the 
time when he shall know perfectly. I allude to the often-quoted chapter 
the 13th of 1st Corinthians. The word there translated " charity,"* is in 
the original ayair^ "love," and implies that bond of brotherhood which 
ever was the watchword of those mysteries which he speaks of in the 2nd 
verse of the chapter. The whole bent of the chapter is singly this ; it is 
one of the many allusions he makes to these mysteries, and he says, that 
although he may be ever so well read in them, and be able to expound 
them ever so clearly, yet if he is not imbued with that "love," which 
is the foundation-stone of them all, it profiteth him nothing. And he 
goes on to say, that in this life we can but know in part, and we pro- 
phesy (announce) in part ; but that when the end shall arrive, then that 

* The word "charity," in the confined import which we give to it, is little else 
than tXtrj/JLOOVVr) " alms-giving ;" but it is derived from the Greek yapiQ-iTQQ, 
which is a most expressive root, implying that union of "mercy, thankfulness, and 
love," which goes to the composition of that exquisite quality "grace;" a qualify 
which, whilst it is an attribute characteristic of a God, is still to be discerned in .the 
tracery of a leaf. 

1845.1 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 635 

which is in part shall be throughly rested from labour. I quote the ori- 
ginal with the accepted rendering, and will detail why I give the meta- 
phrastic version above. eK pspovq yap yzvuacofxtv, Km Ik pepovg 
7rpo<j)iTzvoiJ.eV orav Se t\dy to reXuov, tote to zk peaovQ icaTtp 
yrj6r]<J£rai. " For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But 
when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be 
done away." The word here translated " prophesy," is 7rpo<piTev(o 9 
and implies correctly, " to announce, explain," as the oracles of a God. 
The word rendered " perfect," is to rfXaov, the neuter of the adjec- 
tive of TtXog, "the end." This connection between the ideas of 
<■ end" and " perfection," exists in all languages. The word rendered 
" shall be done away," is JCOTap*y»y0i?<r£Tai, which literally bears the 
interpretation I have given it ; Kara in composition implying, " com- 
pleteness, thoroughness ;" and apXeoj being derived from a privative, 
and zpyov " work." He proceeds in his allusion, and says, " For now 
we see through a glass darkly ; but then face to face : now I know in 
part ; but then shall I know even as also I am known." It is easy to 
perceive to what he refers, when he says that it " was seen through a 
glass ; but then face to face ;" the " then" alluding to the time when 
that which was in part should be done away, when that which is per- 
fect, (the end) is come ; the seeing it " face to face," alludes to when 
he shall stand in the presence of the Great Revealer of all secrets, who 
will then expound to him all the mysteries of His Will. What is still 
more singular is, that the word rendered " darkly," is in the original 
tvaiviy/maTi, " in covert allusion," or " emblematically expressed." 
We may gather then the following particulars from this description : 
1st. of all that he refers to something typifying the approach of death, 
the coming of the to Ttceiov ; 2ndly, that during that, something typi- 
fying Death, he saw something through a glass ; 3rdly, that this last was 
expressed enigmatically, or by an emblem ; and 4thly, that it in its 
enigma referred to the Revealer of all mysteries, whom he was to stand 
<l face to face," with, when the time came that he should know, even as 
also he was known. We have seen how that among the antient Egyp- 
tians, the first mystagogues of Antiquity, this Being was emblematically 
represented by a Star ; and we have said that the Egyptian Star was 
invariably five-rayed. 

636 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

I have thus, I trust, sufficiently explained why this Bull's or Ox's 
skull, typical in Boodhism of the highest grade, the Boodhithatwa, is 
represented as pertaining to Death ; that end being itself most essen- 
tially necessary to the fulfilment of perfection. 

Rose, or Rosette. 

We now come to the last of these emblems, which I propose to discuss ; 
viz. the Rose-shaped Ornament often found occupying, like the preced- 
ing, the metopes of friezes. This ornament is, I believe, generally styled a 
" Patera," by practical architects, and is held to be a representation of the 
dish which was employed in the presentation of offerings among the An- 
tients ; but it must be a singular sort of a dish to have the petals and 
stamens of a Rose. It is met with under variously altered forms, some- 
times presenting a type so vitiated, as to have lost almost all its floral 
characteristics ; but it is much more similar to a Rose, than is the 
so-called Rose Ornament of the Corinthian Abacus, which we shall have 
occasion to discuss more fully. In the case of modern buildings, 
where, on account of their public character, attention has been paid to 
their details, I have observed that this ornament has preserved, if I may 
use the expression, its botany ; whereas in private, or carelessly execut- 
ed edifices, it is difficult at times to recognise it. It is found alternat- 
ing with a sort of lily-formed flower at the base of the Doric capital 
immediately above the Astragal. 

Considering it then, as I did from the very first, as a Rose ; it was as 
I have remarked in the commencement of this paper, the only one of 
these ornaments to which I could not immediately apply a Boodhistical 
interpretation. Still, as Boodhism was so fond of recording her ideas in 
symbols, and as she was by no means restricted in her choice to the 
animal kingdom, and as this emblem, from its occupying the position 
of others importing " supremacy and perfection," must necessarily have 
had a kindred power ; it appeared to me in fullest keeping, that the 
Rose should be there, as the most appropriate deputy from the floral 
regions of Creation, the fittest representative " after its kind" of such 
high qualities. It was therefore with no small delight that I found this 
regal flower occupying a place in Boodhist sculptury, which left no 
ambiguity to its meaning ; and in a position identical with that in 
which it is often found in modern Architecture, viz. on each side, and 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 637 

towards the upper angle of a porch, or gateway. This signification, 
then, which I have thus accorded to the Rose, of typifying " supre- 
macy and perfection, chiefdom and eminence," is one that must find a 
confirmation in every intelligent mind. There is a curious passage in 
the second book of the " Erotics" of Achilles Tatius, describing the 
loves of Clitophon and Leucippe, which happily supports my views — 
u rolq avOeaiv tiOzXev o Ztvg kiriQuvai fiaaiXia, to poSov av 
twv avOetov sj^aaiXsve. yrjg ecrrl k6(J/lioq 9 <J>vtiov ayXaiafia, o(j>9aX- 
(jiog avOsujv, Xzi/mwvog kpvQy]fia 9 KaXXog acrrpairTov, 'spiOTog 
icvku, A'typodiTiqv Trpo^evei, sveiSegi <j>vXXoig Kopa, svKivriroig 
ireraXoig rpv<j>a, to 7rlraXov tio lefyvpi*) ysXa. » If Jove were 
desirous of placing a lord over the parterre, surely the Rose would king 
it among flowers. It is the ornament of the earth, the beauty of 
plants, the beloved (literally, the eye) of flowers, the blush of the mea- 
dow, dazzling in its loveliness. It breathes Love, it invites Venus, it is 
tressed in beautiful leaves; it luxuriates midst the trembling foliage, 
and its petals laugh in the zephyr." 

I have already remarked, that this Rose (fig. 1. "a.") (which it 
will be particularly noticed is meant for a wild or dog Rose) was 
found in a position that left no doubt of its being typical of supre- 
macy ; for it is placed (characteristically) over the head of a figure 
holding the umbrella, an insignia of royalty and supremacy, among 
all nations under the sun, (or more correctly perhaps in proportion 
as they were under sun) and crowned likewise with the tiara of 
chiefdom, the prototype of that which we find adorning the head of 
images of Siva, and of which a representative has descended to the 
present day, and is used in theatrical performances in Burmah and 
Arracan, as the head covering of kings and princes. Thus the whole 
figure may be read, 1st, from the insignia in its possession to have been 
a royal personage ; 2ndly, to have been a Boodhithatwa, from the Rose 
typical of that grade being placed characteristically over its head. It is 
thu« I consider it to be meant for a representation of Gaudama when he 
was on this earth, but previous to his being imbued with the Boodhic 
spell. This mode of placing an object over a figure to characterise it, 
is found abundantly in antient Sculptury. Thus we see the five- rayed 

638 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

Star of Destiny, of which we have spoken so often, placed over the 
head of a figure, (fig. 8.) representing that Deity. The Rosette likewise 
forms an expressive ornament of the most important portion of the 
clothing, in fact of the badge of the modern mysteries. 

A circumstance to be noticed in this figure is, that the ears are re- 
presented with the lobes pierced, and filled with small cylinders, by 
which the bottom of the ear is brought nearly as low as the shoulder. 
This is a peculiarity that exists in all Boodhist figures throughout India, 
and is a fashion that still prevails in India beyond the Ganges, and in 
those mountainous ranges where Braminism has never obtained. It is 
most probable that this custom was adopted from the traditionary belief, 
that the ears of Gaudama were so formed ; for we find it recorded of 
that god in Boodhist scriptures, that his stature was eighteen cubits ; 
and that the lobes of his ears rested upon his shoulders. This mode 
therefore of piercing, and loading to distention, the lobes of the ears, 
appears to have been adopted in remembrance of that divinity, and to 
have deserted the plains of Hindostan, and to have taken refuge in 
farther lands, and inaccessible recesses together with that worship of 
which it was one of the accompaniments. 

Before bringing my communication to a close, I must refer to one 
other architectural ornament, a portion of which is found as a very 
abundant symbol on Boodhist coins ; I allude to the so-called Rose 
Ornament on the Corinthian Abacus, (fig. 9). There, however, can be 
no mistaking the flower to be a representation of the Helianthus, or 
sun-flower, which appears in this instance to have been employed to 
symbolise the Sun ; for from it proceeds a vivifying ray which terminates 
in a triple head.* This flame-shaped symbol, but without the triple 
head, is found on Boodhist coins, (fig. 10). No definite meaning has 
been given to it. Marsden declares it not to be the representation of a 
"flame," but of the conch sacred to Vishnu; but Boodhism holds 
nothing of that god. Its character however is sufficiently determined, 
from the circumstance of its being found in identically the same form 

* It is singular that this might almost express the amount of the knowledge, w"hich 
moderns have arrived at of the components of the Solar ray being three ; the illumi- 
nating ray, the heating ray, and the chemical ray. It is not, 1 believe, yet satisfac- 
torily settled whether there is not a magnetic ray. The other three are, however, 

1845.] On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. 639 

on the hieroglyphic sculptures of Egypt ; sometimes by itself, some- 
times rising from a sort of lamp, or cresset, (fig. 11). Champollion 
mistook it for a "tear" (^S XX^ )> and therefore consigned to it, in his 
phonitic system, the power of an " R." 

There is another symbol of frequent occurrence on Boodhist coins, 
especially on the one which you did me the favour of submitting to my 
inspection, and of which a description and explanation has appeared in 
the Journal of the Society. I give a representation of that side of the 
coin on which that symbol occurs, (fig. 12). In the paper alluded to, 
I declared that to a person acquainted with Boodhist cosmology, 
there could not be the slightest doubt, but that the whole of that side 
of the coin was intended as a symbolic representation of former uni- 
verses in general, and of this universe in particular. And I moreover 
declared, that although I could not give any definite interpretation to 
the symbol occupying the centre, shewn detached at fig. 13; yet 
that from its relative position, and granting that my interpretation 
of the rest was correct, there was no doubt in my own mind that 
it was meant to represent this world in particular. I am glad to be 
able to say, that the whole of my views in reference to that coin, 
have since met with the valuable acquiescence of a friend, (Captain 
Phayre, Assistant Commissioner of Arracan,) who is not only deeply 
read in Boodhist literature, but has likewise an extensive collection of 
these coins. It is singular, however, that the following simple inter- 
pretation of that symbol, should not have occurred to me at the moment. 
We know that among the cabalists, as well as among others whose 
systems originated in the same source, the triangle with its apex up- 
wards typified " fire," as did that with its apex downwards, " water." 
In the antient system of ideographic representation, when an object was 
represented repeated more than once, it signified " plurality, reiteration," 
in reference to that object. Now the two sets composing this figure 
are so represented, with their points meeting in a circle, (the universe), 
having a point within it (this globe) ; thus symbolising the reiterated 
effects of fire and water upon this mundane universe ; which agrees 
exactly with Boodhist cosmology ; for according to it this world has 
continually been alternately destroyed by fire and water ; whence its 
Pali name langa, from lau, " reiteration, to be again and again." 

Yours faithfully and truly, 

Tiios. Latter. 
4 R 

640 On the Buddhist Emblem of Architecture. [No. 165. 

P. S. — Since writing the above — on shewing my explication of the 
side of the coin above referred to, and especially of the central emblem, 
to an intelligent Boodhist priest, he was much delighted with, and 
acquiesced in, it. On being asked what he had hitherto considered the 
central emblem to have referred to, he replied ; " to the Rajpaleng, or 
throne, on which Gaudama was impregnated with the Boodhic spell." 
On being pressed for his reasons, he said, "because it bore a resemblance 
to that species of foot-stool, called a drum Morah /" It is thus, that a 
somewhat similar shaped figure has been so employed in the pictorial 
representations of the life of Gaudama. With reference to the Rose-shaped 
Ornament discussed, I may be accused of a botanical inaccuracy, as the 
number of petals in the species Rosa arvensis, and Rosa canima, are 
" five ;" whereas that of those in the representation on the sculpture are 
" eight ;" but to this I attach but little importance : 1st, because the 
whole appertains -to a rude, and inaccurate age ; and 2ndly, because it 
is peculiarly the genius of the Burmese language to style, and consider 
as a Rose, any rosi-form flower. With reference to the Dentals : they 
appertain, I believe, principally to the Ionic order, and are of rarer oc- 
currence in the Doric. In the secluded locality from which I write, I 
have no means, in order to determine their proper number, of consulting 
any standard works on the subject ; but in the case of modern buildings 
of a public character, I do not remember to have met with any other 
number than " five." I may as well mention, that the present is not 
the only instance in which the Rose forms an ornament in Boodhist 
architecture ; they were found in abundance in various other Boodhist 
cave temples, which I visited in old Arracan Town. I was likewise 
informed by a friend, who had visited most of the cave temples of West- 
ern India, that the Rose is found alternating with a horse- shoe device, 
and with a tiger's head ; and others, as ornaments on the friezes of those 


Notes, chiefly Geological, across the Peninsula from Mangalore, in Lat. 
N. 12° 49', by the Bisly Pass to Madras, in Lat. N. 13° 4'. By 
Captain Newbold, F. R. S., M. N. I., Assistant Commissioner, 

Mangalore, the civil and military head-quarters of South Canara, and 
a seaport of considerable traffic, stands on the Malabar, or Western 
coast of India, in Lat. 12° 49' N., Long. 75° 0' E. 

It is situated on a sort of peninsula or tongue of land between two 
rivers, which unite in its front in an extensive backwater, or lagoon, 
almost shut out from the sea by a long narrow bank of sand. There 
was formerly a deep opening on this sandbank by which ships could 
enter the sheltered waters of the lagoon after being lightened of their 
cargo ; but its depth has been considerably lessened by the formation 
of another opening. The Coast patamars and Arabian buggalas can 
still pass into the lagoon with safety. 

The rivers are navigable for country boats nearly to the foot of the 
ghauts, and form advantageous channels of commercial communication 
with the interior. The principal exports are to Surat, Bombay, the 
ports on the Malabar Coast and Arabia, and consist chiefly of rice, 
betel-nuts, pepper, cardamoms, cassia, sandal-wood, turmeric, and salt- 
fish. The chief imports are cloths from Bombay, Surat, Madras, Bellary, 
Bangalore, and Cuddapah. 

The higher parts of the peninsula present a thick bed of laterite, 
intersected by small flat-bottomed vallies opening out towards the sea, 
and flanked by steep hills of laterite. The summits of these hills are 
usually flat, like those of trap or sandstone, with steeply sloping sides 
and occasionally precipitous cliffs. In structure the laterite is porous, 
and sometimes cavernous. Dr. Herklots, in his Account of Mahomedan 
Customs, describes the sacred shrines of Shaikh Fureed at Cuddry, about 
two miles from Mangalore, as being situated in a cave in a centre of a 
perpendicular rock composed of laterite which is said to lead all the 
way to Hydrabad, 450 miles ! The extent, which cannot be very great, 
has not yet been ascertained. 

Areola, or Feringhipett . From Mangalore by Cuddry Devasthanum, 
and Koonoor to Areola, about nine miles, the road lies over laterite, 
and lateritic gravel. About two miles on the east of Mangalore, on a 

642 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

laterite hill in mid air was swinging (June 16th 1837) the decompos- 
ing body of the rebel, Bungar Rajah — the gibbet creaking in the wind. 
His predecessor had been hanged by Tippoo for his loyalty to the Eng- 
lish ! Areola stands on the North bank of the Comardaire, or Southern 
Mangalore river, and is called Feringhipett, from the circumstance of its 
being the early residence of the Concan Catholic Christians under the 
protection of the Sekeri Rajahs, and who were latterly expelled by 
Tippoo when he destroyed the town. The remains of the old church 
stand on the hill, built in the usual massive Portuguese style. The tide 
is said to come up to this place. 

Buntwal. Buntwal also lies on the N. bank of the S. Mangalore 
river. The country between this and Mangalore is hilly, composed of 
small hills and vallies watered by rivulets. Where rice cultivation 
does not prevail, the surface is covered with scattered brushwood and 
palm trees. The soil is red and lateritic. The hills are generally 
rounded, or run in the flat- topped, crescent- shaped curves, like those 
near Capergode. All that I had an opportunity of examining were of 
laterite ; but hornblende rock containing a dark foliated mica, is seen 
in angular blocks in the bed of the river at Buntwal. The river here 
is apparently from 150 to 200 yards broad, and now (June 1837) 
unfordable. Native boats of considerable size ascend the river from 
Mangalore ; Buntwal and Pani Mangalore being the principal entrepot 
with the interior. The masses of rock in the river bed are consider- 
able impediments. 

In Buchanan's time (1801) Buntwal contained only 200 houses, but 
then it had suffered from the forays of the Coorg Rajah. It is now (1837) 
said to comprise 800 houses, inhabited chiefly by Moplay merchants, 
Concanis, and a few Jains. It is also capital of a taluk, with a popula- 
tion of about one lac, and a revenue of nearly two and a half lacs of 

That curious sect the Jains, have a busti here. The charred rafters 
and roofless walls of many of the houses attest the ravages committed in 
the insurrection just quelled, (June 1837). 

Uperangady. From Buntwal easterly, as the ghauts are approached, 
the surface of the country becomes more jungly, less cultivated, and 
less populous : the formation still laterite, covering granitic and hypo- 
gene rocks, which are occasionally seen in beds of rivulets and low 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore 643 

situations. The road still lies along the N. bank of Comardairi, or S. 
Mangalore river, which just below Uperangady bifurcates : the north 
stream descends the ghauts in the vicinity, and the south stream rolls 
down the steep of the lofty Subramani. The former is crossed to the 
village, now (June) unfordable. 

Across this ford a dash was made on the insurgents by Colonel 
Green's force, the pagoda fired, and the principal idols defaced and 
broken; nothing remained but the tiled porticos and blackened walls. 
The natives were carefully collecting the fragments of their desecrated 
gods, and piling them up in the best order they could. The village is 
large and populous, and contains besides Brahminical temples, a mat'h 
of the Jungums, priests of the Lingayet sect, and a Jain busti. 

Cuddab. From Uperangady to Neranky, and thence to Cuddab, the 
surface becomes more rugged and hilly, and the jungle, which is said 
to be infested by elephants and tigers, higher and thicker. The road 
leaving the northern branch approaches the southern, or Subramani 
branch of the river. One of its tributaries, the Dhillampari, is crossed 
by boat to Cuddab, a village containing many Concani Brahmins, 
with Goadahs, Tulavas, Bunters, Walliars and Jains, the last of whom 
have a busti here. I could scarcely find food or shelter, the shops and 
Traveller's bungalow having been burnt by the insurgents. The Bungar 
Rajah was, I believe, captured near this, in the house of a Jain. The 
geological formation continues much the same as on the last march. 

Bottom of the Bisly Ghaut. The road to Culgund lies over hilly, 
jungly ground. Two small tributaries to the Subramani river, the Bil- 
lola and Cuddoo, are crossed ; both fordable, though the monsoon 
rains are now descending literally in torrents, and the rocks and preci- 
pices alive with leaping muddy rills. The jungle leeches were here 
equally alive, and vigorous in their insidious attacks, and before I was 
aware of their presence, had nearly fainted from loss of blood with 
which my shoes were filled. 

The first sensation is that of itching ; and, in withdrawing the hand 
from relieving that sensation, the traveller finds it covered with blood. 
In a state of fasting this animal is rarely more than an inch long, and 
hardly so thick as a small fiddle string. It has evidently keen powers 
of scenting blood, and if the traveller stop but momentarily in the road, 
they fasten on him in astonishing numbers, raising themselves on their 

644 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

tails to strike like so many little cobra de capellas. Until gorged with blood, 
they move in this way with considerable rapidity. I have only found them 
troublesome during the monsoon, when the paths and trees are drip- 
ping with rain. In the dry season they retire to the marshes and other 
moist situations. Dr. Davy describes a similar sort of jungle leech in 
his History of Ceylon,* and says that their bites have in too many in- 
stances occasioned the loss of limb, and even of life. He mentions various 
remedies, but I found the best was to wash the leg with tepid water at 
the end of the march ; rest it, and to avoid, above all things, scratching 
the bite. In case of a wounded vein, burnt rag may be applied to stop 
the haemorrhage. 

Culgund is a revenue choukie ; contains about thirty or forty houses 
chiefly of Goudahs, Komtis, and a few Attiah brahmans ; and was 
lately occupied by the insurgents under Appiah, Mallepa, and Timmapa 
Goudah, who were however soon dislodged by Colonel Williamson's 
force, which marched down the Bisly Ghaut from Bangalore. 

About two miles from Culgund 1 crossed the Udhulla stream, which 
was then running with frightful velocity, on a rude raft hastily con- 
structed on the spot of a few green bamboos lashed together. 

The sand of this stream abounds in bits of garnet, quartz, and frag- 
ments chiefly of hornblendic rocks, which now become the principal 
surface rock, though covered by thick beds of red clay into which the 
hornblende schist passes by weathering. Laterite is now seen less fre- 
quently, as the ascent of the ghauts commences at the bottom of the 
Bisly Pass, about one mile from Udhulla. 

Ascent of the Bisly Ghaut. The ascent lies up a transverse break in 
the lowered prolongation of the ghauts, immediately to the north of 
the mountain Subramani, and for some distance along the right bank 
of the Subramani river. This sacred mountain is the highest peak in 
this part of the ghaut chain, though only rising, it is said, to the eleva- 
tion of 561 1 feet above the level of the sea. Its summit was concealed 
in monsoon clouds, but its bare shoulders of grey granite rise in a 
magnificent sweep from the green forests which mantle its back, and 
fringe its base. 

After leaving the river bank of the stream, the road leads for four 
miles up the steepest part of the Pass, relieved here and there by short 
* Travels in Ceylon, pp. 103 and 104. 

]845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 645 

flat steps, or terraces, till the summit is attained ; when the route lies 
along a cross valley having high hills on both sides, round the bases of 
which the road winds for some miles to the clear table-land of Mysore, 
where the land subsides in long gentle swells covered with delicious 
verdure, and the dense jungle breaks in plantation-like patches, and 
umbrageous clusters of noble trees. In the gorge of the Pass lay the 
broken barricades of the insurgents. 

At the western foot of the Pass, and along the base of the Subramani, 
hornblende rock, containing garnets and dark-coloured mica, occurs, with 
veins of a very large grained granite composed of white quartz, red and 
white felspar, and silvery mica in very large plates : gneiss is seen on 
the steep face of the ghaut, and hornblende rock often coated with the 
red clay, and its own detritus. This formation continues to the sum- 
mit of the ghaut. 

Uchinghy. The formation here is generally gneiss. One of the hills 
of this rock is crested by hornblende rock in large prismatic masses. 
Patches of laterite occur, covering these rocks in various localities, and 
a few bosses of granite. 

Kensum Ooscottah. This village is fairly on the table-land : near it 
I crossed the Hemavatti, one of the principal tributaries to the Cauvery, 
in a canoe. It is about fifty paces broad, with steep banks of clay, silt, 
and sand with mica. Near a temple to the Lingum in the vicinity of the 
village, mammillary masses of gneiss project from the red alluvial soil. 
This rock has here lost much of its quartz, and is of that variety of 
thick bedded gneiss which, in a hand specimen, might pass for granite ; 
the felspar is often of a reddish tint. Laterite is found in this vicinity 
a little below the surface in a soft sectile state. 

The face of the surrounding country is diversified with low-rounded 
hills, often covered with a red clayey soil, which yields during the moist 
months a verdant carpet of short grass. 

Springs of good water are found at depths of from twelve to eighteen 
feet below the surface. Rice and raggy are the staple articles of culti- 

Ooscotta comprises about one hundred houses, inhabited chiefly by 
Lingayets and a few Carnati brahmans of the Smartal and Sri Vaishna- 
vam sects, and a few Dewangurs. 

A. solitary Sri Vaishnavam brahman resides in the fort. The fort is 
said to have been built or greatly improved by Hyder, but is a place of 

646 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

no greater strength than the ordinary second class ghurries of S. India. 
It contains two temples, one dedicated to Iswara and his consort Par- 
vati, and the other to Angini Dewi. There are two others in the Pet- 
tah, to Angini and Buswunt. The staple articles of cultivation are rice 
and raggy. 

Pallium. The road from Kensum Ooscotta into Mysore, lies over 
an undulating country, on the surface of which the dwarf thorn and aloe 
begin to be more thickly sprinkled than nearer the ghauts. Gneiss still 
outcrops in mammillary masses from a reddish alluvial soil. Here is a 
Jain temple to Pursonath, and an old pagoda to Jinadur. There are 
several Jain families still residing here. Some miles to the N. is the 
famous ancient capital of Hallibede, where there are some Jain buslis. 
Most of the inscriptions I have had copied. 

Hassan and Gram. Gneiss and hornblende schist are still the prevalent 
rocks. Talc slate with layers of a fine greenish potstone interstratified 
also occurs, of which the elaborately carved walls of the temple to 
Keysu Dev, are constructed. At Hassan there is a large fort repaired 
by Hyder and Tippoo, with a glacis, covered way, dry ditch, and a sort of 
fausse braye ; also a Jain temple to Pursonath. Gram is also defended 
by a fort of no strength, and of considerable antiquity : it is quadran- 
gular, and has square towers connected with a high stone curtain and 
a mud parapet, the whole surrounded by a dry ditch. It occupies 
a slight ascent. The mica in the gneiss near Gram is sometimes 
replaced by talc, and passes into protogine. 

My attention in this part of Mysore was often attracted by heaps of 
stones near the road side to which, as I have seen in Catholic countries 
on spots where murders have occurred, the passers-by each added a 
stone. From some of these, half-eaten portions of the human frame 
often protruded, dragged forth by the hyaenas or jackals. On enquiry 
I found they were the remains of the cultivating caste, called the 
Wokeligars, who, if they happen to die of a sort of leprosy called "Kor" 
or Thun. are not suffered by the Brahmins to be buried below the 
ground in the ordinary way, " lest no rain should fall in the land" ! 

Chinrayapatam. After exploring the Corundum pits of Golushully, 
&c. (described in the Journal Royal Asiatic Society, No. XIV. p. 219) 
I passed through Kulkairy to Chinrayapatam, and thence by the Corun- 
dum localities of Appanhully and Barkenhully to Hirasaye, Cudhully, 
and Belloor to Ootradroog, granite, protogine, gneiss, talcose, and horn- 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 647 

blende schists, penetrated occasionally by trap- dykes, constitute the 
formation, overlaid here and there by patches of laterite or kunkur, on 
which rests the surface soil. The latter is usually reddish and sandy. 
Sometimes these deposits are wanting, when the substratum consists of 
the gravelly detritus of the subjacent rocks. At Belladaira a large bed 
of ferruginous quartz occurs. Country bare looking. 

Chinrayapatam was anciently a Hindu town of some importance, and 
governed by a Bellala prince. There is still a busti here to the 24 Pir- 
thunkars. The fort was greatly added to by Hyder and Tippoo ; but 
after all is of no real strength. The Hindu sculptures in the interior 
are for the most part executed in the potstone of the surrounding 
formation. Inscription on stone, dated 1400 A. S. 

Ootradroog. The mass of granite on which stands the Droog or 
fortress, is somewhat saddle-shaped, and runs nearly N. and S., it termi- 
nates abruptly at either extremity. The northern extremity, crowned 
by the citadel, is a sheer scarp of rock nearly 200 feet high : its base is 
rugged with large precipitated masses. The southern extremity is also 
fortified, and the two forts are connected by two walls running along 
and enclosing the entire length of the ridge on which stands the re- 
mains of a small village. 

From the top is a fine view of the peak of Sivagunga, the highest in 
Mysore (4600 feet) ; and of the great rock of Severndroog. The granite 
is similar to, but less porphyritic than, that of Severndroog. 

Ootradroog was stormed in 1791, by Colonel Stuart, just previous to 
the first siege of Seringapatam. 

Severndroog. From Ootradroog I proceeded to Maugri, which has a 
handsome pettah, originally built by Kempye Goura, the founder of the 
fortress of Severndroog ; and thence ascended the stupendous mass of 
granite on which stands the small pagoda and fort of Severndroog. The 
country for a considerable distance is wild and woody, abounding with 
low hills and rocks, among which a porphyritic granite prevails. The 
intervening vallies watered by the Arkawati and its tributaries, are in 
general well cultivated. A magnetic iron sand is found in the beds of 
almost all the rivulets, and smelting furnaces are numerous throughout 
this romantic tract. 

The base of the great porphyritic mass of Severndroog is surrounded 
by tall forest trees, below which grows an underwood in which the 

4 s 

648 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

bamboo flourishes in great luxuriance. A deep ravine, forming a nullah 
bed, affords a convenient shelter for the wild beasts which infest it. 
Not far from the place where we crossed, I observed a capacious tiger- 
trap. The place has been nearly deserted since it was stormed by 
Lord Cornwallis in 1791, from the deadliness, it is said, of the climate ; 
caused most probably by the decayed vegetation of the surrounding 
jungles. It is said that the clumps of bamboos were planted purposely 
to render the place as unapproachable as possible ; but the bamboo, 
from the nature of its growth, is a tree little likely to be selected by 
natives for this purpose. 

I ascended the rock from the north-east side. The major axis of the 
mass runs nearly east and west, and is crossed at right angles by a pro- 
found fissure which cleaves the rock from summit to base into two 
distinct portions, both fortified, so as to be independent of the lower 
fort, which is extremely extensive, and vulnerable at many points. 
After the breaching of this outer wall the garrison, panic- struck, fled to 
the citadel, or Bala Hissar, on the summit of the western rock, which 
was deemed impregnable : but the troops in the heat of the pursuit, 
entered the gates with them, and in one hour gained possession of the 
place. The assault was made from the N. E. side. Tippoo, after the peace 
in 1792, regained possession, and added considerably to the lower works 
in the construction of batteries commanding the former line of attack, 
one of which goes by his name ; another by that of Hyder, while a third 
is expressively styled the Shaitan, or Devil, battery. 

The western rock, called by natives " Billaye," from the light colour 
of its surface, which I found was caused by a species of lichen, ter- 
minates to the westward in a lofty precipice, down which many of the 
terrified garrison threw themselves. On it stand the ruins of Tippoo's 
mosque, a powder magazine, and a few other buildings. 

The western rock is called Kari t from its dark rusty aspect, caused 
by the weathering of its surface, and the oxidation of the iron in its 
mica and hornblende. Why the whole rock should be called Subarna, or 
Golden, the native guides could not inform me. It is entirely composed 
of a granite, which from small grained may be seen passing into the 
large grained and porphyritic varieties. Some of the crystals of reddish 
felspar on Kari durga, were nearly two inches long, imbedded in small 
grained reddish granite. 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 649 

On the rounded pinnacle of a magnificent conoidal mass of this 
porphyritic granite overlooking the whole rock, stands a small, but 
picturesque temple to Busuana. 

I descended by a deep fissure in the rock to the temple at the S. E. 
base, where some Brahman priests and their servants still remain. Here 
may be traced the vestiges of the old gardens of the Poligar builder 
of the fort — Kempye Goura. 

Along the North base are a few caves formed by the covered spaces 
between large granitic blocks. I regret being unable to get a specimen 
of the Shin-Nai, or red dog, which Buchanan heard was to be found 
in the forests of Severndroog, and which is said to kill even the tiger 
by fastening itself on its neck. 

The Shin-Nai, Buchanan says, is quite distinct from the wild dog, 
which is said to be very common here. The forest abounds with good 
timber trees, most of which Buchanan describes, and among which may 
be enumerated the sandal-wood. 

Iron furnaces. I have previously mentioned that a magnetic iron- 
sand is found in great abundance in the beds of the rivulets of this 
hilly tract. Furnaces for smelting it are said to exist at Hurti, Kuncha- 
kanhully, Timsunder, Naigonpully, Ittelpully, and Chicknaigpully. I 
visited those of Kootul, (or Cotta,) of which a description will be given 
hereafter. At Ghettipura, in Tippoo's time, steel is said to have been 

Taverikairy. From Kootul the Arkawatty river is crossed : country 
undulating, and rocky ; for the most part uncultivated, and jungly. 
The principal rock at Taverikairy is gneiss, with fragments of iron shot 
quartz, green actynolitic quartz, felspar, fragments of hornblende, schist, 
gneiss, granite, and basaltic greenstone scattered over the face of the 
country, and occasionally patches of kunker. 

Bannawar. Near Bannawar I found diallage rock projecting in large, 
angular, scabrous blocks, from the top and sides of a low elevation. 
The great mass of the rock was chiefly white felspar and quartz. The 
crystals of diallage were well defined, and passed from dull olive-grey 
shades, to the lively decided green of smaragdite. There was more 
quartz in this diallage rock than is seen usually in the euphotides of 
Europe ; and the external aspect of the blocks was almost trachytic in 
its roughness. Not far hence, the gneiss, with which the diallage is 

650 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

associated, apparently as a large vein, loses its mica, which is replaced 
by minute silver scales of graphite. 

Nodules of lateritic iron ore occur, scattered with fragments of iron 
shot quartz, a greenish actynolitic quartz and felspar ; fragments of 
hornblende, schist, gneiss, granite, and basaltic greenstone, scattered 
over the face of the country ; and occasionally patches of kunker. 

Bangalore. Gneiss is the prevalent rock about Bangalore, penetrated 
by dykes of basaltic greenstone, and occasionally by granite, as is seen 
near the pettah, and adjacent fields. The granite in these localities splits 
into the usual cuboidal blocks, or exfoliates into globular masses. It 
often contains hornblende in addition to mica. 

The gneiss strata though waving and contorted, as seen in the rock 
in the middle of the tank near the Dragoon barracks, have a general 
N. and S. direction, and often contain beds of whitish quartz preserv- 
ing a similar direction. The strata are nearly vertical. 

Approaching Bangalore from the west, a bed of laterite is crossed, 
forming a hill on which stands a small pagoda. This bed extends 
northerly in the direction of Nundidroog, where laterite also occurs. 

In other situations, covering the gneiss and granite, a reddish loam 
is usually found, varying from a few inches to twenty feet in depth, 
containing beds of red clay used in making tiles, bricks, &c., the re- 
sult evidently of the weathering of the granite, gneiss, and hornblende 

Colar. A similar formation continues to Colar, a small fortified town, 
notorious for its breed of vicious horses, and for being the birth-place of 
the celebrated Hyder. It lies about thirty-eight miles to the E. N. E. 
of Bangalore. The gneiss is occasionally interstratified with beds of 
hornblende schist. 

The hill to the N. of the village, on which stands the ruined fort of 
Aurungzebe's General, Cassim Khan, breaks the monotony of the sur- 
rounding table-land. A spring and a small patch of cultivated land on 
this eminence, probably tempted this Mahomedan noble to make it his 
temporary residence. 

Baitmungalum. Granite, gneiss, and hornblende schist are the pre- 
vailing rocks. Benza was inclined to believe that the blocks of granite 
seen in the plain, a mile or two west of this place and north of Golcon- 
dapatnam, are erratic boulders ; but, after careful examination, I am 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 651 

inclined to believe they are in sitd, or very nearly so, and are merely 
rounded by the process of spontaneous concentric exfoliation elsewhere 
described. They are outgoings of great granite veins or dykes in the 

About eight or nine miles east of this, the Mysore frontier is crossed 
into S. Arcot. Kunker occurs on the banks of the rivulet near the village, 
both on the surface and in a bed below the alluvial soil. Efflorescences 
of muriate of soda are also seen in the vicinity. 

Baitmungalum lies on the eastern flank of the gold tract which, 
according to Lieut. Warren, who examined this district in 1802, extends 
in a N. by E. direction from the vicinity of Boodicotta to near Ramasun- 
dra. The gold is distributed in the form of small fragments and dust 
throughout the alluvium covering this tract. 

At Marcupum, a village about twelve miles S. W. from Baitmunga- 
lum, are some old gold mines, worked by Tippoo without success. 
The two excavations at this place demonstrate the great thickness, 
in some parts, of these auriferous alluvia. They were thirty to forty-five 
feet deep, respectively. The following is a list of the layers cut through. 

First mine. Second mine. 

1. Deep brown earth, 1^ ft. 1. Three feet of a black argillaceous 

2. Grey argillaceous earth with earth with gravel. 

gravel. 2. Dark brown earth with stones. 

3. Deep brown earth, (No. 1.) 3. Hard clay streaked black and 

4. Hard grey and yellow clay. yellow. 

5. Hard whitish argillaceous earth. 4. Hard large black stones, argilla- 


5. Black earth with gravel. 

6. Hard black clay. 

The stones found in the hard whitish earth, No. 5, of the first mine, 
are described as of a siliceous nature, colour black, changing to a deep 
rust-colour where they seem to decay : a few parallel streaks, about 
which adheres a green and yellow substance, mark their value to the 
native miners. 

The metalliferous stones in the second mine differ from the above, as 
they also differ in the matrix. They are of two kinds, viz. 1st, hard, black, 

652 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

and argillaceous ; and 2nd, hard, white, and siliceous. A deep orange 
soft substance adhering, marks their value. This substance appears, 
however, to be superficial, marking the surfaces into which the stone 
splits on being struck. 

Lieut. Warren noticed that a sort of red earth, generally two feet deep, 
and succeeded by a white calcareous earth of equal depth, the under 
stratum of which consisted of large white decayed stones, seldom 
failed to contain an ample proportion of metal. The average proportion 
of gold to earth is as one grain of the former to 120 lbs. (avoirdupois) 
of the latter. 

There can be little doubt that the auriferous black and white stones 
are fragments from the gneiss, granite and hornblende schist, which 
base this auriferous tract, and constitute the singular ridge which runs 
through it in a N. and S. direction, and which may be regarded as 
having furnished most of the materials of the reddish alluvium on its 
east and west flanks, and therefore as the true matrix of the gold. The 
orange- coloured stones I found to be caused by the oxidation of the 
iron in the mica. 

Lieut. Warren had this alluvium washed and examined in various 
places throughout the gold tract, and points out as the most promising 
localities, — the Baterine hill and its vicinity N. of Dasseracotapilly, 
Corapenhully, Shapoor, Buksagur on the S. bank of the Palaur, five 
miles E. from Baitmungalum, Wurigaum, in a thick jungle W. of the 
village, which is situated about ten miles S. W, from Baitmungalum. 

The process of extracting the ore from the stones is simply by pound- 
ing them, and washing the powder in water : the gold-dust sinks to the 
bottom. An equal proportionable quantity of gold is extracted from 
the powdered stones as from the earth. 

The gold-dust obtained yielded on assay at the Company's mint, 
94 per cent. 

This auriferous range on the table-land of Mysore, may be traced to 
the eastern ghauts ; southerly, by the hill fort of Tavuneri, to the S. of 
Caveripatnam mutta in the Amboor valley. Two Passes, however, break 
its continuity near Tavuneri. 

To the N . it appears to terminate at Dasseracotapilly ; though the 
line of elevation, taking a gentle easterly curve, may be traced by the 
outliers of the Baterine hills ; Auminiconda or Awnee, Moolwagle, Coo- 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 653 

roodoomulla, Rajeegoondy, to Ramasundra in the Cuddapah collec- 
torate, a little W. of Panganores. 

Vencatagherry . This is the first march from the frontier into N. 
Arcot. The formation is similar to that of Baitmungalum ; but granite 
(the grey variety) is more prevalent, and the quartz more impregnated 
with iron. Magnetic iron sand is procured and smelted in the vicinity. 
It is found as usual mingled with quartz sand in the beds of streams 
which have their rise among the hilly tracts. 

Naikenairy. A small village, formerly under the Poligar, situated at 
the top of the Pass to which it gives its name, and which leads down 
the ghauts to the plains of the Carnatic. 

Evident marks of the great disturbance and dislocation suffered by 
the strata are visible in the rugged physical aspect of the country to 
the eastward, and further confirmed in examining the sections of the 
rocks, whose layers are found broken, on end, vertical, and at various 
other degrees of inclination down to the horizontal. 

The grey granite which chiefly composes the ghauts here, is a com- 
pound of white felspar, quartz, dark green mica, and hornblende. The 
mica is sometimes seen in round nests as large as a man's head, which 
in weathering fall out, leaving corresponding cavities in the rock. These 
are seen in the faces of some of the precipices, and impart the appear- 
ance of having been caused by cannon-shot. Iron ore, and quartz im- 
pregnated with iron, are found in considerable abundance. Veins of 
quartz are common, also of reddish foliated felspar, either alone or with 
quartz, often coloured of a lively green by actynolite. When these 
three minerals are combined, the structure of the mass is not unfre- 
quently porphyritic ; small cavities lined with an orange-yellow powder 
are seen in the red felspar, also a micaceous brilliant metallic powder 
first noticed by Benza, and which he seems to think is cerium, but this 
idea has not yet been confirmed by chemical analysis, which is a desi- 

The descent of the ghauts here is steep and abrupt ; and five miles 
and a half long from Naikanairy to the valley of Buttrapilly at the foot 
of the Pass. 

The descents of the ghauts by the Mooglee Pass from Palamanair, 
and by that of Domaracunnama from Ryachooty, are by no means so 
abrupt or continuous as this : the formation is similar, but the ghaut 
chain is more broken. 

654 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

From the base of the Ghauts by Lalpett to Arcot. From the base of 
the Ghauts by Lalpett to Arcot, the formation is similar. The bold 
ridge of Paliconda is chiefly of the variety of granite termed " Syenite,", 
or a granite in which mica is replaced by hornblende, and in which 
usually a reddish felspar forms a prominent ingredient. Its structure 
in this mountain mass is both close-grained and porphyritic, and it is 
penetrated by several dykes of basaltic greenstone having a general 
N. and S. direction, but throwing off ramifications at nearly right 
angles. Eurite is met with in veins near the summit on which the 
pagoda stands. Dr. Benza appears to suppose the granite of Paliconda 
of posterior origin to that of the Ghauts ; but as his opinion is grounded 
entirely on Lithological difference, and its association with eurite, basalt 
and porphyry, the age of which has not yet been determined, and which 
are moreover equally associated with the ordinary granite of S. India ; 
we must hesitate before hastily admitting this hypothesis in absence of 
the other more decisive proofs of the age of Plutonic rocks derived from 
disturbance or non- disturbance of strata of ascertained age, with or 
without alteration, superposition, &c. 

Poni. Near Poni, and Mymundeldroog a few miles to the N. E. of 
Vellore, granite still prevails, running in a broken chain of rocks up to 
Chittoor, and tilting up the hypogene schists. At Lalpett, between Poni 
and Arcot, is a ridge east of the Bungalow, having a S. westerly direc- 
tion, and evidently an outlier of the great ghaut line of dislocation 
which sweeps in a curve from Naggery by Raj, and Chellempollium, to 
the Moogli and Sautghur Passes. The short ranges between Arcot 
and Vellore, those of Paliconda, Vanatedroog, and Javadie on the 
eastern flank of the beautiful vale of Amboor, are all equally subordinate 
to this line of dislocation. Through them by transverse gaps the 
Palaur, having traversed the longitudinal wall of Amboor, and the Poni, 
after having irrigated that extending from Chittoor to the N. bank of 
the Palaur, find their way easterly to the plains of the Carnatic. 

The summit of the Lalpett ridge is crested with bare blocks of a 
dark massive hornblendic rock ; but the great bulk of the hill is com- 
posed of gneiss penetrated by dykes of basaltic greenstone and granite, 
great disturbance in the strata is observable. Towards the N. extremity 
of the hill the gneiss is scarcely to be distinguished from the granite, 
except where large surfaces are exposed. The granite often passes into 
pegmatite. In some blocks I found the dull olive-green mica replaced 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 655 

by a light- green translucent potstone, approaching nephrite in mineral 
character. This mineral also occurs in the hornblende rock in frag- 
ments, about a quarter or half an inch long, which frequently assume 
the rhomboidal form of felspar crystals, and give the rock the appear- 
ance of an elegant porphyry. At the exposed surfaces the softer pot- 
stone resists the action of the weather, more successfully than the 
harder imbedding horblendic paste, from which it stands out in relief. 
Blocks of it occur near the well in the tope close to the Bungalow, 
where it may be seen outcropping a prismatic or jointed lamellar struc- 
ture. It is evidently a variety of protogine, and rare in Southern India. 
I recollect no published description of it. 

The sections of the soil afforded by the wells here, show, 

1st. Three feet of a layer of reddish brown sandy loam, 

2nd. One to two feet, gravel, angular and from the ridge. 

3rd. One to two feet weathered rocky detritus, and kunker occa- 

Caverypauk. From Lalpett the road lies by the populous town of 
Wallajah-nugger, on the North bank of the Palaur to the Caverypauk. 
The ghaut elevations, and their subordinates, have now been left be- 
hind, and the plains of the Carnatic are in front varied only by a few 
low hills near Wallajah-nugger. Near Caverypauk the fine white 
kaolinic earth, decayed pegmatite, of which many of the Arcot goglets are 
made, is dug. 

Sri Permatoor. After a day's examination of the temples and sculp- 
tures at Conjeveram, I reached this birth-place of the celebrated Brah- 
man Guru, and founder of the Sri Vaishnavam sect, — Rama Anuja 
Achari, — who is supposed to have nourished in the eleventh century of 
the Christian era, and converted many of the Buddhists and Jains, who 
then constituted the mass of the population, to the Brahmanical faith. 

At Conjeveram, I was waited on by a number of Brahmans of the 
Smartal sect, whose Guru is Sencra Achari, priests of the great temple 
to Siva there. They complained much of the higher amount allowed 
to the great temple of the Sri Vaishnavam, at Little Conjeveram, viz. 
12,000 rupees per annum, while that to their own chief is only 2,000. 
This difference they say originated in the partiality shown for the 
Sri Vaishnavam sect by the Hindu minister of the then Nuwab of the 

4 t 

656 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

Carnatic, the famous Wallajah. The other sects of Brahmans prevailing 
here are the Telinghi, Madual, and Shaivum ; and it is calculated that 
Conjeveram contains nearly a thousand families of Brahmans of the 
above five sects. Remnants of the old Jain temples are traceable in 
fanes now occupied by their fierce Brahmanical persecutors ; and there is 
still one family of this sect living at Conjeveram, and a small busti or 
temple at Tripetty Goodum, a neighbouring village. 

In the erection of the temples, the Hindu architects like the Egyp- 
tians, in the N. and S. disposition of their walls, appear to have gone 
by the polar star or the rising and setting of the sun, rather than by 
the magnetic meridian. In their tanks near the place I observed both 
the sacred lotus or Tamari (Nymphaea Nelumbo,) and the smaller lotus, 
(Nymphsea lotus) called by Tamuls, " Alii" with its flower of the richest 
and deepest pink, studding the surface of the clear water which is often 
completely carpeted with its broad peltate serrated leaves. The seed 
of this aquatic plant is eaten, and also its root. 

Much of the grey granite used for the foundation and lower parts of 
the Gopars, Vimanas, and walls of the temples is, I am told, brought 
from the rocks of Sholingur, about twenty-five miles to the west by 
north, and from Tirvaloor. 

Some large blocks of a bottle-green hornblendic rock, resembling 
that of the Palaveram hill, were brought from Pattamully coopum. 

Astronomy, for which the Brahmans of Conjeveram and Trivaloor 
were once so famous, is now at a low ebb. The Joshi of Great Conje- 
veram is a Telinghi Brahman, named Yaikambria, who adopts the 
tables of the Chandra Siddhanta of Anawa Ayenga, a Sri-Vaishnavam 
Brahman of Little Conjevaram ; but the most celebrated Joshi lives 
at Caverypauk ; he is a Brahman of the Smartal sect, named Rama 
Joshi. They calculate the movements of the heavenly bodies and 
eclipses for each year ; the lucky and unlucky moments ; and draw out 
written annual almanacs. But their principal occupation is astrology, 
calculating of nativities, horoscopes, &c. 

Sri Permatoor. The plain around Sri Permatoor, as at Conjeveram, 
undulates slightly ; and gradually inclines towards the sea coast, which 
is about twenty-seven miles to the eastward. The lower grounds are 
occupied by tanks, some of them of great size, as is the wet cultivation 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 657 

they irrigate. The tank of Sri Permatoor is said to water 25,000 acres, 
chiefly rice-fields yielding two annual crops. 

The higher grounds are often uncultivated, and covered with low 
bushes, chiefly of the dwarf date, (Elate sylvestris) ; the thorny carais, 
(Webera tetrandra) ; the fragrant Kellacheri ; and the prickly pear, over 
which tower the stately fan- palm and cocoanut. 

This maritime province of Chingleput, or " the Jaghire," the first 
ceded to us in S. India (A. D. 1763 by Nuwab Wallajah) has an area 
of 2253 miles; a revenue (chiefly derived from its wet cultivation, and 
the duties on salt manufactured on the coast) of nearly fifteen lacs of 
rupees, and a population of about 108 to the square mile. 

The surface soil in the vicinity of Sri Permatoor is a sandy, reddish 
loam, overlying either thin beds of a loose coarse sandstone passing 
into white and ferruginous shales, laterite or kunker mixed with sand, 
or " chikni mutti" a tough greyish marl imbedding fragments of gra- 
nite rocks, chiefly felspar. In digging for water near the village, the 
following is a list of the layers usually cut through 

1st. Reddish sandy loam, ., .. .. .. 5 feet. 

2nd. Angular granitic gravel, granitic orlateritic, | 
mingled with kunker, . . . . . . . . J 

3rd. Chikni mutti, . . . . . . . . 4 „ 

4th. Loose sandstone, . . . . . . . . 4 „ 

5th. Sand, . . . 2 „ 

18 feet. 

At Conjeveram the wells are much shallower, the bed of sand in which 
the water is found lies under similar layers of loam and chikni mutti, 
on an impervious bed of rock or clay. The Wudras tell me, there, 
that they never have occasion to dig down to the rock. 

On the hard surface of the plain at Sri Permatoor are found, near 
the Traveller's bungalow, a few fragments of a hornblende rock resem- 
bling that of Palaveram, pegmatite, grey granite, a ferruginous horn- 
blendic rock, white and reddish shales with edges little worn, together 
with a few scattered pebbles, well rounded, of a compact reddish 
sandstone or quartz rock, exactly resembling that of the Naggery hills, 

658 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 165. 

about fifty miles N. of this. It is very evident, from their rolled aspect, 
that these hard quartz pebbles have travelled, and been subjected to the 
action of water in motion ; but whether they have been washed direct 
from the parent rock to the place we now see them in, or whether 
they were once imbedded in deposits of laterite on, or near the spot, 
and which have since been swept off, is uncertain. A little farther to 
the westward of the bungalow, the surface of the plain is strewed with 
the harder debris of a bed of laterite, a circumstance in favour of the 
latter hypothesis, and among which are rolled fragments of a chocolate 
sandstone, exactly resembling those found by my friend, Cole, in the 
laterite of the Red hills. Rounded pebbles of white and red ferruginous 
quartz are also scattered on the surface, and beds of a fine light- coloured 
sand, like that of the Egyptian desert, and evidently not the result of 
the disintegration of rocks in situ. In short, there is every appearance 
of this part of the Carnatic having emerged at no distant geological 
period from beneath the surface of the water. 

From the little worn aspect of the fragments of the granitic rocks, and 
the softer shale6, it is evident that these rocks are at no great distance 
hence in situ : accordingly I continued my search in the plain to the west- 
ward, and at length succeeded in finding the white shale in situ in the 
bed of a small stream which feeds the tank, and on its banks a light 
grey sandstone outcropping in the bed of a small pool ; both rocks in 
horizontal strata, the sandstone overlying the shale. The sandstone is 
rather coarse or granular in structure, being composed of angular 
grains of greyish quartz held together by a white felspathic paste. In 
some excavations a little to the east of the bungalow, it passes both 
into a conglomerate imbedding small rounded pebbles of white quartz, 
and into a ferruginous sandstone resembling that imbedding silicified 
wood near Pondicherry. This sandstone, like the laterite with which 
it is associated, has evidently been broken through, and stripped off 
in many places by aqueous denudation, its strata being by no means 
thick or continuous. 

It is found in the plain between Madras and Naggery in a more con- 
solidated and compact form, and has been judiciously employed on 
account of its containing but little or no iron, by Lieut. Ludlow, in the 
construction of stands for the instruments in the Magnetic Observatory 

1845.] across the Peninsula from Mangalore. 659 

of Madras. Its locality, according to native information, is about six miles 
and a half, E. by S. from Tripassore, a little N. of the Madras road, near 
the village of Permaul Naigpet. It here imbeds ferruginous reniform 
nodules, and a few pebbles of the older sandstone of Naggery,- and 
makes an excellent building stone. Like the laterite, it is usually found 
occupying the higher parts of the undulations which traverse the plains 
of the Carnatic, in lines running parallel with the eastern ghaut chain, 
of which great dislocation they probably mark subordinate, synchronous 
elevatory forces. They are interrupted, usually, by transverse vallies, 
through which the great lines of drainage from the table-lands pass off 
to the sea. 

I was unable to find the granite and hornblende rock in situ, but I have 
little doubt that they are to be found basing the plain. 

Concretionary sandstone sometimes occurs in the loam and silt over- 
lying the sandstone. 

A little to the eastward of the bund of the tank is a bed of laterite 
similar to that of the Red hills, the extent of which I had not leisure to 
trace. It is used for making roads. 

Poonamalee. Between Sri Permatoor and Poonamalee, north of the 
large Chumbrumbancum tank, a bed of laterite runs to the northward of 
the road, which in structure resembles that of the Red hills, and another 
is crossed, or a spur of this, shortly afterwards. 

A third bed is seen between Poonamalee and Madras, near Nabob's 
Choultry. They afford good material for making and repairing the road, 
which has been taken advantage of. The laterite enters into the 
construction of the fort at Poonamalee and St. Mary's Church at 
Madras; the base of the pedestal supporting the Munro Statue, the 
construction of the public roads, &c. 

At Madras the soil is sandy, overlying beds of a bluish-black clay 
interstratified with layers of sand and reddish clay, and occasionally a 
bed of angular granitic gravel. The whole rests on the solid granite 


Account (Part II.) of parts of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 
and of Samah, Sudoom, Bunher, Srvah, Deer and Bajour, visited 
by Mulla Aleem-ulla of Peshawar, in the latter part of the year 
1837. Arranged and translated by Major R. Leech, C.B. Late 
Political Agent, Candahar, under whose instructions the Tour 
was made. 

" Moorcroft, Vigne, Burnes, Masson, Leech, and Wood, had travelled 
in the country, yet when General Pollock was at Peshawar and the 
Khyber closed, there was no trustworthy information to be procured 
regarding the Karifa, (Karapah?) the Abkhanah or the Tirah routes 
from Peshawar to Jelalabad." — (Recent History of the Panjab, from 
the Calcutta Review for September 1844.) 

" Of the Kohistan (Eesafzai), my information is, I must confess, 
very imperfect, and will be here limited to nearly a barren detail of 
names."— (Captain E. Conolly, Asiatic Society's Journal, No, 105, 
J 840, page 929.) 

" The much-to-be-regretted death of Doctor Henderson, has deprived 
us of authentic geographical knowledge respecting the valley of Suhat, 
Bonier, the valley of the Deer river, and the country of Bajawar." 
— (Vigne's Cashmeer, Vol. II. page 310, 1842.) 

The author of the Recent History of the Panjab has gone consi- 
derably out of his way (even to the Haft kotal) to prove that every 
traveller across the Indus has failed both in his duty to his Govern- 
ment and to the geographical public, and seems to forget that a 
London publisher is not always the person to whom a Government 
servant should send surveys of Military Passes. 

In justice to the late Cabool Misson of 1836-38, (two of whose mem- 
bers, Burnes and Lord, are dead, and a third, Wood, has retired from the 
service), I feel it a duty to record that before the advance of the Army 
into Affghanistan, Government was by the members of the Mission 
put in possession of surveys (made on horse and camel back) of the 
Khyber and Bolan Passes, and of that leading from Cabool via Bamian 
into Turkistan, and of accounts of all the other Passes leading from the 
Indus into Balochistan and Affghanistan, as well as of those leading 
from Cabool into Turkistan over the Hindoo Coosh. If the author of 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 661 

the Recent History will refer to the published (not in Albemarle 
street) account of the Khyber Pass, dated Cabool, 1st October 1837, 
he will find the description of the three Passes of Tatara, Karapah, and 
Abkhanah thus prefaced : — " There are three other Passes, which are 
connected with this one (the Khyber), in as much as a simultaneous 
passage would most likely be attempted by an invading force through 
more than one." 

The author of the Recent History also blames the natives of the 
country for calling the Pass, Haft kotal, and blames all Europeans for 
copying them. 

While Darrah is a word applied both to a valley (Shahar Darrah, 
Shah Darrah), and to a defile (Darrah i Khyber, Darrah i Bolan), 
the word Kotal is applied to a ridge either rising from the plain or to 
the surmounting ridge of a Pass ; and the Pass that puzzled the wide- 
awake author of the Recent History, the " Daylight Traveller," to 
account for its name, is called Haft kotal, or seven ridges. 

It is a pity, however, that the natives were not taught by our 
Recent Panjab authority to call it Haft kotalak, and that Europeans 
were not taught to translate it the seven paslets, and this new-coined 
word might be entered in the dictionaries in which Kotal is not to be 
found opposite to Kotalak. 

The word for a ridge must not be confused with the one for a 
spare horse led in state before a chief. I hope the author of the Recent 
History of the Panjab will next give us the Recent History of the 
Protected Sikh States, and in the Preface parody the above quotation 
thus — 

, , , , , Alia 

had travelled in the country, yet when the British attacking force was 
at Thanesir, and the insurgents in Kythul, no information regarding 
the fort was to be procured." 

I was only three days in Peshawar in 1837, and was never again in 
that neighbourhood until with General Nott's force in 1842. 

From Dacca to Peshawar there are four roads ; the Khyber, Abkha- 
nah, Karapah, and Tatara. 

Dacca contains 100 houses of Momand Afghans, of the clans Alamzai, 
Morcha-khel, and Moosazai, who act as guards to travellers and 
kafilas, who without them are sure to be plundered. 

662 Account of the Cabool and Peshaivar Territories, 8fC. [No. 165. 

No revenue is received from these people ; on the contrary, they were 
always paid by the rulers of Cabool for keeping the above roads open, 
which they shut immediately their pay was stopt or kept in arrears. 
Their charge for protection is, 

On every horseman, or horse load, .. .. .. 2/3 rupees. 

On every camel load, or pair of kajawahs, . . .. 3/3 ditto. 

On every foot passenger, . . . . . . . . 2/3 ditto. 

Their chief is Sa'adat khan, who has command of three of the roads, 
Tahtarah, Abkhanah, and Karapah, as well as the river route by raft 
from Jelalabad to Peshawar. He lives at Sulpoor on the other side 
(from Dacca) of the river. He is in the employ of the rulers on a 
salary of 12,000 rupees, and the Momands on the above roads, esti- 
mated at 45,000, acknowledge him as chief. 

On every traveller by raft, one rupee is levied. The roads on this 
(the south) side of the river, which flows from west (Cabool) to east 
(Peshawar), are hilly, having many ascents and descents. 

The road to Peshawar called Karapah, on the other side of the river, 
is also hilly and difficult, but not so much so as the others, it being 
possible, with management, to get guns over it. They have now stop- 
ped it up. 

The other two roads, Abkhanah and Tahtarah, are safe. 

The Khyber road is that for artillery and armies, but the Khyberies 
are great robbers, and often render a passage by it unavailable. Their 
word is not to be depended on. They are said to amount to 35,000 
matchlock men. There are few habitations on the road, and even off 
the road they (the Afreedees) live a good deal in caves. 

Their chief is Khan Bahadur, by clan a Malik Deen-khel. He and 
Saleem khan Jopa command 8,000. Abdul Kadar khan, Maddat 
khan and Ailadad khan, Zakha-khels, command 10,000. 

The Kukee-khels are 12,000. The Kumbar-khels 10,000. Alam 
khan Orakzai commands 10,000. The Shanwarees are 6,000. All 
these have their share in the Khyber. 

Other portions of these tribes reside at Barah and Teerah, but they 
all have a share of the pay allowed by the rulers, and of the collec- 
tions on the road at the tolls, and for Bodrakahs or guards, and all take 
their turn of service in the Pass. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar* Territories, %c. 663 

From Dacca to Jamrood is in all 24 kos.* 

From Dacca to Huft Chah (7 wells) is 4 kos; these were sunk it is 
said by a Cafer king of old, named Bagram, for the convenience of 
travellers. In those days the land around them, it is said, was culti- 
vated. Their depth has never been ascertained. They are situated 
on the high road, four to the East and three to the West of it. The 
place is infested by thieves, and there is no water or habitations. 

The Khyber Pass is a defile between hills, the eastern one belonging 
to the Shanwarees. The road runs from North to South. From Huft 
Chah to this Kotal of Sande khanah, is six kos. Below the Kotal (pass) 
immediately on the road a little to the South, on the skirt of the hill 
near a ravine, there is a spring of water of one mill strength, flowing 
from East to West ; to the West there is a very high hill on which is 
a fort of the above named Cafar king, said to have been destroyed 
by Hazrat Alle, who defeated him, and opened the Khyber. It is 
now in ruins ; there is a little cultivation here, which is a Caffila and 
army stage. It is on the boundary of the Zakha khel, and Than- 

There are two roads up the hill, one to the East below the brow, 
having four windings and ascents and descents three kos in extent; 
the other by the stream along a ridge, two windings and ascents and 
descents one kos in extent, not a gun road. On reaching the top the 
road is again level to Gurheelalbeg, which is four kos and a stage. 
There are twelve small square forts, having each a lofty tower and eight 
guz high many of which are hostile to each other. It is the boundary 
of the Zakha khel. There are 1500 matchlock men in these forts. 
There is cultivation round the forts, but the inhabitants gain their 
livelihood by robbing on the highway. 

Even when royal armies paid for their passage, the advance and 
rear baggage generally suffered. 

The Khyberee mothers are said to accustom their children from 
the age of five to six years to steal, beginning with neighbour's fowls, 
their spinning wheels and other household utensils, stinting them in 
food the days they are not successful. Sayuds, Molvees and Fakeers are 
not respected by them, and in stripping them, they jokingly say 
they intend to hang up their clothes as holy relics in their houses. 

* The details are in kachab, or short kos. 

4 u 

664 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, SfC. [No. 165. 

From Gurheelalbeg to Alle Musjid, which is in the centre of the 
Pass, is four kos in a defile, the road is level and a stream runs in it. 

Two kos from Gurheelalbeg towards Alle Musjid, from the hills to 
the West of the road, a spring of water of seven mill strength gushes 
out, and flows along the high road to the south. 

In the Darah, there are Zaitoon, Baloot and other jungal trees. 
From this spring one short (kachah) kos further, the Pass contracts, 
and is covered with large stones, the water flowing over them; over 
and through which people get their beasts of burden with difficulty, 
and it is not even pleasant for horsemen. This place is reckoned the 
exact centre of the Khyber. From this gorge to the fort of Alle Musjid 
is one kos. 

It is situated on a high hill, and was of old there. Dost Mahammud 
Khan, has rebuilt it for the protection of travellers, and for fear of 
the Sikhs, and garrisoned it with 100 men. It is very difficult of 
approach, and is situated on the hill that rises from the west of the 
road. There is a little level ground to the east. The fort was built 
originally by the kings of old, more it is said as a toll. 

From Alle Musjid to Jabagai is three kos, a halting place, but no 
habitations. From Jabakee (also called) there are two roads. One 
to the south, called the Dahan-i-Darrah (mouth of Pass) road, to 
which entrance it is four kos, level and winding, abounding with canes 
and rushes, having a running stream. After leaving the Pass and 
entering the plain, there is a village of Khaleels named Jangoo. 

The second road from Jabakee to the east is over hills known as the 
Shadee and Bagyaree road ; it is winding, and the distance to Jamrood 
is four kos, in which there are three Kotals. Jamrood is the name of 
a village at which the Khyberees used to collect tolls, and give guards. 
One and a half kos after leaving the Pass there is a rising ground, on 
which Ranjeet Singh has built a new fort. From Jamrood to Pesh- 
awar is live kos to the east over a plain. 

1 give my Meerza's (he was so from 1838 to 1842) account of the 
Khyber, that from it judgment may be formed of the scrutiny with 
which he prosecuted enquiries. 

The third road from Dacca to Peshawar is theTaktarah one, twenty 
kos in extent, very difficult, (the details are in kachah or short kos.) 
From Dacca to the east, three kos, is Kongah, having the river to the 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 665 

north, and hills to the south. It contains 230 houses of Momands of 
the clan of Alamzai and Marchah khel, under Saadat Khan, and three 
Hindoo shops. From this village guards are procured, their chief is 

The rates for guards are, 

A camel load or pair of Kajawahs, . . 3| rupees. 

A yaboo load or horseman, 2| „ 

A bullock or ass load, If „ 

A foot passenger, 


3 it 

The guards are of the clans of Shanwarees and Afreedes, who with 
Momands and Balagoorees hold the road. 

The chief of the Shanwarees is Rahmat Khan ; those of the Bala- 
goorees are Ahmad Khan, Rahat Khan, Afzal Khan and Shahnawaz 
Khan, Shamsodeen Khan, and Shahabudeen Khan. The Sham, 
sarees amount to 8,000, the Balagoorees to 8,000, and the Momands 
to 4,000. They live in difficult parts of the mountains. They are 
by occupation guards and muleteers, many mules being produced in 
their country. Haifa kos after leaving Kongah there is an ascent of 
one and a half kos, and after it a second ; when both are surmounted, 
a plain is entered of four kos extent, on which off the road are twelve 
forts of Momands. There is a well on the road not bricked, is finished 
with masonry for the use of travellers. 

From this well there are two roads ; one to the south-west is the 
Rahtarah, and the one direct in front to the south, is the Abkhanah 

On the Rahtarah road, three kos from the well, are two forts, which 
is the first stage from Dacca. 

From these forts the road for ten kos is in a defile having a running 
stream, and plenty of trees, but no habitation. The stage is at the 
foot of a hill. 

On leaving this a hill is ascended called the Koh-i-Khuda (hill of 
God) for seven kos. After which is a second hill called Koh-i-Rusool, 
(hill of the Prophet) having an ascent of six kos, and descent. It is 
also called the Tahtarah hill. There are other five lesser hills to sur- 
mount, having ascents and descents of three and four kos. There are 
no habitations on the road, but after descending each hill a small 

666 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, #c. [No. 165. 

stream is met, sufficient for drinking purposes. The Shanwarees and 
Balagoorees are here mixed. 

For the next four kos the road is very difficult, over ascents and 
descents to the Darrahof the Balagoorees ; after passing through which 
the village of Isportang, belonging to the Barozai Khaleels, on the plain 
of Peshawar, is reached. 

The Abkhanah route from the well where the Tahtarah road branches 
of, is as follows : 

One kos to the south from the well there is a Kotal to be ascended, 
after which for one and a half kos, there is a plain and then a second 
Kotal one kos to descend. At the bottom the Cabool river runs, and 
this is a stage; the ferry is called Guzar-i-Guttah, there is a small plain 
but no habitations, the inhabitants having their dwellings and shops 
in the hills above, for the accommodation of travellers by raft. On 
a Caffila arriving, these people descend and prepare rafts of inflated 
bullock hides to cross the Caffila, if they have Badrakahs or guards 
with them. It is impossible to cross the river but by raft, and as the 
stream is confined by high overhanging hills, it is very difficult to 
proceed along the bank over them, either backwards or forwards, a 
camel not being able to go. The stage belongs to the Momands under 
Saadat Khan. On crossing the river there is no open space, and a halt 
is made among the rocks on the river side, of only sufficient duration 
to reload the beasts of burden. 

The road then for four kos, is an ascent up the brow of hills, with- 
out water or habitations, much infested by thieves. 

Then the village of Hyder Khanee is reached, which is surrounded 
on all sides by hills. The inhabitants live in mat huts, which amount 
to 100, and there are 200 matchlock men ; this is a stage. 

Thence the next five kos are over ascents and descents; Zaitoon 
and Baloot trees are plentiful, as well as the matting grass; the oc- 
cupation of the inhabitants is mat-making, men and women. They 
do not wear leathern shoes, but grass sandals, which they wear in and 
out of doors, on the hills and in the plains ; they are called Chaplee or 

Thence five kos the road is hilly, having ascents and descents to 
Michnee, which is situated below hills, on the river, which is to the 
south. There are two villages furnishing 700 matchlock men. The 

1845,] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 667 

names of their Maliks are Buland, Rustum Khan, and Rahmut 
Khan, Moorchuh khel Momands under Saadat Khan. Although on 
the river side, their lands depend on the rain, being elevated. The 
inhabitants' occupations are guards and grain merchants, carriers, and 
mat-making. On the other side of the river are the Buzazai Khaled 
Affghans dependent on Peshawar. 

The river is crossed on rafts, the charge for a load being 2/3 rupees, 
for a foot passenger 1/12 rupee, for a bullock or ass 1/6 rupee. The 
Badrakahs from Peshawar toward Cabool charge as follows: 

A horseman, 2 1/3 rupees. 

A yaboo or mule load, ... .. .. ... 2 2/3 „ 

A bullock or ass, .. .. .. .. ... 12/3 ,, 

Foot traveller, .. ... .. .. .. 1/3 ,, 

The Badrakahs pay for crossing the rivers. 

The fourth, or Karapah road, is as follows: 

From Dacca the Cabool river is crossed by boat to Lalpoor, a large 
village, containing 3000 houses and 120 shops. Saadat Khan resides 
here. The distance by this road to Peshawar from Lalpoor is twenty- 
eight kos. 

From Lalpoor to the north, at three kos, there is a Kotal called 
Khurpash, which is a winding ascent for four kos. It may be practi- 
cable for armies and guns. The next seven kos, to the stage, is level, 
which is called Murdar Dand ; no habitations. 

The next stage is eight kos, to Gandawah, also called Gandaw. 

The road then goes eastward eight kos to Shabkadar, a village of the 
Duabah of Peshawur. 

Between Murdar Dand and Gandawah, there are two small Kotals, 
and from the latter place to the mouth of the defile, there are two 
Kotals, one large and one small, and others besides. In the large 
Kotal there are capacious caves, in whch merchants and travellers 
spend the night. The road of Karapah is held by the Alamzai Mo- 
mands, under Turbaz Khan, the son of Mazulla Khan, a relation of 
Saadat Khan's, and chief of 24,000 men. 

Of these four roads, I (Alle Mulla) travelled by the Abkhanah, to 

668 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

From a Dufter at Peshawar, I procured the following estimate of 
the area of the different dependent pergannahs : 

Total No. of Jarebs. 

Yoosafzai, 1,25,000 

Mandad, 1,00,000 

Jagharzai, 22,000 

Bajour, 1,25,000 

Bunker, 22,000 

Uncultivated. Cultivated. 

3,94,000 1,34,700 2,59,300 

Tarah and Bangash, 98,500 38 ; 300 60,200 

Orakzai and Bangash-i-Pay- 

ans, 98,000 48,000 50,000 

Dahman and Banoo, . . . . 98,300 48,300 50,000 
Khosh and Marwah, . . . . 98,000 48,000 50,000 
Khattaks Balla and Hayan, 1,90,000 40,000 1,50,000 

Wazeerees, 3,00,059 1,00,050 2,00,000 

Torees and Jajees, 1,60,000 60,000 1,00,000 

Suburbs (Ahafj of Peshawar, 3,90,000 

Mohmands, 80,000 

Khaleels, 80,000 44,300 35,700 

Daoodzais, 70,000 30,000 40,000 

Khalsah, 70,000 35,000 35,000 

Duabah, 70,000 30,000 40,000 

Hashtnagar, 40,000 18,000 22,000 

Gardens of Kashbah Bagram 
and Shake Mahal, .. 40,000 7,000 33,000 

Peshawar, by another account I procured, is said to have a revenue 
of 9,15,300 rupees, derived from 3,24,000 Jarebs, divided into 7 Per- 
gunnahs. Pergunnah 1st. — The Khaleels 25,000 houses in 41 villages, 
yielding a revenue of 1,05,000 rupees from 70,000 Jarebs. The chiefs 
being Arbab Janea Khan, Sadmast Khan, and Arbab Zaeed Khan, 
Miuhee Khel Khaleel. 

Pergunnah 2nd. — The Momands 38,000 houses in 55 villages, con- 
taining 84,000 Jarebs, under Ghazeedeen Khan, Kareem Khan, and 
Mahommad Khan, paying a revenue of 1,60,000 rupees. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 669 

Pergunnah 3rd — The Duabah 25,000 houses in 5 villages, contain- 
ing 70,000 Jarebs, under Arbah Abdulla Khan, Gagynnte Mandezai 
Khaleel and Arbab Hamza Khan and Arbab Sikandar Khan, paying 
a revenue of 1,50,000. 

Pergunnah 4th.— Hashtnagur, 22 villages, 25,000 houses, 40,000 
Jarebs, under Izzat Khan and Shahnawaz Khan Malmandzai, paying 
a revenue of 90,000 rupees. 

Pergunnah 5th. — Daoodzais, 70,000 Jarebs, 20,000 houses, under 
Arbab Saadut Khan and Shahpasand Khan and Ahmad Khan ; reve- 
nue 1,03,000 rupees. 

Pergunnah 6th. — Shahee Mahal round the town, is applied to the 
cultivation in the old royal gardens ; the Kasbah of Bagram contains 
40,000 Jarebs, and pays a revenue of 50,000 rupees. 

Pergunnah 7th. — The Khataks, revenue 1,50,000, under son of 
Abbas Khan and Ameer Khan, 70,000 houses in 67 villages. 

There is a Tappah also, called Khalsah, that the kings of old did 
not include in their revenue, but set apart for their household expenses. 
The Barakzais collect, it is said, 56,000 rupees from it. 

There is also the Sayer of Peshawar, called kacheree, which produces 
1,25,000 ; another Pergunnah of Peshawar is the Eesafzais to the 
North, 130 villages and 2,25,000 Jarebs. 

This tribe inhabiting Swat, Bunher, and Sama are estimated, or 
rather were, at 9,00,000 spearsmen and matchlock men. I have heard 
from old and respectable and well informed men of this tribe in 
Bunher, that Ameer Khan, their progenitor, had one son, Eesaf, who 
again had three sons and one daughter, Mandad, Malee, and Ako, 
and that the Malezais and Mandadzais inhabit Bunher, and the 
Akozais Swat, and the Tarkareen, called after the daughter of that 
name, inhabit Bajour. 

That the Mandad and Razad clans of Mandezais inhabit the Sama 
(level) and have 69 villages, and musters 2,28,000 matchlock men, 
horse and foot, (2,09,000 foot, 19,000 horse,) and have 1,92,000 Jarebs 
of land. Should a powerful Government ever arise, 14,00,000 rupees 
might be collected. 

The Malezais and Mandzais are in Bunher, having 70 villages and 
1,00,000 matchlock men. It lies north of Sama, (93,000 foot, 7,000 
horse.) They have 50,000 Jarebs of land. 

670 Account of the Cabool and Peshmvar Territories, S(C. [No. 165. 

The Akozais inhabit Deer and Swat, mustering 1,95,000 matchlock 
men, (1,48,000 foot and 47,000 horse.) 

Deer and Swat contain 83,000 Jarebs. It is said that the whole of 
the Eesafzais matchlock men are estimated on the Hujrah. Each 
Hujrah contains 13 rebs, and each reb 19 zeer, each zeer 12 bakh- 
rahs, (shares) and each share 9 keelbahs, and to each keelbah 60 seers 
seed, and for every seer seed one Jareb, and every share furnished 
six matchlock men, foot or horse. 

The Eesafzais have another custom, that of changing their villages 
and lands every two or three years. 

Another Pergunnah is that of Bajour, inhabited by the descendants 
of Tackareen, and contains 1,25,000 Jarebs. The kings of old collected 
1,40,000 rupees, they are now independent. The chief is Meer Alum 
Khan, who has thirteen guns, and seventy Shakuns, and 2,000 
Jazaeels of Zattulla Khan's time. This Zattulla Khan is said to have 
been a Lodee, left by Aurangzeb as Governor of Peshawar, and to 
have made 12,000 of these long pieces, for taking effect on the Teerahs 
and Khyber robbers on their heights, of 2J gaz in length ; these Jazaeels 
are called after him. 

Bajour of old depends on Peshawar, from which it is N. W. It 
has to the north the Cafers,* with whom constant war is waged. 

Another Pergunnah is Cuner, containing 46,000 Jarebs, which paid 
34,000 rupees to the kings of old. Ahmad Shah Duranne gave it to 
Sayad Hajeeh, whose sons are the present chiefs, one named Sayad- 
wodeen ; 20,000 matchlock men can turn out, (3,000 horse and 17,000 

No revenue was taken by the Sadozyes; Mahummad Azeem Khan, 
from Jalalabad, attacked Sayad Hajeeh, and making him prisoner, 
fixed the revenue of his country at 30,000 rupees. A further account 
of Cuner is contained in Part I. of this account. 

The following is a more detailed account of the Duabah, which is 
inhabited by Zagyanees, under Arbab Abdulla Khan, and Sikandar 
Khan, sons of Hamza Khan, son of Ashraf Khan, of Shah Kadar. 

They formerly received 4,000 rupees pay from the kings, and furnished 
800 cavalry and 8,000 infantry. There are 48 villages in the Duab, 
containing 6,640 houses, and paying a revenue yearly of Rs. 1,21,310. 
* (Siyah-Pdsh.)— Eds. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. 671 

I also gained the following particulars of Hashtnagar. It contains 
twenty villages, and 40,000 jarebs. The revenue is 95,000 rupees. 
The ruler is Sayud Mahammad Khan, brother of Sultan Mahammad 
Khan. He has a body of 700 cavalry, and 400 foot. The villages are 
as follow: — 

Noushera, .. 6000 Rs. under Mulla Ghulam Kadir, 3000 Jarebs. 

Dheree, .. .. 1000 ... •• 80 „ 

Kheskhee, .. 6000 300 „ 

Nisata, .. .. 1000 70 „ 

Padang, .. 6000 200 „ 

Bhabda, .. 6000 •• .. 2000 „ 

Charsada, .. 9000 2000 „ 

Gudee Bayaz Nu- i 

jan, .. .. 2000) .••* 400 „ 

Gudee Hamud i 

Gul, .. .. 700 1 100 „ 

Gudee Kaka khel, 800 150 „ 

Jum Darasha l 

Nujan, .. 800 J 150 „ 

Razad, .. .. 2000 300 „ 

Oosmanzai, .. 6000 2000 „ 

Omarzai, .. 4000 2000 „ 

Sherzai, .. 6000 . .. .. 3000 „ 

Gudee Bunda i 

Nujankhel, 1000 J 200 „ 

Tangee, .. 12,000 6000 

under Malahs Dost Mahammad and Afzal Khan. 

The fort of Hashtnagar has two gates and two guns. 

From Peshawar eastward, I proceeded twenty-four kos to Deree on 
the other side of the Sandye river, included in the pergannah of 
Hashtnagar, inhabited by Mahammadzais. The former chiefs were 
Meer Baz Khan and Shahnawaz Khan ; the present are Meer Ah- 
mad Khan, the son of Zardad Khan Bamezye, on the part of Sayad 
Mahammad Khan. The revenue is 1000 rupees, there are 700 jarebs 
dependent on the rain, and 200 jarebs watered by six wells. The 
river water is not available for cultivation. There are 200 houses 


672 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. [No. 165. 

and four Hindoo shops, seventy footmen and ten horsemen. There 
is a ferry boat on the river, used by merchants who trade between the 
Eesafzais and Peshawar. Two crops a year are produced of wheat, 
barley, Indian corn, and cotton. The inhabitants are at enmity 
with the Eesafzais regarding the pasturage of their herds on the plain 
to the east. The river is to the west of the village in which there is 
an island on which cattle are grazed. 

Three kos to the south is the village of Kheshkee, which is on the 
river also, having a ferry boat. There are two kandees, one called 
Bur kandee of Shekhs and Nujan khels, and the other kandee of 
Panchtana. The former has 600 houses, under Nujan Afzal and 
Nujan Ahmad Kheshkee. Panjtana has 1,700 houses and twenty- 
five shops of Hindoos. Both hamlets could furnish 300 matchlock- 
men, (260 foot and 40 horse.) It was formerly under Shahnawaz 
Khan Mahammadzai. 

Between the two kandees there is an earthen mound on which are 
Cafer ruins. Across the river to the west there is a bela, (island) 
on which cattle are grazed. The river water is not available for culti- 
vation. There are seventy wells in the village. The revenue is 6,000 
rupees included in Hoshtnagar. To the N. E. there is a plain called 
Mera, on which the plant called, in Persian Ushlan, and in Pushtoo 
Sanari, which is burnt for ishkhar (potash,) which is exported in thou- 
sands of kharwars by Khattak and Ormar merchants. It gives a 
greater return for labour than cultivation of grain. The inhabitants 
have 1000 cows, 700 buffaloes, 4000 sheep, and many asses, and are 
chiefly traders. They were at enmity formerly with the men of 
Noushera and the Eesafzais, i. e. before Runjeet Singh subdued the 

It is three kos from Kheshkee to Noushera south-east. The chief 
was formerly Shahnawaz Khan, son of Faiztalah Khan ; now Runjeet 
Singh has given it to Sardar Saiyad Mahammad Khan. The head- 
man is Mulla Ghulam Kadur, the Sardar's Naib. Its revenue is 6000 
rupees. There are 6000 houses, and 120 of Hindoos, and 200 shops, 
and 1000 matchlock men. The Parachahs are chiefly traders. The 
river is to the west of the village. There is a ferry boat. 

'Round Noushera there are 1000 jarebs of watered land, and 20( 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, &c. 673 

To the north of Noushera there is a hill called Tarkai, on which are 
the remains of Cafer buildings, and to the east there is a rising 
ground. Shahr-i-Safa, known as Shahr-i-Sabbak, on which are also 
Cafer remains, but no towers or minarets. 

Below the skirt of the hill to the N. E. of the river are some 
houses of Afghans. There is another rising ground to the east, called 
Zadah Nujanah, and also the hill of A'dam and Durkhanee; the 
shrine of these lovers being below the hill on the south side, where 
there are also seventy houses of Afghans, and these two hillocks are 
near each other on the river between Noushera and Acora. 

Across the river to the west there is another village also called 
Noushera, on the road newly built by Runjeet Singh, as is the fort. 
It was ruined by former rulers and by robbers. There are 200 houses 
a bazar, and a mandee. 

I learnt that one Abdu Rahman, son of Imamudeen Parachah, a 
resident of Noushahrah, found a vessel of old gold coins on the neigh- 
bouring hill, and that on its becoming known, he suddenly decamped 
at night with his family to Kuram, in the vicinity of Bungash. 

Leaving Noushahrah to the south, and passing the above hill, I 
entered the plain of the Eesafzais; the road leads through a defile in the 
hill called Tarkai, with difficulty passable to guns. 

Two kos from Tarkai in the plain is a tank called Ateeh, and be- 
yond it one kos, on the river bank, there is a road over an eminence on 
which are remains of Cafer buildings ; and three kos further is another 
eminence called Dakhla, also having ruins on it. Two kos further is 
an eminence called Taree, also crowned with ruins, as well as with 
scattered houses of Affghans. 

Two kos further on, there is a lofty eminence called Baba Deree, 
on which there is a square fort, built by Malik Daleel khan. 

There are 700 houses of Eesafzais, and four wells and several 
young mulberry trees. The inhabitants are chiefly herdsmen : they are 
on good terms with Daleel khan, son of Jalal khan of Taroo, and at 
enmity with Ahmad khan, son of Lashkaree khan, of Hootee. 

Half kos further on is the village of Toroo, and before reaching it is 
Kacho Daree, on which there are also Cafer remains. 

There is a stream called Kalpanee, running from north to south 
through the village of Toroo, on which there are water wheels. Most 

674 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. [No. 165. 

of the Mandad Eesafzais get their drinking water from this stream, 
which is fed from a spring. It has great capabilities, which might be 
brought to account by a powerful government. It is not much used 
by the tribes on account of their internal feuds. The villages im- 
mediately on its banks cultivate vegetables, Indian corn, and a little 

The reason that the Eesafzais never paid revenue is variously given. 
An account is, that the Eesafzais gave great annoyance to the autho- 
rities of the emperor Akber, when building the fort of Attock, and 
therefore when it was finished, a force of 12,000 men under the 
Wazeer Beerbal, was despatched against them, which was utterly 
destroyed by a miraculous shower of stones which fell on them in 
the Kala defile, brought down by the curses of a mad Eesafzai fakeer, 
by name Jahan khan, an Umar khel, who received some injury from 
one of Akber's authorities. 

Akber granted them, in fear, a perpetual indemnity from taxation, 
and none of the Chaghatai, Moghul, or Affghan monarchs assessed 
them until the time of Runjeet Singh, who took advantage of their 
internal dissensions to get possession of the greater part of Samma, from 
which he levies revenue only by yearly sending a large force to collect it. 

Nadir Shah is also said to have remitted their revenue on account 
of their restoring to him his crown, which one of them stole while 
he was encamped near the Attock or Indus. Some say that it was 
remitted by a monarch, who became alarmed at getting 9,00,000 spears 
of revenue, which he once ordered to be collected at the rate of one 
from every house. Others say that it was remitted in consideration 
of the poorness of their country, and on condition of their eternally 
waging a religious war of extermination against their northern neigh- 
bours, the Cafers. 

Mandad is said to have had five sons, whose descendants occupy the 
Samma country of the Eesafzais (Afghanee) or Yoosafzais (Persian). 

Kamal and Aman were two brothers, whose descendants were called, 
and are so now, Kamalzais and Amanzais. 

The former are again divided into Mishar, (elder) Kamalzais, and 
Kishar (younger) Kamalzais. 

The Mishar Kamalzais hold the villages of Hotee, Mardan, Mayar, 
and Baghdada, each containing about 2000 houses. Their chief oc- 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 675 

cupation is trade in saltpetre. Their chief is Ahmad khan, son of 
Lashkaree khan of Hotee, who collects the revenue for Runjeet Singh 
from these four villages. 

The Kishar Kamalzais hold the villages of Toroo, Ghala Deree, and 
Gujar Gadee, containing each on an average 2000 houses and 200 
shops, to which merchants from Swat, Michnee, and the Punjab resort. 
Their chief is Daleel khan, son of Jalal khan, who is an enemy of 
Ahmad khan's, the latter having with the assistance of the Sikhs 
taken possession of his estates. Each of those villages could furnish 
700 foot and 80 horse. Ahmad khan is a son-in-law of Anayatullah 
khan of Swat. 

From Toroo to the east four kos are the Amanzais, who are again 
divided into Doulatzais and Ismailzais. 

The Doulatzais hold Gurhee Amanzai, Gurhee Kapoorah, Shahbaz 
Gurh (Kot), and Derah Gurhee, each of which villages contains on 
an average 4000 houses, and could furnish 2000 foot and 200 horse. 
Their chiefs are Nasarulla khan, Namdar khan, and Ameer khan. 

The Ismailzais hold Gumbat, and Barah Kot, and two other vil- 
lages, each containing on an average 4000 houses and 200 shops, and 
being capable of furnishing 1000 matchlocks. They have to the west 
the Kalpanee stream generally speaking, but there are villages on either 
bank. Their chiefs are Mansoor khan and Zyarat khan. Sardar 
Huree Singh took away from the Ismailzais two guns that they 
had. The Amanzais have 3000 jarebs watered by the rain, and 1000 
jarebs watered by the Kalpanee. They have internal feuds, and are 
constantly employed in fighting among themselves, or in robbing the 
highway. They are somewhat held in restraint by Ahmad khan, the 
Sikh spy. The ground on the borders of the Kalpanee, is capable of 
being cultivated to a great extent were safety secured the cultivator by a 
powerful government, and lacks of rupees of revenue might be collect- 
ed ; much of the land is capable of giving a ten-fold return on the 

The Sama country is bounded on the west by Asnee Kot, on the 
east by the Abaseen (Indus) at Amb, and Daraband on the south by 
the Attock (Indus), and on the north by Swat, Buner and Sudoom. 
It is 38 kos by 2(j. A particular account of the villages in it has 
been given to Major Leech, by Shekh Khashalee. 

676 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. [No. 165. 

The country of Sama chiefly depends on the rain, and grows one 
crop. In some parts two crops are grown, where running water is 

The whole of Sama is said to be able to furnish 2,30,000 foot, and 
12,000 horse. 

From Gurhee Amazai to the north, towards Sudoom, fourteen kos, 
is the hill called Kadamar, beyond which is the village of Garyala, 
consisting of 100 houses on an eminence. This hill Pass is the boundary 
of Sama and Sudoom. The village contains seventy matchlocks, foot- 
men, and six horse, under Lashkaree khan, who is at enmity with 
Mansoor khan, and friend with Nasarulla khan. 

Two kos further is Gulyara, a fort on an eminence, of a square 
construction, containing forty kos within and 400 around it, with seven 
shops, and furnishing 200 foot, 27 horse, under Mansoor khan, and 
Yakoob khan, and Maddat khan. There are 700 jarebs in cultiva- 
tion. Below the fort, there is a stream running from north to south. 

Three kos further to the east is a hill called Doda, on which there 
are 400 houses under Afzal khan. Cultivation 600 jarebs. 

One and a half kos to the north is the village of Sirah Derai, con- 
taining 600 houses, furnishing as many foot, and twenty horse, under 
Ashraf khan. Their lands are chiefly lalmee (dependent on rain) 
They have some abee, (watered by streams or wells) also. The name 
of the stream is Naraikhod, which rises in the hills to the east. They 
are enemies of the men of Gurhee Amanzai, and friends with the men 
of Taroo. 

Two kos to the north is the village of Machai, containing 160 
houses, under Meer Mobean khan and Ismail khan. Cultivation, lalmee 
and abee, giving two crops. They are independent. 

One kos further is the village of Char Gholai, containing 300 houses, 
under Ameer khan. Cultivation mixed, (lalmee and abee.) They use 
the water of the Naraikhod for drinking : they are independent. To 
the west in the plain trees abound. 

One and a half kos further is the village of Osai, containing 200 
houses, under Meer Mobean. Cultivation 700 jarebs lalmee, and 100 
jarebs abee. The drinking water from the Naraikhod. 

Two kos further is the village of Rustam, containing 600 houses, 
under Ramatulla khan. Cultivation 1000 jarebs lalmee, and 200 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 677 

jarebs abee. The drinking water is from a stream issuing from the 
hills to the north. They are independent. 

One and a half kos further to the west is the village of Bazar, con- 
taining 700 houses, under Mansoor khan. Cultivation 2000 jarebs 
lalmee, and 300 jarebs abee. Drinking water from the stream. 

Further on to the west off the road are the villages of Palee, Chee- 
nah, Suroch and Landai, each containing 300 houses, under Sahab 
Shah Nujan. The cultivation of each, 1000 jarebs lalmee and abee. 

Two kos further on is the village of Alee, containing 700 houses, 
under Mansoor khan. Cultivation 1000 jarebs lalmee, and 100 abee. 

Further on four kos to the north-east, through a jungle over a wind- 
ing road, two villages are reached, one called Peetawai, the other 
Syarai, under Malik Gujar. They each contain seventy houses. The 
hill which is here called Mabandarai, is the boundary of Sudoom and 
Bunher. The Khatak, Eesafzai, Samah and Peshawar merchants go 
by this Pass to Bunher. It is difficult for laden yaboos, bullocks, and 
asses. The ascent is four kos, and the descent two. 

From the village the road leads to the north, winding up the hill 
which is very thickly wooded, the interwoven branches sometimes 
stopping the road ; it is not of course a road for guns or even camels, a 
horseman being often obliged to dismount and lead his horse. Trees 
of different kinds, among them the Archahand Jalghoza, (fir and pine) 
are to be met with on these hills. The descent into Bunher from the 
top of the Malandasai Pass, is through a ravine. In this part of the 
country Mullahs and students (yalibilms), are much respected. There 
is no water in the Pass, or on the hills. In winter snow falls on the 
Pass, but does not lay on the ground. 

One and a half kos from the Pass is the village of Zangee banda, in 
Bunher, in which there is no water. The inhabitants bring their 
water in pitchers from a spring at the foot of the hills to the north, one 
and a half kos distant. Cultivation 400 jarebs lalmee, and no abee. 
There are 130 houses, under Malik Kadazai. 

On the road after descending the Pass, there is a shrine, or Mazar, 
of one Shekh Sher Kookho Baba, and a grave-yard. A fakeer, with 
his wife, officiates at the shrine. Kaffilas take a rest here. It is also 
a stage or halting place. 

678 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, #c. [No. 165. 

Three kos further to the north is a village called Nawai kilee, 
containing 700 houses of Burkhah-khel Eesafzai3 Bunherwal, under 
Zyarat khan and Meer Sahab khan. The cultivation is lalmee. 

From this village to the east, in the hills, is a valley called Yoosaf 
Darrah, in which there are 400 houses ; and adjoining it to the north- 
west is another valley, called Ghanum Darrah, containing 800 houses. 
Cultivation lalmee. Trees of the kinds Zaitoon, (olive) Baloot, (holly- 
oak) Archah, (fir) are plentiful, and serve for firewood. The interior 
of the valley is attractive and open, but the inhabitants are a lawless 
set, and have many quarrels at the time of changing lands. Their 
chief i3 Ahmad khan, son of Azad khan. 

One and a half kos further on is the village of Kadappa, containing 
300 houses, under Maddat khan and Muneer khan. Cultivation lalmee. 
Their drinking water is brought from a distance in pitchers on the 
head. They have large flocks and herds. 

Two kos further north is the village of Pishtool Darrah, containing 
1000 houses of Doulatzais, under Manzal khan and Natab khan, em- 
bosomed in hills. Cultivation 2500 jarebs lalmee. Their drinking 
water is brought from a distance from the east. 

To the north of the village the road leads through a defile so 
narrow, that a laden ass passes with difficulty. Half a kos after 
getting clear of the defile a river is reached, flowing from west to 
east through hilly defiles, until it falls into the Abaseen. It fertilizes 
the whole of the Bunher lands, and those who inhabit its borders 
cultivate rice and chiefly live on it, boiled soft and mixed with 
ghee. The cultivation lalmee ; wheat on rising grounds and skirts of 

To the north of the road across the river is the village of Shil 
Bandai, containing 400 houses, under Bahadur khan. 

There is another, called Kalpanai, containing 500 houses, under 
Shahdad khan. 

There is another, called Mash katta, containing 400 houses, under 
Fazal khan, and Bhadur khan, the son of Shahdad khan. 

There is another called Kulgarai, containing 400 houses, under 
Nouroz khan. 

There is another called Matwaridain, containing 2000 houses, under 
Mahib khan. They each cultivate the land of their bakhrah, or 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. 679 

share, and pay no revenue. Their Maliks only commanding them 
in feuds with neighbouring Khels. 

Three kos further to the west, after crossing a rising ground, is the 
village of Dakad, containing 300 houses under Azeem khan. 

Two kos further to the north, is the village of Derai, containing 300 
houses under Hajeah khan. 

Further to the left (north) of the road, is the Burindoo river, flow- 
ing from west to east; and to the north of the road, a hill has been 
cut through by some king of old to give the river a passage, through 
which it rushes with great violence. The volume may be of 100 
mill strength. The breadth of the cut may be twenty paces or less; 
on each side of this hill there is a plain. The name of this cut is 
Soorai kand. 

Five kos further to the west, is the village of Heelai, the road being 
very bad through jungle, and over descents and ascents. The head of 
the village is Futteh AH khan, son of Madar khan, Ashezai. It is 
divided into fourteen hujrahs, contains 1500 houses and 47 shops. 
The merchants from the Khattak country bring salt, cotton, oil and 
cloth, and take away grain, ghee and honey, to Peshawar. The inha- 
bitants drink the water of the Burindoo, on which there are 25 water 
mills, which grind flour for the whole country. The village is on a 
soft rising ground, on which there are fissures caused by the water on 
all sides. The river passes in rear of the village; to the south of it fire- 
wood and forage are procured from the hills. The country abounds 
with sheep, cows, buffaloes, and goats. They are friends with the Salar- 
zais and enemies of Doulatzais. Cultivation on rising ground (lalmee) 
2000 jarebs, and on the river bank (abee) 1000 jarebs (rice and Indian 

Two kos further is the village of Dagar, containing 400 houses, 
under Bahadur khan. 

Three kos to the west is a large village called Anghapoor, consisting 
of 14 Hujrahs, containing 2000 houses and 50 shops, under Jarvvar 
khan and Rahmat khan. Cultivation 2000 jarebs lalmee, abee 1000 
jarebs; the rubee fusul, wheat and barley; the inhabitants live princi- 
pally on rice; they are enemies of the Salarzais and friends of the 

4 y 

680 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No, 165. 

Four kos further is a village on a rising ground called Torasak, com- 
posed of 18 hujrahs, and containing 2,500 houses and 50 shops, under 
Bulaud khan, who is a friend of Tallalee khan of Heelai, and an 
enemy of the Salarzais. 

From Heelai five kos to the east, is the shrine of Peer Baba, the 
spiritual father, and place of pilgrimage of all the people of Swat, 
Bemher and the Eesafzais. There is a village also called Zyarat, 
containing 1,000 houses and 50 shops, under Myun Sayad, Sarbulund 
Shah and Myung Sayad Ahmad Shah and Afzal Shah, and Maliks 
Saadut khan, Tozal khan, and Ahmad khan. The Zyarat of the 
Peer is surrounded with numerous sheesham, zaitoon and mulberry 
trees. The Zyarat has no dome ; there are two sarcophagus in the 
shrine of ornamented gypsum, over the tombs are narcissus, zumbuk 
and roses growing, and the mujawuns, or officiating priests, amount to 
400 or 500 ; they receive all votive offerings and offerings as thanks- 
giving. The Shekhs and Sahabzadahs entertain all visitors and stran- 
gers. The whole people of Bunher are more or less influenced and 
guided by these Sahabzadahs. 

Twelve kos to the north-west is the Kadakad hill, beyond which is 
the Pergunnah of Swat, and on the road are the following six villages. 

1st. Kingar galai, consisting of 200 houses, under Shahbaz. 

2nd. Chhurai, containing 300 houses and four hujrahs, under Ab- 
dulla khan. 

3rd. Bazargai, containing 300 houses and four hujrahs, under Azam 

4th. Bam pookhah, containing 200 houses and four hujrahs, under 
Maddat khan. 

5th. Johar, containing 300 houses and four hujrahs, under Maddat 

6th. Sugaren, containing 500 houses and four hujrahs, under Maa- 
zam khan. 

Each hujrah contains eighteen bakhrahs, and each bakhrah twelve 
rupees, (jarebs?) and to every rupee twenty foot men, and 2 swars. 
Every rupee contains sixty jarebs of land. 

Their, drinking water is from a stream that issues from a ravine. 
They are all Salaizais, and are at enmity with the Ashezais and 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. 681 

friends with the Doulatzais, and are independent. There are 2,000 
jarebs of lalmee cultivation on rising grounds, and 1,500 abee on the 
banks of the stream, (Shelah.) The inhabitants are owners of large 
herds and flocks. 

There are besides in all directions villages in vallies in the hills. For 
instance, to the east, near the Abaseen river, are the following : 

Bagra, containing 500 houses under Buland khan. Babda ditto 
400 ditto. Padba ditto 500 ditto. Chagharzai ditto 700 ditto, Aman 
khan. Marhad ditto 400 ditto. Kot and Cabal. ditto 700 

ditto, Sahah khan. 

The inhabitants of the above are Sherzais and Eesafzais. Their 
chiefs are Iman khan, Buland khan and Sahab khan. 

The cultivation is 4,000 jarebs of lalmee, and 1,500 jarebs of abee, 
and each village contains two or three hujrahs each. 

To the west is Ghazee khanah, containing 700 houses and four huj- 
rahs, under Sarwar khan, Gudazai, the abee cultivation being from the 

Three kos further is another village called Nadai, under Ralmat 
khan Gudazai, containing two hujrahs and 200 houses. The above 
two chiefs are friends, and at enmity with Mohsan khan Shamaszai. 

Three kos further is a village called Baee, under Mohsan khan, con- 
taining 400 houses and three hujrahs, and the shine of Sultan Wais 

There is another village called Badshah kilai, containing 400 houses 
of Gudazai, under Noor khan and Zattullah khan. I have heard, as 
I said before, from old and intelligent men of Bunher, that two of the 
three tribes of Eesafzais inhabit Bunher vizult, Maleezais, and Man- 

The Maleezais are again subdivided into the following five gurohs, 
Gudazais, Salarzais, Ashezais. The tribe of Top Darrah, and Panch- 

The Mandezais are also again subdivided into the two gurohs of 
Doulatzais and Noorzais. The whole pergunnah of Salarzais, con- 
taining twenty-four hujrahs, on each of which matchlocks, horsemen, 
and lands are distributed. The chiefs are Kachkol khan, Baba khan 
and Alam khan. 

The whole purgunnah of Gudazais, contains sixteen hujrahs. 

682 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

That of Ashezais twenty-one hujrahs. 

That of Top Darrah eighteen hujrahs, and that of Panchpaees twenty- 
two hujrahs. 

The whole of the Maleezais have 101 hujrahs. The Doulatzai, Ma- 
leezais have thirty-one hujrahs, and the Noorzais forty-two hujrahs, 
making in all seventy- three. 

The Gudazais are divided into four Tappahs. Husen khel to the 
east have four hujrahs, under Sarwar khan. 

Husan khel to the north, have four hujrahs, under Kachkol khan 
and Baba khan and Alum khan. Aleesher khels, to the south, have 
four hujrahs, under Nouroz khan, Alee khan and Ahmad Shah 

Ibrahim khels, to the north-west, have four hujrahs, under Dee wan 

Between the Aleesher khels and Ibrahim khels, there is a distance 
of five kos. 

The Salarzai Maleezais have seven villages to the west. 

Hujrai contains three hujrahs, under Shahbaz khan/ 

Seegaren contains four hujrahs, under Abdulla khan. 

Kingargalee contains four hujrahs, under Azam khan. 

Seiz contains four hujrahs. 

Bazangai contains four hujrahs, under Azam khan ; Johar and Bam- 
pookhah, contain each four hujrahs, under Sargandai and Hijran. They 
are enemies of the Gudazais. 

The Ashezai Maleezais, have three towns. Heelai contains seven 
hujrahs, under Fattalee khan. 

Aughapoor contains seven hujrahs, under Daum Shah. 

Tprahsak contains seven hujrahs, under Afzal khan; each of these 
towns has forty or fifty shops, frequented by Putwad Puklee, and 
Chuch merchants. 

Top Darrah has four villages; two of them have three hujrahs each, 
and the other two four each, under Alam khan. 

The Panchpaees have five villages ; three of them four hujrahs each, 
and two of them five each, under Taoos khan and Ghazee khan. 

The Doulatzai Mandeezais have three villages ; Dagar has two huj- 
rahs, under Shah Doula. Six kos to the south, there is a village called 
Bandeezai, having five hujrahs, under Fatten khan. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 683 

Six kos to the east, there is a village called Thil bandai, having 
eight hujrahs, under Nizam khan. 

The Noorzai Mandeezais, have ten villages, each of four hujrahs, to 
the north-west, under the Eelem hills; their drinking water being 
from the Burindoo river, and from springs, under hills to the south. 

Their chiefs are Mansoor khan, Ahmad khan and Azad khan. The 
names of the villages are Kharappa, Reega, Noukalee, Sadacheena, 
Derai, Barkalaipanchpao, Deegda, Paltoreen, Kohkandee, two villages, 
upper and lower. 

Another tribe, the Moleezais, are towards the east, at the entrance of 
a valley, at a distance of nine kos. They have two large villages, 
Kalpanee and Talpanee, having each four hujrahs, under Arab Shah 
Bunherwal. The Khattak merchants, bring salt, oil, and cloth, laden 
on bullocks ; and take back, ghee, honey and rice. The Maliks levy 
from them as black mail, 1/2 4th rupee per load. 

Bunher is surrounded or bounded in all directions by hills, that 
have separate names. 

To the east, is the Handoo hill, having an ascent of three kos, 
wooded with Jalyhozah, Archah, Zaitoon and Baloot trees, and fre- 
quented by monkeys, bears, hyaenas, wolves, the hill Gongawaz, and 
wild goats and parrots, sharaks, and the seven colored bird, the kabk, 
the sisee. 

Nothing is known of mines in this hill. Scanty streams are fed from 
the melting of the snows on these hills in the winter, and grazing is 
found on it for cattle and flocks in rich abundance. 

This hill is within the jurisdiction of Ahmad Shah, and Deewan 
Shah, Alee, Sher khels. The road over this hill is not practicable for 
camejs, it is difficult even for horsemen. The inhabitants on its 
skirts do not live in forts, but they are rich in flocks and herds. 

To the south there is a hill and a Pass called Man Bunher, thickly 
populated, and having mines of zak and sulphur. 

To the south are also the Malandarai hills and Ghudoo hills, 
through which there is a road taken by people from Samah to 

To the west there is a hill called Jafar, and another called Koh 
Kanda, abounding with masonry, remains of Cafer buildings, the 
ascent and descent of which is eight kos. It has no mines, is very 

684 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

difficult of ascent, and snow falls on it. It is within the jurisdiction 
of Malik Buland khan, Sherzai ; the alchemist's plant is found in it. 

There is a hill to the north, called Eelam, or rather two, one called 
Loee Eelum. and the other Oodookai Eelum, having an ascent of four 
kos; snow falls on it to a great extent. It is in the jurisdiction of 
Shahbaz khan, Azam khan, and Abdulla khan, Salarzais, and Ahmad 
Shah Myan. In the Pass to the north is the splendid shrine of Sayud 
Meer Alee, Turmezai, known as Peer Baba. From the Handoo to the 
Jafar hills is twenty-nine kos, and from the Malandarai to the Eelum 
hills is twenty-five kos. The Burindoo river runs within these boun- 
daries. It comes from the south by the village of Sugaren, which is 
in a valley and winding, and fertilizing the land on its banks goes 
east by the villages of Parbha and Jafarzai and Babda, and over the 
plain of Bakda and Marhad, and falls into the Abaseen. 

After gaining this information I left Bunher for Swat. 

The whole cultivation of Bunher may be stated at 50,000 jarebs 
lalmee, and 35,000 jarebs abee. It may be said capable of furnishing 
60,000 foot matchlockmen and 5,000 horse, and to contain 111 villages, 
large and small. 

From Bunher to Swat, there are three roads. One over the Jwaha- 
rai hills to the south, which are very lofty, having an ascent of seven 
kos, and snow always on its summit. It is not a camel or horse road, 
and foot-passengers even meet with difficulties. On the Bunher side 
of the hill there is a village called Poolhanad, containing 120 houses of 
Gudazais, under Myan Sayud, Amad Shah, a descendant of Myan 
Sayud, Munawar Shah, alias Peer Baba ; and on the other, or Swat 
side, to the north-east,are two villages, called Sipal Banbai and Mingoda. 
This road bears north-east from Peer Baba. Their chief is Zaidulla 
khan, Baeezai Swatee ; there are 700 houses. The distance from Peer 
Baba to Sipal Bandai is seventeen kos. 

The second road is over the Karakar hill to the north-west. On 
the Bunher side is the village of Sagaden, containing 700 houses, under 
Najaf khan, Kasam khan and Nazeer khan. The ascent and descent 
of this hill is nine kos. 

On the other side is a village called Nawahgai, and two kos further 
on in Swat is the village of Barah Kot, inhabited by Babazais, under 
Ghazan khan, son of Mahammud Jeev khan. This road is passable 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. 685 

for horsemen and laden bullocks, but on account of the robbers, guards 
are required. Many kinds of trees and wild animals are to be met 
with in these hills. 

The third road is over the Kaleel hills to the south-east, and wind- 
ing. There is a village on the Bunher side, called Garkand, contain- 
ing 600 houses of Salarzais, under Darah Shah. The ascent and de- 
scent is five kos. The road is difficult, and little frequented. The hills 
are plentifully wooded. On the other side are the villages of Janbel 
and Kokarai, each containing 100 houses, under Zafar khan Babazai. 
From Gohkanda to Kokorai is eight kos. 

I went by the village of Shkha kot. Of the tribes of Maleezais, 
Mandeezais and Akozais, the two former of which inhabit Bunher, and 
the latter Swat. The Akozais are divided into three tribes: Rarenzai, 
Baboozai, and Khwazozai. 

The Rarenzais have 12,000 matchlock men, and 3,500 jarebs lalmee, 
and 1,500 jarebs abee, and fifty-two villages, under Anayatulla khan, 
son of Abdulla khan, who himself has two villages, one on this side, 
to the west, towards Hashtnagar, and the other on the other side of 
the Mullah kand, called Allahohand, where he resides, to the east in 
lower Swat called Aswat. 

Swat is divided into Sar Swat, Bar Swat and Deer, chiefly under 
Anayatulla khan, and a small part, under Zaidulla khan Babozai, 
and Ghazan khan Khwazozai. 

Some of the villages under Anayatulla khan, are as follows : 

Those towards the Mullah kand are fourteen in number, Vizut, 
Narai, Obo, consisting of 300 houses ; Doobandai to the west, con- 
taining 400 houses, half a kos from Mulahkand; Bhorek to the west, 
one kos, containing 300 houses; Iskhakot to the west, containing 
1,500 houses ; Gadai, two kos, containing 400 houses. Heeran kot, 
containing 500 houses to the north-west, one and a half kos, hav- 
ing 1000 jarebs of lalmee; Dargai, two and half kos to the north, 
contains 1,500 houses; Kharkai, two kos to the north-west, contains 
700 houses; Dareer, two kos to the north, contains 400 houses; 
Sanez, two kos to the north-west, contains 400 houses ; Paroo, one and 
a half kos to the west, contains 300 houses; Kaldarah, two kos to the 
north, contains 500 houses ; Kadam khel, one kos to the east, contains 

686 Account 0/ the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. [No. 165. 

200 houses; Baghdarah, one kos to the north, under the Malahkand, 
contains 150 houses. 

Between Swat Proper and this Swat, is a hill over which there is 
a Pass; the name of the hill is Malah kand. 

From Skha kot to the north-east, five kos, is a road partly through 
a defile called Jambar, through which there always blows a violent 
wind ; there are two mounds in the defile, called after Adam and 
Darkhanai, because these lovers met there. 

There is another unfinished road over the hill to the north, said to 
have been commenced of old by a monarch, named Kumran Shah, 
who intended by it to lead an army to subdue Swat, but died before 
it was finished, and the Swatees destroyed much of his work, and 
opened the road by the defile: traces of this road over the Malah 
kand are still visible. 

The merchants of Hashtnagar, the Khatah country, the Duabah, 
and Samah, bringing Karbas cloth, cotton and salt, on camels and 
bullocks, pass into Swat via Skhat kot, Dargai and Jambar, by the 
Malahkand Kotal. 

The following duties and black mail are levied, 

On a load of Salt, 3 shahees, (1/ 1 2th rupee). 

Ditto ditto Cotton, 5 do. 

Ditto ditto Ghee, 5 do. 

Ditto ditto Cloths, 6 do. 

by Anayatulla khan, for which he protects merchants. 

The whole country of the Rarenzais, is under Anayatulla khan. 

After passing the Malahkand, and entering Swat itself, the follow- 
ing Rarenzai villages, under Anayatulla khan, are met: 

Shahar, of 200 houses; Dahrai, 200 houses; Jolagram, 300 houses 
Matkaran, 200 houses; Hissar, 200 houses; Tootakan, 200 houses 
Shaibetai, 400 houses; Batkhelah, 1000 houses; Nonkalai, 300 houses 
Amankot, 300 houses; Allahdant, 2000 houses; Bandagai, 100 houses. 
Besides these there are many smaller villages, having twenty and 
thirty houses each. 

The villages that I visited myself, shall be fully described. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 687 

AnayatulJa khan has married the sister of Zaidulla khan, and thus 
cemented a friendship. By her he has several sons. He is at enmity 
with Ghazan khan of Deer, and Meer khan of Bajour. 

There is another tribe in Swat to the East, called Baboozai, who 
have seventy villages and 18,000 matchlock men, (foot) under Zaidulla 
khan, the son of Hasan Alee khan, and Mazulla khan, the son of 
Jamand khan, a Khankhel. This tribe, especially to the south, is 
very unruly. Their lands are on the skirt of hills, and in valleys and 
on streams, some lalmee and some abee. 

The river Sandai runs through the whole of Swat, from the boun- 
dary of the Rarenzais to that of the Banzais, is one and a half kos. The 
villages are : Bakhta, Tharan, Jalalah, Nawahgai, Natmeda, Dagai, 
Satmeda, Badeekot, Ashteekot, Amboohah, Garhatai, Panjgram, 
Karatai, Namee kalai, Bar kalai, Haibat gram, Koth, Kotagai, Min- 
grawad, Sangootah, Manglawar, Charbagh, Julaibagh, Teekdarai, 
Khoonah kateelah, Saidoo, three villages, Singuradad, Aleegai Sokat, 
Malhar, Kamharkalai bagh, Jooleezai, Alamganj, Matwarairi, Khwa- 
zah khel, Mirgai khel, Barah khel, Panjeegram, Hoodeegram, Jinkai 
khel, Nipkai khel, and Baloogram. 

There are other smaller villages in the hilly valleys. 

Zaiddullah khan pays in ready money, 200 Suwars and 500 foot. 

The third tribe of Swat are the Khwazozais, under Ghazan khan 
the son of Kasam khan, the son of Mulla Ilyas, whose authority over 
his clan of Deer is great. 

They are estimated at 38,000 matchlockmen. In the valley of 
Swat there are fifty-four villages, and in the valley of Deer sixty- two 

There are two rivers in the Pergannah of Ghazan khan ; the 
Swat river, flowing from south to north, called Sandai, and the Deer 
river. The villages are mostly in hilly valleys, and few in plains. 
There are high hills on all sides. The cultivation consists of 38,000 
jarebs lalmee. 

They are all under Ghazan khan, who in every village has posted 
a man of his own as Malik, to hear the complaints of the ryots. He 
takes 1/5 of the produce, or cultivates ]/5 of the lands. There are 
four small forts, each having 50 or 80 houses, and villages containing 

4 z 

688 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. [No. 165. 

] 00 and 200 houses, populated on the hills. The villages of the plains 
have each from 500 to 1000 houses. 

Samah and Khatah merchants bring salt, oil, cotton and cloth, and 
take away ghee, honey, rice and wheat, on bullocks and mules. 

The people that he appoints as Hakims and Maliks of villages, have 
portions of land allotted to them in lieu of pay. 

Ghazan khan himself resides in the fort of Deer, and has 140 horse 
and 400 foot constantly about his person, whom he pays in ready 
money. The following are the names of the hills in Ghazan khan's 

First Maujah to the south, well wooded, having an ascent of four kos, 
and the same descent. There are plenty amlook and other trees ; snow 
lies on the summit throughout the year. The road from Bar Swat 
to Deer leads over it, which is impassable to camels and horsemen, 
footmen even finding difficulties. Monkeys, apes, bears and tigers 
abound, and are to be feared, so are the thieves infesting it ; such are 
not to be heard of in the jurisdiction of Ghazan khan. 

The second hill is the Barawal to the west, having walnut as well as 
other trees. The ascent and descent are each five kos; much snow 
falls. There is an iron mine. 

The third hill is that of Deer, to the north, very high, having an 
ascent and descent each of seven kos; snow always remains on it 
throughout the year. 

The fourth hill is called Kumbad, to the east, the ascent is seven, 
and descent six kos. There is an iron mine, the metal of which the 
inhabitants extract. The road to Bajour passes this hill, frequented by 
Bujour, Deer, and Kashkar merchants. Ghazan khan is on friendly 
terms with Shah Ratal of Kashkar, and Meer Alam of Bajour, and 
is at enmity with Zaidulla khan, Babozai Swatee, and Anayatulla 
khan, Rarenzai. 

There are a number of hills besides these. The Khwazozais are 
divided in Maleezais, Shameezai Nurlee khels, Shameezais Pinkee 

The Shameezais to the west, muster 5,000 matchlock men, and have 
3,000 jarebs of cultivation, under Buland khan, and Sara'ee, and 
Sayud Azam khan. The names of the villages are, 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, 8fC. 689 

Barangola, contains four hujrahs, under Nahit khan and Buland 

Badawan, under Ojee khan, Ghawaz khan, and Sayud Azam khan, 
contains four hujrahs. 

Chack Darrah, under Akal khan, and Dilawar khan, contains four 

Sih Sadah, under Noor Alee khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Ooch, under Ghulam Muhaiyadeen khan, and Maksood khan, con- 
tains four hujrahs. 

Katyaree, under Raman Shah khan, contains five hujrahs. 

Shewah, contains six hujrahs, under Munawisar khan. 

Palah Mandai, under Hoora khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Neegwalai, under Ahmad khan, contains three hujrahs. 

Kajookam, under Fazal khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Damghar, under Ghafar khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Seen Sarai, under Aman Shah khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Gadai, under Nyamutulla khan, contains three.hujrahs. 

Doorgai contains four hujrahs, under Assalla khan. 

Chalgar, under Muazzam khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Other villages are in the defiles, and on the hills, containing ten or 
twenty houses each. The inhabitants are owners of herds and flocks. 

The Shameezais muster 7000 matchlock men, and have 11,000 ja- 
rebs; Beshah khan is their chief, and Kamal khan, Muazzam khan, 
Kahur khan, and Arsulla khan. The villages extending for fifteen 
kos, are the following, 

Shilpum, contains four hujrahs, under Kahur khan. 

Shakur Darrah, contains five hujrahs, under Arsalla khan. 

Baba khel, under Muazzam khan, contains six hujrahs. 

Teensat, under Padshah khan, contains four hujrahs. 

Khadhadsha, contains four hujrahs, under Anwar khan. 

Baidarah, contains five hujrahs, under Kan khan. 

Dursha khel, contains four hujrahs under Kamal khan. 

Kalat, the principal village of the Shameezais, contains fourteen 
hujrahs, under Beshah khan. 

Sekhrah, under Kamal khan, four hujrahs. 

Doda, contains four hujrahs, under Ahmad khan. 

Dursha khel has four hujrahs, under Raham khan. 

690 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, &;c. [No. 165. 

The Nepkee khels, called Naipee khels, Mirlee khels, extend twelve 
kos to the north. They muster 9,000 matchlockmen, and have 
1 5,000 jarebs. 

Jahkandara has four hujrahs, under Painda khan. 

Kanjoor contains three hujrahs, under Ourang khan and Fazal 
Shah, and Roshan khan. 

Neem galai, two kos to the south, two hujrahs, under Jamad khan. 

Dehli, one kos to the south, two hujrahs, under Arab Shah. 

Barah Bunda, one and half kos to the south, contains four hujrahs, 
under Roshan khan, son of Arsalla khan, Neepkee khel. 

Koozamandai contains four hujrahs, under Malah Shah, Meeran 
Shah and Arab Shah, one kos distant. 

Damghar contains three hujrahs, at one kos to the south-west, in 
the plain from Barah Banda, under Rahmat Shah. 

Dumgram contains two hujrahs, at one and a half kos, under Ma- 
hammad Zaman khan. 

Koojkanjoo, one and a half kos to the south of the road in the plain, 
on the bank of the Swat river, two hujrahs. 

Barkanjoo contains two hujrahs, under Nooran Shah and Shekh 

Their is a large village, ten kos from Kanjoo, having five hujrahs, 
under Gulistan khan, Paindah khan, and Shah Beg khan. 

Two kos, on the skirts of the hill to the west, is a village called 
Seenai, containing three hujrahs, under Yoosaf khan, son of Umar 

Further to the north, is a village called Sar Sodai, two kos from 
Aleegram, containing four hujrahs, under Jadullah khan, and Faiz- 
talab khan, Myan Ahmad Noor, Speen Myan Abdullah khan, and 
Awal khan, in the plain. Their drinking water is from a stream that 
comes from the Manjuh hills, to the north ; the whole of the lands of 
Swat depend on the rain. 

There is a village, Mandee, where merchants exchange their salt, 
cloths, and oil, and cotton, for rice and wheat. The copper coin cur- 
rent are Mansoorie pais or Mansoor khanee, and they prefer old round 
Ghunda rupees, indeed no others are current. There are no Hindoo 
shops throughout the country of the Pingee khels, the only merchants 
being Paranchas and Mullas, who command great credit ; the people 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 691 

are very unruly, but are held in some check by Ghazan khan of 

Three kos to the north is the village of Toot Banda, under the 
Manjah hills, having three hujrahs, under Maddat khan. 

To the north-east is another village, called Manjah, under the hill 
of that name, containing 127 houses, under Jalat Khan. 

To the north, within the defile of the hill of Manjah, one and half kos, 
(the road over the hill leads to Deer) is the village of Kalakee, con- 
taining seventy houses, under Myan Ahmad Gul and Speen Myan ; 
walnuts and Aralook trees are plentiful. I went by this road myself 
to Deer. 

The Mooleezai Khwazozais inhabit the hill defile towards Deer. 
Passing the Manjah hill there is the village of Tangee, consisting 
of two hujrahs, under Shad khan, under the hill to the west of the 

Two kos further is the village of Kandareen, consisting of three 
hujrahs, under Mazroob Shah khan, Saidoo khan and Marghoob 
khan. A steam flows below the village, having it3 rise in the Man- 
jah hills, of ten mill strength, and empties itself into the river of Deer. 
The people of the country live chiefly on rice. 

Two kos further, in a defile, is the village of Chaghareen, consisting 
of two hujrahs. 

One kos further is the village of Shakandair, consisting of two huj- 
rahs, and containing 100 houses, under Noor Shas khan. 

One kos further is the village of Ateetai, containing 100 houses, 
and consisting of one and a half hujrahs, under Sahab Shah khan. 

Further, beyond the stream to the south of the road one kos, is the 
village of Razagam, consisting of two hujrahs, and containing 300 
houses, under Kutub Shah khan. 

After leaving the defile of the Manjah hill, is the village of Tor- 
Sang, two kos to the north on an eminence, containing 700 houses. 
It is on a table land, the ascent to which is half kos. 

The road to Deer passes by it to the north. The Maliks are Bu- 
land khan, Alee khan, and Saadat khan. Under the village to the 
west, flows the river of Deer, beyond which to the west, are very high 
mountains. There are a very few villages across the river, not so on 
this side, as far as Deer. 

692 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

Seven kos to the north, from Tor-song, is the village of Jughabunj, 
having 200 houses, and one and a half hujrahs, under Buland khan 
and Mahammad khan, and Mulla Sayad Alee. 

Four kos further to the north is the village of Bebiyoor, having 200 
houses and one and a half hujrahs, under Ahmad khan. 

Three kos further, is the village of Dardarah, having eighty houses, 
under Ameer khan and Buland khan, on an eminence to the east of 
the road to Deer. 

Two kos further is the village of Hindookais, having eighty houses, 
under Afzal khan. 

Three kos further is the village of Benimazee, having 100 houses. 
On the road there is a stream flowing from the hills to the east, and 
falling to the west into the river of Deer, over which is a wooden 
bridge, twenty-three kadams long. 

On the bank of the stream to the east, is the village of Katalai, 
having fifty houses, and on the opposite bank is the village of Kadeckat, 
to the west. 

Three kos further from this to the north, is the village of Kotalai. 
These villages are under Hasan Alee khan, a relation of Ghazan khan, 
chief of Deer, from whom he has them in jagire. 

Two kos further is the village of Tangai, having 50 houses, under 
Ghulam Kadan khan. 

Three kos further is the village of Hindookar, having 80 houses, 
under a man of Ghazan Khan. 

Three kos further is the village of Jablook, on an eminence to the 
east, having 90 houses, under Azeemulla khan. 

Three kos further to the north is the village of Kotakai, having 70 

Three kos further to the north-east is the town and fort of Deer, 
under Ghazan khan, son of Karam khan, son of Mulla Ilyas, a Barah 
khel, Maleezai, Khwazozai, Akozai, Eesafzai, situated on a high table, 
land, 100 jarebs of which is cultivated. 

The fort of Deer, which is situated on the table-land, is of an 
oblong shape, and has two gates that a horseman can ride through, 
one to the north facing the Kashkar road, and the other to the south 
facing Swat and Bunher. The walls of the fort are 12 zirahs high, 
400 long, and 300 broad, having six bastions, five along the walls, and 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 693 

one at the Harem Sarai of Ghazan khan. Within the south gate of 
the fort to the west there is a large mosk, where lessons are given by 
the Imam of the mosk, Kazee Abdurahman Akhund ; and further 
beyond the mosk entrance to the west, is the residence of Ghazan 
khan. There are sixteen shops of Hindoos, five of which are grain- 
sellers, two druggists, and two cloth-sellers ; and seven of Musulmans, 
four of which are goldsmiths, and three dyers : there are three black- 
smiths' shops, and two carpenters. There are 220 houses, and an 
armoury of 300 matchlocks, and fifty Jazaeers, each two and a half 
guz long. 

Ghazan khan has seven sons: Rahmatulla khan, aged 12 years ; 
Jahandad khan, ditto 9 ; Hameedulla khan, ditto 7 ; Habeebulla 
khan, ditto 7; Sultan Mahammad khan, ditto 5; Azeezulla khan, 
ditto 3 ; and Azeemulla khan, ditto 1 year. 

He has four wives and many slave girls, and may be forty years 
of age; of a middling stature, fair complexion, and black hair. He 
is neither extravagant nor stingy, and is fond of hunting. He is on 
friendly terms with Meer Alam khan, and with Shah Katal of Kash- 
kar, and at enmity with the Siahposh Cafers. 

Deer is surrounded by mountains, on which snow lies all the year 
round. The country is very cold, and the color of the inhabitants is 
sallow from the disease of the spleen that they all have. They live 
chiefly on rice boiled soft, well mixed with ghee : wheaten bread they 
eat as fruit, (a treat). Their fires are lighted night and day on ac- 
count of the cold. The ground is damp and swampy, therefore the 
inhabitants board their floors. 

Fir, Pine, Walnut, and Amlook trees are exceedingly plentiful. 
The gates of the fort are left open. 

The manager of Ghazan khan, is one of his slaves, by name Abdul 
Kadar ; and his confidential adviser is Kazee Mulla Abdu Rahman. 
Another of his slaves, by name Mahammad khan, is the fort Katwal. 
He has always in attendance 200 foot and 40 horse. He appoints 
others to districts and villages, from which they draw their own pay. 

There are two roads from Deer to Bajour: one winding through 
defiles to the south-east, by the side of the river, towards the Ku- 
nateer road ; the other over the Barawal hills, on the south of which 
is Bajour. It has an ascent of six kos, and a descent of three. It is 

694 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

well wooded, and affords plentiful pasturage to the inhabitants. It is 
crowned with perpetual snow, and an iron mine is said to exist in it. 
It is not passable for camels, indeed the inhabitants know not the 
animal by sight. On the northern side of the hill is Deer ; and on the 
southern side, in the Darrah of Jandawal, is the village of Akhund 
Mullah Timmur khan. 

From Deer to the north-west are mountains inhabited by Neem- 
chah Musulmans, in which the Musk-deer abound, the hunting of 
which affords occupation for numbers. A quantity of honey is also 

Below the fort of Deer to the east, flows the river which comes 
from Kashkar to the north, and flows to the south. In it Otters are 
very abundant, which the inhabitants catch for the sake of their 
skins to make Posteens, or skin cloaks. These skins, with musk-bags, 
honey, ghee and silk, are articles of export. 

Merchants from Kashkar and the Kohistan, bring Cashkar " Sha- 
lukees," and Chapkans (woollen fabrics), and in exchange take away 

The merchants from the Eesafzai country and Peshawar bring oil, 
cloth, cotton, sugar and spices, and take away musk-bags (Nafa), otter 
(Saglahoo) skins, honey, ghee, silk, and Kashkar " Shalakees." 

The road from Swat to Deer is not practicable for camels, horsemen 
pass along the river with difficulty, merchants carry their goods on 
mules, bullocks, and men. The inhabitants know not what elephants 
or camels are.* 

I will give specimens of the dialects spoken by the Neemchah Mus- 
sulmans of the Kohistan, and by the people of Kashkar and the Baroo- 
hee (?) (Purmoolee) — (Furmulee). 

* A story is told illustrative of the gross ignorance of the primitive Affghans. A 
camel that had strayed from an encampment of merchants, found its way into a Barak- 
zai khel, (they tell the story themselves,) where one had never been seen. The whole 
Khel was struck with awe, and were at a loss, all but the village Mulla, who, although 
as ignorant as his neighbours, determined not to appear so, and therefore boldly sug- 
gested, or rather affirmed, that it was the Almighty himself, which they all believed 
until a young one also made its appearance ; and they enquired of the Akhund how the 
first one could be God as he had no fellow. The Akhund, not taken aback, boldly re- 
buked them thus: "Why, you fools! the second is the Prophet to be sure." This 
story I have heard half a dozen times from the blasphemy-dreading, holy-war-making 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. 695 

After visiting Deer I returned by the road I came to Jaghayanj, 
twelve kos, whence to the village of Chakhai is five kos, and thence 
two kos to the east Atnar Darah. From this to the village of Tormany 
is three kos to the west, in a defile. In the road is a river which 
comes from Deer, and passing through defiles joins the Bajour river, 
which falls into the Swat river, which again falls into the Kunar and 
Cabool river, which finally falls into the Abaseen, or Attock. 

Three kos from Tormang to the east, is a valley in which is the vil- 
lage of Khaeel, having three hujrahs and 600 houses, and close by is 
a square fort having four towers, containing thirty houses, under Irah 
khan. There are houses besides without the fort, and 600 jarebs of 
cultivation on the bank of the river. 

From Bajour as far as Khaeel, there is a gun-road, but not so into 

From the above place, one kos, there is a village on an eminence, con- 
taining 160 houses and one hujrah called Manjai, under Shadee khan. 
One kos further to the west there is a large fort containing 200 houses, 
and a large village containing 1000 houses, under Muckum khan and 
Shadee khan, called Kilah-i-Shadee khan. Half a kos further is the 
large village of Kanateer, containing 2000 houses and 40 shops and 16 
hujrahs. It is a mart for merchandize, under Naseem khan and Umra 
khan, each of them have 40 horse and 2000 match lockmen. The bound- 
aries of Bajour Swat and Deer meet here. The place is under Ghazan 

Three kos to the west is the village of Dedai, having 160 houses, 
under Faiztalab khan. 

Here two roads separate, One to the south-east, through the defile 
of Katgallah leads to Swat. 

The other to the north leads over hills to Bajour via the village of 
Karhadah. Thus from Derai comes the village of Khemna, contain- 
ing 200 houses, under Abdullakhan, Farkaride, in Bajour, the road 
is through a narrow defile which is passable for guns. 

Five kos further to the south in Bajour on a plain, is the village of 
Kadhadah, and on the road there is a square fort built, containing 120 
houses, under Faizulla khan. 

To the south are hills inhabited by Utman khels, amounting to 
10,000 matchlockmen, an unruly set, independent of Meer Alam 

5 A 

696 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, #c. [No. 165. 

khan, of Bajour, and of Ghazan khan of Deer, and of every one else. 
They are noted for bravery, and live in houses and caves on the hill 
sides. These hills are partly in Bajour and partly in Swat, and are full 
of remains of Cafer buildings, from which the Utman khels extract 
copper coins and utensils, and often gold, and sell them in Bajour. 
The road over these hills is very difficult for horsemen ; merchants 
cross with guards with fear. Meer Alam khan tries to conciliate them, 
as he fears them. 

He has more than once taken a force against them, which they 
have as often defeated. The chiefs of the Utman khel are Khad, 
Umra, Narai, Bandil, Dilban, and Mardan. They bring honey, oxen, 
sheep and ghee to Bajour for sale, and purchase cloth and salt to take 

They sometimes propose to take service, and get jagires and lands 
allotted for their support, but as soon as they reap their harvest they 
take to plundering their neighbours, and then to their hills, and defy 
Meer Alum khan. Every one is chief of his own land, and is under 
no control. Wheat is much cultivated in th^se hills by means of 
springs. The hills are well wooded, and game of every kind is abun- 

From the above village of Kadhadah one road leads to the east to 
Swat, thus, 

Two kos from Kadhadah in the plain, is the village of Gulderee, 
having 400 houses, under Mulla Daraz Akhunzadah. Thence the 
Shekah road leads to the east. 

Two kos further is the village of Chinah, having seventy houses, 
beneath which flows the river of Bajour. The land has capabilities, 
but the tyranny of Meer Alam khan has laid it waste. Guldad khan, 
a man of Meer Alam khan's, is their immediate ruler. 

One kos further, on an eminence to the east of the road, is the vil- 
lage of Yakburj, having eighty houses, under Mahammed Ameer 
khan, over a bad narrow stony road, very difficult, for camels. 

To the south-west of the road is the junction of the Deer and 
Bajour rivers, whence they run in one stream to Swat ; the road is in 
a narrow defile called Shikah. 

Six kos further is the village of Shamsee khan, on the skirt of a 
hill to the south of the road, having 850 houses and ten shops. The 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 697 

cultivation is chiefly in the plain to the north, lalmee. The chiefs are 
Afzal khan and Misree khan, it is in Swat. 

One kos further to the east, on the road, is a large square fort, con. 
taining 200 houses, where Misree khan, a man of Ghazan khan, is 
stationed to collect duties from merchants trading between Bajour 
and Swat, bringing from Swat salt and oil laden on bullocks. From 
each load, whatever it may be, 3 shais and 2 paisa is levied, which in 
the year amounts to 7*000 rupees. 

Two kos further to the east is the village of Amlook Darrah, to the 
south of the road, containing 400 houses, under Padshah khan. 

On the hill to the south there are six towers of a large size, and 
other marks of buildings. 

On eminences and in valleys there are very many villages in a good 
state of repair, having no inhabitants, but difficult of access. The 
chiefs are Anayatulla khan and Khairulla khan; copper and gold 
coins are found in these deserted buildings. 

Two kos further is the village of Nasapa, containing 100 houses, 
and many remains of ancient buildings, which no doubt composed 

Two kos further to the south is the village of Gumbat, containing 
200 houses, behind which on the hill skirt is a very large tower of the 
times of the Cafers, of excellent construction ; but the villagers have 
pulled it down in parts to make their houses of its bricks and 

It is hollow, and has three doorways, the entrances through which 
are winding. It is said that below this dome the treasures of the 
ancient kings lie buried. 

I visited the place, and searched in vain for an inscription. It is 
situated in the boundary of the Khwazozais, under Ghazan khan. 

Two kos further is the village of Katgalah, containing 100 houses, 
the road is difficult for camels. Here also on the skirt of the hill, 
ancient buildings are numerous, like deserted towns. It is in Swat, 
under Ghazan khan. 

One and a half kos further is the village of Talash, on the road at 
the entrance of a defile, having 200 houses. 

Passing the defile a plain is entered, having 500 jarebs of lalmee 
cultivation; and 100 of abee (rice). 

698 Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, $c. [No. 165. 

Two kos further are two villages, called Chounee, containing each 
400 houses, under Sayad A man khan, Swatee, a man of Ghazan khan, 
the inhabitants a lawless set, and no one can pass the plain without 
guards, which is called the Dasht of the Shamseezais. 

Three kos further to the north, is the village of Shewah, having 
800 houses and twenty shops, a mart for merchandize, under Ghazan 
khan, being on the mercantile route from Bajour to Swat, about 
2000 jarebs of lalmee cultivation. 

Four kos further to the south east, on the banks of the Landai 
Swat, there is the large village of Chakdarrah, having 1,200 houses, 
mostly merchants, included in Swat. Shamseezais by tribe, under 
Ghazan khan, six hujrahs. 

Below the village to the west, is a ford across the river, (no boats 
or rafts.) 

Beyond the river is the boundary of Anayettoola khan, Rarenzai, 
and the village of Alladaud, in which he resides; on the other side are 
the Shamseezai Khwazozais, under Ghazan khan. This is the boundary. 

There is another road to Bajour from Kurhadab, six kos is the vil- 
lage of Munda, having 2000 houses and 100 shops, under Mahammad 
Ameer khan, Kochai, brother of Meer Alam khan. 

The whole pergunnah of Bajour contains 1,25,000 jarebs, and its 
revenue amounts to 2,60,000 rupees, in ready money and kind col- 
lected on the seed (Kalang), of which Meer Alam khan receives 
2,000,000 with his brothers, 40,000 rupees is received by Ameer 
khan, of Nawazai, an enemy of Meer Alam's, and 20j000 rupees is 
received by Ghafar khan, the son of Haiyat khan, the chief of Janda- 
wal and Barawal, who is also an enemy of Meer Alam khan's. 

The following are the boundaries of Bajour. To the north in the 
direction of Deer, the Jundawal and Barawal hills; to the south 
(twenty-five kos length,) the Darrah of Nawazai, and the pergunnah 
of Kunar. To the east the Darrah of Badwa and the hills of Cuner ; to 
the west (twenty kos breadth,) Pashit and the Darrah of Baboo Karah. 

The chief within these boundaries is Meer Alam khan, the son of 
Allaiyan khan, Salarzai Tarkadeir. 

He has thirteen guns, (seven iron taken from Ghafar khan, son of 
Haiyat khan, and six of copper, ? of his own.) forty Shaheens, 700 
large Jazacers, 8,000 foot, 2,000 horse, six pairs of state drums and 

1845] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, %c. 699 

twelve state horns, (Kama,) and standards; in fact he keeps up a 
regal state. Besides he has Jagiredars. 

His whole yearly expences amount to 1,12,000 public, and 8,000 
private (stable, table and wardrobe,) ; 50,000 rupees he pays as revenue 
whenever any one on the part of the king is sent strong enough to 
enforce the payment, the remaining revenue enters his treasury. 

He has absolute authority over his people, even extending to their 
wives and daughters, and no one demurs or objects to his disposing 
of their sisters and daughters. 

His friends are Ghazan khan of Deer, and Anaiyatalla khan of Swat ; 
and his enemies are Ameer khan of Nawazai, and Ghafar khan of 
the Darrah of Jandawal, these he has partially subdued, and possessed 
himself of parts of their territories. 

He is also on friendly terms with Sardar Sultan Mahammad khan, 
Barakzai, of Peshawar. 

Six of his guns are alone mounted on carriages. 

The following are the principal places of Bajour : — 

Gumbhad, in a valley to the east, under Myan Sahib, furnishing 
300 matchlockmen, revenue 3,000 rupees in money and kind. There 
is an iron mine in the hills, they were formerly under Ghafar khan, 
now under Meer Alam khan. They collect the iron from the sand of 
river beds. The pay of Myan Sahib is 800 rupees. 

Jundawal is a valley of the Barawal hills, extending to Deer to the 
north, under Sifat khan, 4,000 matchlockmen, revenue 5,000 rupees. 
There is an iron mine which is worked. The pay of Sifat khan is 
1,000 rupees. 

There is another village in the valley of Maidan, which commences 
in the Kashkar hills to the north, itself bearing east. The inhabitants 
are Purmoolee, (Barhooee?) under Meer Aman khan, 2,000 match- 
lockmen. Revenue 3,500 rupees, pay of the chief 400 rupees. There 
is an iron mine in the Maidan valley, and a river running from north 
to south. Kanbat, consisting of 9,000 houses with its dependent ham- 
lets, 5,000 matchlockmen. Iron is found in the neighbouring hills 
which border on Kashkar; name of the chief, Meer Aman khan, son 
of Meer Alam khan. Revenue 10 000 rupees in money and kind. His 

700 Account of the Cabool and Pcshaivar Territories, 8(C. [No. 165. 

jaghire, Maiyar, rent free, the estate of Myan Shekh Umar, of Cham- 
kanee. Revenue 7,000 rupees under the Myan's daughter. It contains 
3,000 houses and forty shops. It is resorted to by merchants, who bring 
from Kashhar, silk shalakees and chughas, and take back salt, cloth 
and cotton. The inhabitants were ryots of Ghafar khan, they are now 
of Meer Alam khan. 

From Maiyar, northwards to Zar Mandoo, there are four forts of 
Shekh khels, under Doola, brother of the late Mujabid khan, 2,000 
machlockmen and 4,500 houses. Their custom is that every one who 
holds three papatahs of land must furnish a matchlockman to the 
ruler. A papatah takes three kharwars of seed. 

Mundah, in jagire to Ameer Mahommad khan, alias Kochai, brother 
of Meer Alam khan, a brave soldier, having command of 12,000 match- 
locks, (footmen,) and 100 horse. He sometimes rebels against Meer 
Alam khan. 

There is another village in a valley called by some Shikah, having 
eight forts, by tribe Utman khels, who take service under no chief, 
nor were they ever. When Meer Alam khan marches against them, 
they declare themselves subjects, and Meer Alam contents himself 
with their nominal submission, and retires. 

There are four forts to the west, called Wadah Banda, in jagire to 
Juma khan, brother of Meer Alam khan, who has command of 6,000 
matchlockmen, and forty sowars, and is night and day employed in 
hostilities with the Utman khels; revenue 7,000 rupees, his jagire. 

The Shahar, or capital of Bajour, is the residence of Meer Alam 
khan himself. It contains 1,000 houses and eighty shops, and is a 
mart for merchandize ; revenue 9,000 rupees. 

In the hills to the west, in the valley of Rodbar, are the tribe of 
Mahmoodees, who muster 10,000 matchlockmen, they have no Maliks ; 
revenue 4,000 rupees. If the ruler is strong they pay, otherwise not. 

To the north is the village of Pishut, in the valley of Baba Karah, 
in jagire to Paindah khan, brother of Meer Alum, 4,000 matchlock- 
men; revenue 7,000 rupees; tribe Salurzai Ibraheem khel. 

There is another village to the west, called Chahar Sang, furnishing 
3000 matchlockmen, under Meer Alam khan. 

1845.] Account of the Cabool and Peshawar Territories, fyc. 701 

There is another village called Kotakee, 3,000 matchlockmen (foot) 
and 1000 horse, in jagire to Meer Aman khan, son of Meer Alam khan 
revenue 2000 rupees. 

Another village is Nawahzai, the residence of Ameer khan, the 
enemy of Meer Alam khan. There is also a fort on an eminence, 
stony and difficult ; there is a spring in it. The fort has eight towers. 

There are houses right and left, under the fort in the valleys east 
and west of the fort, the road through them running north and south. 
The garrison of the fort consists of 500 footmen and 400 sowars. 
Jazaeers are mounted all round the fort walls, as are two guns. He 
has 2,000 footmen and horsemen, and his expences are 20,000 rupees, 
and he collects his revenue on the kalang. The position is a strong 
one, and Meer Alam khan can do nothing against it. He is on 
friendly terms with Ghafar khan, with Saiyad Bhawadeen Padshah, 
of Kunar, and with Ameer DostMahammad khan of Cabool and with 
the sons of Fatoolah khan of Goshta. 

He is powerful, conciliating, and of a liberal disposition, and has 
absolute power over his subjects. 

The Safees of Surkh Kunar are also subjects of Ameer khan, 
amounting to 6000 matchlockmen, who reside in the valleys of the 
hills, their cultivation depending on the rain ; they have scarcely 
sufficient drinking water for themselves and cattle. 



A Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in the Indian and China 
Seas; being the Charles Heddle's Hurricane in the Southern Indian 
Ocean, 22d to 21th February, 1845. By Henry Piddington. With 
two plates. 

In my Eleventh Memoir (Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XIV. p. 10,) 
I briefly announced the highly curious and beautiful experiment, for such 
in truth it is, which the Brig " Charles Heddle," Captain Finck, had been 
performing for us, and for the details of which the scientific world are 
most deeply indebted to him and to Captain Royer, Master Attendant 
at the Mauritius ; and I have thought them of importance enough to form 
the subject of a separate Memoir, inasmuch as they will be found, for 
the Southern Hemisphere at least, to demonstrate beyond the possibility 
of a cavil, the fact that the great hurricanes are great progressive whirl- 
winds ; the courses of the " Charles Heddle" during five successive 
days, admitting of no other explanation ; and distinctly contradicting the 
notion upheld by Mr. Espy, and other American philosophers, that 
these storms are composed of numerous winds blowing directly inwards 
to a common centre, while that centre is moving onwards. 

Another fact also demonstrated by this log, and one scarcely less im- 
portant, is that of the tremendous " Storm Wave," to which I have so 

No. 166. No. 82. New Series. 5 b 

704 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

frequently drawn attention,* for there can be no manner of doubt that 
the " Charles Heddle" experienced a most extraordinary storm wave of 
four miles per hour during the storm, and this for five days successively. 
I refer to the summary and remarks for the details of this, and will only 
now observe, that this paper is arranged, like the preceding ones ; giving 
first all the data; then the deductions from which the track of the 
storm, and other phcenomena are laid down ; and finally, such remarks 
as may occur. Amongst these last not the least interesting to the 
meteorologist as well as to the seaman will be the curious result shewn 
by the analysis of the winds for the five days, shewing them to have 
been mvolutes of a spiral curve ! 

Log of the Brig Charles Heddle, Captain Finck, from the Mauritius 
bound to Muscat, Nautical time, from Captain Royer, Master Attendant, 
Port Louis. 

In forwarding this very remarkable log to me, Captain Royer, as I 
have elsewhere stated, observes that he thought it so singular, that he 
had taken the trouble to copy it with his own hand. In reply to far- 
ther enquiries from me, he states, that Captain Finck is an able and 
highly respectable seaman, and that his vessel, the Charles Heddle, was 
originally a slaver, and usually employed in the cattle trade between 
Madagascar and Mauritius, which requires always the fastest sailers. 
This accounts for her extraordinary success in scudding, which perhaps 
few vessels could have persisted in so long without imminent risk. 

I have translated her log most carefully from the French, a language 
with which I am perfectly familiar, and I print it at length, that the 
whole document may be fully before the scientific public. 

* See 8th Memoir, Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XII. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 


Log of the Brig Charles Heddle, of Mauritius, Capt. Finck. Copied by Capt. 
Royer, Master Attendant at that Port, and translated by Henry Pidding- 
ton. Nautical Time. 

Friday 21st to Saturday 22d Feb. 1845. 















to SE. 































Horizon very low (tres rappro- 
che,J thick weather all round. Hea- 
vy sea, smart breeze, under the large 
sails, pumped every two hours. 

Sea and wind gradually increas- 
ing, vessel labouring greatly, weather 
squally, and threatening all round, the 
squalls very heavy. At 9h. 30' p.m. 
the main yard went in two in the slings, 
clued up and furled main top-sail, un- 
bent main-sail, and secured the pieces 
of the main yard on the booms. In 
jib, and mizen ; scudding under the 
fore sail, fore top-sail, and fore top 
mast stay-sail, to wait for day light; 
heavy squalls and sea. Down main 
topsail yard, and struck top gallant 
mast. Noon, in close reef fore top-sail. 
The gale begins to make itself be felt ; 
scudding under fore-sail, and fore top- 
sail. Latitude by account 16° 42' S. 
Longitude account 57° 45' E. 

Brig Charles Heddle, Saturday 22d to Sunday 23d February 1845. 


F -i 




. . 


. . 


, . 





. . 



. , 










, . 




, t 






















* About is marked in the log. 

t These last winds, and courses are so marked in 
the changes between Noon, and 1 a. m. on the next day, 


Very bad weather ; frightful sea ; 
blowing very hard with incessant rain ; 
vessel taking in seas over the quarter 
while scudding under the fore-sail, and 
close reefed fore top-sail. Pumped 
every hour, vessel labouring greatly 
from the seas which swept over us. 
At 2 p. m. perceiving that the head 
rope of the fore-sail had given way, sent 
two hands to cut away the earings, 
and let it come on deck, saved the 
sail. The fore top mast stay-sail 
halyards having given way hoisted 
the sail by a tackle. Gale at its 
height, scudding right before the 
wind, as it continually veered round 
the compass; pumps, attended to; 
vessel labouring excessively. It being 
impossible to clue up the fore top- 
sail without risking severe damage, 
we resolved to run our chance of 
what might happen. 

N.B. No position is given on (his 
day.— H. P. 

the log, I presume they mean to designate 
as a memorandum of the gradual veering. 

706 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

Brig Charles Heddle, Sunday 23d to Monday 24th February, 1845. 







, . 









. , 







, , 





















, , 



, . 






























Weather always the same with a 
frightful sea. Shipping from time 
to time very heavy seas. One filled 
the whole deck fore and aft with 
two feet of water ; the larboard waist 
board carried away, much water going 
down the hatchways and cabin scuttle, 
though all secured by tarpaulins. 4 
p. m. fore top-sail blew away, scudding 
under bare poles, the new fore top- 
mast stay-sail giving way, saved it; 
two men at the helm, vessel labouring 
greatly, storm always at the same 
height, winds veering round the com- 
pass from hour to hour, and even in 
half an hour* 

Brought all the crew aft into the 
cabin to be at hand, closed up the fore- 

N.B. No position given on this 
day.-H. P. 

Brig Charles Heddle, Monday 24th to Tuesday 25th February, 1845. 












, . 











. . 













. , 







. . 







. . 





, , 




















The gale always at the same degree 
of strength, but the squalls a little 
heavier, pumps always in hand, vessel 
making water. All the cabins below 
wet, the provisions in the great cabin 
also wet, the vessel making water 
through every seam in the deck with- 
SSE. NNW. out exception, baled the water out of 

South. North. the cabin by buckets. 

Shipped several seas which went 
over all. 

At two in the morning the vessel 
SSW. NNE. broached to, the water two feet deep 

SW. NE- on the deck. We remained in this 

WSW. ENE. 'dangerous position for about ten mi- 

nutes, when she righted. We broach- 
ed to again several times from the 
West. East. speed of the vesself; cleared the scup- 

WNW. ESE. pers. At 10 shipped a sea in the 

fore rigging which carried away jib 
NW. and flying jib booms. Cut away the 

wreck to clear the bowsprit. 
Latitude by a doubtful ob- 
servation, .... .... 16° 18' S. 

Longitude Chronometer, . . 53° 2' 30" 

* The expression is " faisant le tour du compas d' heure enheure et meme une demi heure," 
of which the literal translation would be, "going round the compass from hour to hour and 
even in half an hour." What is meant is evidently (by the log) that the wind was going round 
the compass and changing everv hour or every half hour. 

t The words are "par lavitesse du batiment." No doubt the difficulty of steering her is here 
implied.— H. P. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 707 

Brig Charles Heddle, Tuesday 2oth to Wednesday 26th February 1845. 
































10 . 








































W N W. 


N N W. 













W T est. 



The gale always at the same 
strength without the least intermission, 
heavy sea and rain. The tiller ropes 
gave way, changed them, the bolts also 
of the tiller having given way, drove 
in preventer ones. 

P. S. Every hour. The trusses of 
the fore-yard gave way, replaced them, 
scudding under bare poles. The sea 
frightful, vessel making much water 
through the deck. 

Crew worn out with fatigue. Thesun 
appeared indistinctly at noon where- 
by we obtained an indifferent latitude 
and longitude. 
Latitude by indifferent ob- 
servation, 18° 02' S. 

Longitude ditto ditto, . . 51° 2' 30" E. 

Brig Charles H eddle, from Wednesday 26th to Thursday 27th Feb. 1845. 








, . 











































Courses, i Winds. 
























The horizon always obscure though 
sometimes clearing a little, but the 
squalls and sea always heavy, pumped 
every hour. Two men at the helm. 
Always under bare poles. At 10 p. m. 
clearing up a little, and we saw some 
stars, but the sea and wind always 

Bent fore top-mast stay-sail, and fore 
and aft mainsail with two reefs in it. 
Bent another fore top-mast stay-sail on 
the fore stay to balance the vessel's 

Scudding always according to the 
veering of the wind. 

Seeing that we had sustained much 
damage, and that we were nearer to 
the Mauritius than to any other place, 
the Captain resolved to return there, 
not considering the vessel in a state 
to continue her voyage. 

Latitude observation, 20° 12' S. 

Longitude chronometer, 52° 24' E. 

When sail should be made, having lost the jib boom. 

708 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 
Brig Charles Heddle, Thursday 27th Feb. to Friday 28th Feb. 1845. 






















to NE. 










































The weather becoming fine, bent the 
fore-sail, and spare fore top-sail, took 
the main top-sail yard for a main yard, 
and let the reefs out of the fore and 
aft main-sail. 

Cloudy still, and lightning in all 

Fine, and sea smooth with a pleasant 

Latitude observation,.. 20° 19' S. 

Longitude chronometer, 54° 29' 28" 

1 shall notice this log separately, but at present, I proceed to print the remaining 
documents, so as first to adduce from them the general track of the storm, and then 
take up the peculiar investigations which this log gives rise to. 

Abridged Log of the Ship Appolline, Captain Thomas, from the 
Mauritius, bound to Calcutta. Civil time. 

The Appolline left the Mauritius on the 19th February 1845, with 
light N. Easterly winds to midnight of that day. 

20th February. Winds ENE., East, and variable ; at 11 a. m. cloudy 
suspicious weather, at Noon heavy squall and rain, latitude by account 
18° 50', Round Island having borne at 6 a. m. SEbS.* since when the 
ship had made 23' NNE. hence the longitude about 57° 50' East. p. m. 
to midnight squally, moderating and freshening again, wind from NEbE. 
and East, ship standing from noon to midnight to the NEbN. and 

21st February, a. m. wind ESE. fresh breeze and cloudy, vessel stand- 
ing to the NEbN. 68' to latitude 16° 52' S. longitude 58° 10' East by 

* Distance not given, or 1 have omitted it. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. . 709 

account, p. m. Barometer falling, making preparation for bad weather. 
At midnight brisk gales and cloudy, ship standing to the NE. wind SEbE. 

22nd February, a. m. wind SEbE. ; by noon blowing a complete hur- 
ricane in the squalls. 4 a. m. hove to. p. m. wind marked EbS. weather 
the same and a cross sea ; at 8, Barometer still falling. 

23rd February. The same ; heavy gale and rain ; blowing a complete 
hurricane during the squalls. At 8 a. m. Barometer 28.5, wind marked 
ESE. to noon, and p. m. SEbE. To midnight, the weather the same. 

24th February, p. m. wind marked East ; at 8 a. m. blowing a complete 
hurricane with much rain. Bar. 28° 5' ship under bare poles, head to the 
Northward, p. m. the same. Wind EbN. and at 3, NEbE. At 2 p. m. 
wore ship to the SE. the weather the same. 

25th February. At 4 a. m. more moderate, Barometer rose 0.2. At 
8 a. m. made a little sail. Noon latitude account 16° 53', longitude 
55 9 31' E.* and by midnight the weather was moderate. 

Abridged Log of the Ship John Adam, Captain Mansfield, from Mauri' 
tins to Calcutta, reduced to Civil time. 

The John Adam left the Mauritius in company with the Sophia, 
and at noon, 20th February 1845, was in latitude 14° 36' S. longitude 
59° 38' E. with a fine SE. trade, p. m. the same; midnight calm. 

20th to 2lst February, a. m. wind ESE., East, and at noon NNE. 
a. m. squally, no Obs. latitude account about 12° 30' longitude 59° 30' E. 

p. m. increasing wind Northerly ; vessel standing to the Eastward, 
with a high confused sea. 9 p. m. wind NW. course NE|E. 4 p. m. Bar. 
29.50, made preparation for bad weather. 10 p. m. to midnight hard 
gales and constant rain. Wind NW. from 9. p. m. 

22nd February, a. m. moderating, NW. wind, and vessel making sail, 
accordingly. Noon, no observation, latitude by account about 1 1° 30'; 
longitude account 61° 10' E. Barometer 29.50, thermometer 83° 10' 
squally and unsettled, wind NW. p. m. to midnight wind NNW. the 
same weather. 

* Perhaps by Chronometer, worked by the latitude by account. 

710 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

2Zrd February. To noon wind NNW. and weather becoming settled, 
latitude 16° 26' S. longitude 62° 44' East. Barometer 29.75 ; thermo- 
meter 80° 40'. 

Abridged Log of the Ship Sophia, Captain Saxon, from Mauritius to 
Calcutta, reduced to Civil time. 

The Sophia left Mauritius on the 16th February. — 

\9th February,— ht noon in latitude 16° 4' S., longitude 58° 44' E., 
Bar. 29.65. Thermometer 84°, and fine weather, with three to five knot 
breezes, from East to ESE. p. m., decreasing breeze and cloudy to mid- 

20th February. — a. m. winds variable SE. to noon, with squalls 
and heavy rain. 8 a. m, dark, squally, threatening appearance. Noon 
latitude observation 14° 40' S. longitude 59° 13' E. Barometer 29.88. 
Thermometer 62°. p. m. wind Easterly, variable, and NE. Towards 9 
p. m. Northerly, and weather very threatening, making preparations for 
bad weather, at 10-30. p. m. sudden shift to the East. 

2lst February. — a. m. winds to noon South, SE. East and NE. 
Noon, heavy squalls and thick rain. Bar. falling, and all preparations 
for bad weather. Latitude account 12° 5 1' S. longitude 59° 38'. Baro- 
meter 29.60. Thermometer 81°. 1 p. m. tremendous heavy squalls, 
wind N. Westerly, every appearance of a hurricane. 7 p. m. Barome- 
ter 29.30. At 10 p. m. blowing a fresh gale, ship standing to the NE. 
7 knots per hour* with wind at NW. to midnight. 

22c? February — Midnight more moderate, and Barometer rising. Day- 
light out all reefs, wind North, latitude noon by account 11° 21' S. 
longitude 61° 00'. Barometer, 29.79. Thermometer 81°. Weather squal- 
ly, p. m. weather still thick, but by midnight clear. 

Abridged Extract from the Log of the Ship Ranger, Capt. Stepney, 

from the Mauritius bound to Madras, reduced to Civil time. 

At Noon 19th February, 1845, the Ranger was in latitude 13° 34' 

S., longitude 60° 20', light winds N. calms with a heavy appearance to 

the NE. and hazy horizon. Midnight sea smooth, cloudy and squally. 

* The right course in the Southern Hemisphere, for she was on the NE. quadrant 
of the Storm.— H. P. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 71 1 

20th February.— Noon latitude 12° 56' S., longitude 60° 53' E. 
light variable South and SE. airs, hazy sultry weather, and uncommon 
black squally appearance to the Northward, p. m. wind veered to the 
Northward, remaining variable and squally to midnight, and between 
North and NbE. with calms and squalls and thick dark weather. 

2lst February. — To noon increasing breeze NbE. latitude observa- 
tion 12° 31' S., longitude 62° 00' E. 

Note, for the last two days a current to the West of about 1 mile 
per hour. 

p. m. Fresh gale increasing to midnight, from North at noon, at 
5 p. m. NbE. to NbW. and at 12 North again. Midnight increasing 
gale and squalls. 

22nd February. — a. m. to noon fresh gale and hard squalls, the wind 
hot and sultry. At noon, latitude 12? 0' S., longitude 64° 3' E. Var. 5° 
W. course by observation is EbN. % N, 127'. p. m. to midnight 

23d February. — Noon light and fine weather, latitude 11° 26' S. 
longitude 66° 18' E. 

Abridged Log of the Brig Arpenteur, Captain J. Stillaman, Forwarded 
by Captain Royer. Reduced to civil time. 

The Arpenteur, with a cargo of bullocks, (from Madagascar ?) hove 
to at 8 a. m. and at Noon 25th February, it was blowing a hurricane 
from SE. ; she was then in latitude 18° 50' S., longitude by chronometer 
53° 40' E. The main topsail blew from the yard, and she was thus 
under bare poles. The run for the previous twenty-four hours (nau- 
tical) is not marked, but the wind which had been gradually increasing 
from noon 24th, from ESE. at 10 p. m. is marked SE. to noon 25th. 
p. m. The same winds and weather to midnight. 

26th February, a. m. — Wind SSE. ; most of the sails blown from the 

yards, vessel lying to on the larboard tack. At 2-20 p. m. calm, with a 

heavy sea breaking fore and aft over the Brig. At 3 p. m. the wind came 

from the NW. and blew with the same force; the squalls heavier till 


5 c 

712 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

27th February, a. m. From 8 p. m. on the preceding day to noon on 
this day, the wind is marked as blowing all round the compass. At 3 a. m. 
more moderate ; at daylight clear weather, made sail ; and at noon, fine. 
Latitude by observation 19° 11' S. Longitude by chronometer 51° 14' 
45" E. 

Abridged extract from the Log of the Barque Commerce de Bordeaux, 
from Bourbon to Pondicherry. Civil time. Forwarded by Captain 

We have fortunately for this vessel's Log a newspaper notice, as 
follows : 

" French bark Commerce de Bordeaux* from Bourbon, the 28th 
February, bound to Pondicherry, experienced on the 23rd in latitude 
14° 37' S., and longitude 54° 44' E., a hurricane which lasted three 
days, commencing at SE. and round the compass ; lost mizen mast, and 
main topmast, mainyard, sails and boats." 

This gives us the spot where the storm commenced. The vessel 
lost sight of the Maupertuis at noon 21st, and stood to the N. East- 
ward with the SE. trade. 

22nd February, a. m. — Standing to the N. Eastward. Noon, freshening, 
p. m. squally weather; wind increasing from SSE.; at 4 p. m. close 
reefed, and hove to. 

23rd February, 1 a. m. — Blowing a gale from SSE. ; veering to 
South at 5 a. m. ; and SE. at 8. At 9 a. m. calm ; ship not steering. 
Soon after noon, wind NE. increasing fast; vessel scuds to the SW. 9' 
per hour. 4 p. m. hurricane. Barometer two lines below " tempdte."\ 
heavy sea ; at 5 " wind is furious." The wind is now described between 
5 and 7 p. m. as making the circuit of the compass several times ! 

At 7 p. m. blowing harder ; the fore topmast staysail split, and the ves- 
sel broached to, and lay upon her beam ends till 9f p. m. when the mizen 
mast being cut away, and the main topmast going, she bore up ; main 
yard arm is carried away and launch stove. No winds marked from 4 
p. m. to 9 a. m. ; hurricane at full, and sails blowing from the yards. 

* My copy says, Courier. It may be my own mistake or that of the paper, but 
there is no doubt that this is the vessel, as the damage sustained is the same, 
f I do not know what this is; 1 presume like our own "stormy." 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 713 

24th February, a. m. — Ship buried in the sea; hurricane as before. 
At daylight trying to collect the wrecks ; the wind continually veering 
all round the compass, but from 9 to Noon wind is marked ESE., and 
course WNW. seven miles per hour. p. m. wind marked variable, and 
going all round the compass ; vessel going seven knots. 5 p. m. to 8, the 
same wind marked as going round, and vessel steering different courses, 
but weather moderating a little from 9 to 12; the wind always going 
round the compass. 

25th February. Wind at 1 a. m. ENE.* Vessel's course as SSW. 
six knots. At 10 a. m. moderating a little : 1 p. m. the same, but still 
scudding under bare poles to the WSW., and SW. at 10 to midnight. 

26th February, a. m. — Scudding under bare poles to the SW., but only 
four and five knots marked ; wind moderating. 9 p.m. the same, but finer 

27th February, a. m. — The weather gradually moderating till noon, 
when it was fine ; with the wind at NNE., and NE. from midnight. 

From the " Cerne'en" a Mauritius Newspaper, I have extracted the follow- 
ing notice. 

* " The bark Marie Laure, experienced on the 24th and 25th ultimo, a 
heavy gale of wind from the SE. Latitude 18° 20' S. and longitude 
53° 30' E., in which she lost sails and seven bullocks," 

I have also had forwarded to me the Log of the ship Faize Rubahny, 
from Calcutta bound to Mauritius, but it unfortunately contains no 
longitudes, and from the weather and latitudes, I judge her to have been 
too far to the Eastward to have felt any part of this storm. 

I now give a tabular view of the wind and weather from the 21s* to 
23rd February, as in the former memoirs. 

* No doubt a clerical error, and NNE. is meant, for at 1 p. m. ENE. wind and 
WSW. courses are again marked. 

714 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 


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716 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 


The following are the considerations from which the track laid down 
in the Chart No. 1, has been deduced. 

Taking the storm to have originated and come from the Eastward, 
as we have reason to believe they all do, the most Easterly log we have, 
which is also the first in point of time, is that of the Ranger, which 
vessel seems, on the 19th and 20th February, to have passed to the 
Southward of the storm (or of a storm) in between latitudes 13° and 
12' S., and on the 21st and 22d February, perhaps to have skirted 
its Eastern edge in longitude 62° to 64° East. On the 21st we have 
the Sophia apparently running up and passing close to the NE. border 
of this storm, having had the weather fine on the 19th, and threatening 
on the 20th, in latitude 14° 40' longitude 59° 13', with her Barometer 
at 29.88. The John Adam, in company with her, also with the wind 
at NW. from 9 p. m. of the 21st and like her standing fast to the 
NE., and thus out of the storm circle. 

To the South we have the Appolline and Charles Heddle at midnight 
21st to 22nd 

The Appolline with weather announcing an impending gale in about 
latitude 16° 20' the wind being at SEbE. and the vessel standing 
to the NE. while the Charles Heddle had at this time, in latitude about 
17° 53' longitude 57° 47' the wind so heavy at SE. that she was already 

The distance however, is so great between the vessels to the North 
and those to the South, — for taking the Sophia and John Adam as close 
together, and the mean distance between the Appolline and Charles 
Heddle' s positions as an opposite point, it will be upwards of six degrees — 
that we cannot allow them all to have shared in the same storm, parti- 
cularly as the Appolline, though farther North, had not the winds, it 
appears, so strong as the Charles Heddle, so that as I take it these were 
the preliminary streams of wind, to which I have before adverted 
in former memoirs, which precede as I suppose the formation of a 
true vortex.* I have thus only marked the different midnight posi- 

* I have more than once said in the course of these Memoirs, that these circular vor- 
tices must begin somewhere and somehow, and have suggested that they do so by 
streams of wind. From Mr. Rechendorf, a German gentleman educated as a mining 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Lnw of Storms in India. Ill 

tions between these dates for reference, and pass on to Noon of the 
22d, on which day we have only the Charles Heddle and Appolline on the 
southern side of their storm, for they were clearly in the same hurricane. 
The John Adam and Sophia were now of course far out of the influence 
of the threatening weather which they had experienced. 

Centre of 22nd February. — As the Charles Heddle, at noon 22nd, had 
a hurricane at about ESE., and as we shall subsequently shew, was 
scudding in a circle of but little more than 60 miles radius, it follows 
that the centre bore about NNE. 60 or 70 miles, from her position.* 
We have not that of the Appolline to compare, but we find that she had 
the wind at E. by S. also blowing a hurricane, and was lying to, and 
as she could not be far from the Charles Heddle, I have placed the 
centre as it relates to the latter vessel only, which will also give the 
Appolline the wind as she had it, and on about that part of her drift, 
which is all we can mark for her, at which she was at this time. 

Centre of the 2'drd February. — We have at noon the Charles Heddle's 
position, as near as her corrected run will give it, and find that she 
was then on the Eastern range of her first circle, having the wind at 
North, and that this circle (see post) was of about 122 miles in 
diameter, or 6 1 miles radius ; which distance to the West gives the ap- 
proximate position of the centre of the storm for this day. A circle on 
the general chart cuts the Appolline' 's drift line to the West, as she was 
drifting that way, so as to give her a wind at about ESE. between which 
and SEbE. she had it by log. Her drift for want of data, is marked merely 
as a straight line, but she might have made more southing, and thus 
have been further from the centre, though on the same bearing from 
it, and with the same wind. We find on this day also that the Commerce 
de Bordeaux, first appears to have felt the hurricane, and this agrees 
well enough as to distance with our centre, which is at 140 miles from 

Engineer, I had a curious account of the dust-whirlwinds, several of which in Upper 
India he had run after and penetrated. He describes them as forming a thick broad 
wall of dust, through which it was half suffocation to penetrate, but when in the 
centre it was nearly calm, with nothing but the wall of dust visible. He farther told 
me, that he had seen large ones commence, and that they did so in segments, which 
afterwards united. This is exactly our supposed "streams of wind," but then we 
know not if the causes on shore are the same ; there may be two or more causes pro- 
ducing circular atmospheric motion. 

* See however what is subsequently said as to the incurving winds. 

718 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

her. Unfortunately we have nothing of this vessel's position beyond a 
bare notice and an imperfect log. The direction of the wind does not 
agree however very well with her position, the log giving SSE. veering 
to South, the point from which the hurricane commenced, and our centre 
shewing SSW. as the wind with her at noon. I think it however not 
improbable, and indeed most likely, that this vessel had a separate 
storm, for it is difficult to suppose that she could have fallen into the 
Charles Heddle's and gone through the veerings and scud dings her log 
shews, without the vessels having seen each other, but an ignorance of 
where she was when the storm terminated, makes every thing uncertain 
about her. 

For the centre of the 24th February. — We have the Charles Heddle 
on the northern periphery of one of her circles, of which on this day the 
radius does not appear to have exceeded thirty-five miles. She had the 
wind about WbN. at noon, which places the centre SbW. from her, and 
this agrees perfectly with the Appolline's log, which ship had a furious 
hurricane at East and EbN. veering to NEbE. or three points, by 3 
p. m. or in three hours, which with her low Barometer 28.4, shews she 
was also very near to the centre. 

For the centre of the 25th February. — We have the Charles Heddle 
scudding on the West side of one of her circles, with the wind at about 
SbE., and the radius of the circle about twenty-six miles for this day, 
the bearing of the centre being therefore EbN. of her. This agrees 
perfectly with the position of the Arpenteur, with which vessel the hur- 
ricane begins this day at SE. ; our circle making it SE.fE. We 
have not the Appolline's wind, and but an indifferent position for her on 
this day, so that she may well have been a little farther from the verge 
of the circle than she is marked. The Northerly veering of the wind 
with her from noon 24th, though without any marked rise of the Baro- 
meter till the next day, is exactly what should occur with a vessel hove 
to in her position, and a storm (in the Southern Hemisphere) passing 
her to the westward. 

For the centre of the 26th February. — We have the Charles Heddle 
on the NE. quadrant of a circle of twenty-five miles radius, with the 
wind about NWbW. placing the centre to the SWbS. of her. The 
Appolline had now fine weather. The Arpenteur, which vessel had the 
hurricane from the SE. and SSE. and was hove to, had the wind SSE. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 719 

till 2.20' p. m. on this day when it became calm and shifted to the NW. 
that is to say, the centre passed her (or she drifted across it ?) to the 
eastward of her position at that time. 

We have not her position at noon this day, and I have therefore esti- 
mated it only, by allowing her to have drifted bodily to leeward at the 
rate of three miles per hour on a West, WNW. and NW. course, which 
will give, with variation and a current of 2' per hour to the SW. a 
course and distance of N. 85° W. 90 miles, which is the best estimation 
we can make. I have not allowed her the full current which the Charles 
Heddle experienced, because as I shall elsewhere shew, I do not at present* 
think it probable, that the effect of the Storm Wave extends strongly to 
any great distance from the centres, though the storm Currents are felt 
all over the vortex.f The Arpenteur certainly did not partake of the 
Charles Heddle' s storm wave to the SW. for her position on the 27th 
is about what a vessel might have been drifted to by the mere effects 
of the hurricane and storm Currents. 

For the log of the 27th February. — At noon the Charles Heddle, 
though she had made one more turn round her circle since the 26th, 
appears to have the fine weather commencing, i. e. at length to have 
scudded out of the hurricane ; or it might have left her. She appears at 
noon to have had the wind about EbN. which would give the centre bear- 
ing NbW. from her, and I should consider, though the average of this 
day gives but twenty-five miles, yet that by this time, Noon, she was at 
a much greater distance from it, the weather now beginning so evidently 
to be fine.. We shall thus not be far wrong, if we say that at noon the 
centre bore NbW. forty-five miles from her ; this distance, forty-five 
miles, being it will be seen, the average distance of the whole five 
days, and it will be noted on the chart, that this still keeps her, as our 
averages shew, within about twenty-five or thirty miles of the centre till 
about six a. m. when she begins to increase her distance from it, so that 
it is probably very close upon the truth. This position for the centre 
will place the Arpenteur, which also had fine weather returning from 
3 a. m., at sixty miles from the centre, with about a SWbS. wind, if she 
still partook of the same hurricane. 

* I say at present, because it is not wholly impossible that this view may be modified. 
At present all the facts we have, appear to tend to this supposition. 

f The reader will find the word storm wave, and storm current explained in the 
Eighth Memoir, Jour. As. Society, Vol. XII. p. 398. 

5 D 

720 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

There is however one anomaly here, which we must note. In this 
twenty-four hours, as I have above remarked, the Charles Heddle clearly 
scudded round the last of her circles, between Noon 26th and 5 a. m. 
27th, and at the same time, that is, between Noon 26th and 3 a. m. 27th 
the Arpenteur, at an average distance of thirty miles from her, also drifted 
round a circle, having the winds it is said " all round the compass." 
Now this evidently could not be the same vortex, and we must therefore 
suppose that, as has been so often shewn before, the storm here divided, 
which may have been the prelude to its breaking up ? I have therefore 
marked two centres and two circles for the 26th and 27th, and my 
readers will judge for themselves of the probability of their truth. It is 
possible however, as the Arpenteur 's log is but very loosely written, that 
there may have been only a series of varying streams, not enough to be 
evidence of a true circle. 

We have no data for tracing the storm farther to the Westward, 
and 1 shall now advert to its rates of motion as shewn by our centre, 
and their relation to the Charles Heddle's spirals. The rates as shewn 
by the projection on the chart then, are, 


22nd to 



23rd to 



24th to 



25th to 



26th to 



5) 459 

Per day 92 Miles. 

Per hour 3.8 

The Log of the " Charles Heddle," separately considered. 
See Plate II. 

So many interesting questions must arise in the mind of every seaman 
and of every scientific man, though not a seaman, in examining this log 
and the diagrams which I have given in Plate II, that I have thought 
it proper to devote a separate section to their consideration. They 
would almost indeed afford materials for a separate Memoir. 

And first let me say, that, writing alike for the seaman and landsman, 
I shall endeavour to make myself quite clearly understood by the latter, 
and may thus at times appear prolix, or ostentatious of professional 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 721 

knowledge ; but as this detail is necessary to a thorough understanding 
of the subject by all, I cannot dispense with it. 
The points for consideration then, are — 

1. The accuracy of the Charles Heddle's log as a whole, and in its 

2. The nature and strength of the current she experienced. 

3. The construction of the Diagrams in Plate II, from the log. 

4. The sizes and probable forms of the vortices round which she 
scudded on different days, and her distance from the centres. 

1 . The accuracy of the Charles Heddle's Log, may certainly, I think, 
be taken as being as great as the circumstances would allow. Captain 
Finck is known at the Mauritius as an experienced and a careful sea- 
man ; and to this indeed his log bears full testimony ; but there are 
many circumstances which (on board a merchant ship particularly) would 
unavoidably induce a less degree of accuracy than on board a man-of- 
war in like circumstances ; and taking it that she was steered as cor- 
rectly as a vessel could be steered in such weather, and perhaps even 
from her fine qualities as a sailer better than some men of war, the 
first question in the mind of a sailor is — "Yes; but how often was 
the log hove in such weather ?" We should reply to this, first, that 
in the hands of many (young) officers, in such weather, and when run- 
ing from 10 to 13 knots, the common log is as liable to error even if it 
was hove, as the guess of the experienced seaman. We have all known 
a young, or a careless officer report a ship going nine, when she was go- 
ing ten knots, and especially at night, when it is not easy for the person 
heaving the log to have one eye, and a hand to the line, and the other 
to the holder of the glass, who is often half asleep ; or on the other hand, 
that a fault in paying out the line too fast, or want of quickness at the 
glass or line may give eleven knots when ten or ten and a half are the 
truth ; and in fact most seamen heaving the log really make their own 
allowance for any deficiency or excess they may suppose from any 
cause, and mark the run accordingly. I speak here of the common log 
only, and not of the patent ones, which are doubtless far more correct. 
But in the end, one error of our guess or measurement by log corrects 
the other, and we may, I think, fairly say that, though doubtless in such 
a hurricane of five days' duration the log was not hove with any regularity, 
and especially during the night, yet the average of any day's run is not far 
from the truth as to distance ? The latitudes as given are the next consi- 

722 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

deration, and here I think we may fairly reject the latitudes, and conse- 
quently the longitudes, given on the 25th and 26th, for it is difficult to sup- 
pose between the " frightful sea," (a literal translation) the motion of the 
vessel, the mere glimpses of the sun obtained in such weather, and often, 
if any horizon is seen, the difficulty of knowing if it be the true one, 
that any correct observation could be obtained. For the same reasons 
also, the hurricane still continuing, I should attach so little faith to the 
observation of the 26th, that I have preferred rejecting them both, and 
taking the two positions of Noon on the 22nd and Noon 27th as fixed 
and well ascertained points, by which to estimate the average current 
experienced for the whole five days ; and I think every seaman will 
agree with me, that this is the safest course as to probability, and con- 
sequent approximation to the truth. 

2. The nature and strength of the current she experienced. 
When the Charles Heddle's log is worked for the whole five days 
with simply the allowance for variation,* she will be found to have made 
good, as noted on the Diagram Fig. I, a course of North 42' E. distance 
111', in the five days from November 22nd to November 27th; but 
by her Chronometer and observations she had really made good, as 
in Diagram Fig. II. a course of South 55° W. 366'. So that she must 
during the five days have experienced a current of S. 52° W. 476 miles ! 
or in round numbers, (which would require 480 miles,) four miles per 
hour for the 1 20 hours, or five days, of the hurricane. I have already ex- 
plained why I should reject wholly the observations on the intermedi- 
ate days, and this compels us to take the whole as a general average, 
being without any positive knowledge as to whether its force or direc- 
tion was different on different days. It is clear that if the direction was 

* There is considerable uncertainty as to the variation in this tract between Bour- 
bon, the Mauritius and the coast of Madagascar. On this last coast it is marked in No- 
rie's Tables, ed. of 1844, which 1 take to be from the latest authorities, as 16° Westerly 
at Foul Point, latitude 17| S.; and as 21° Westerly at Fort Dauphin, in latitude 25° S.j 
and at Mauritius as 14° 20' West, but we do not know how late this is, and if the varia- 
tion is increasing or diminishing; and I have not access to any very late works or charts. 
I have thus allowed 1| points for the first three days, and 1| points for the last two. 
This may be slightly erroneous, but we do not know any thing as to what may have 
been errors of steerage, misplacing of compasses, and local variation, and \ of a point 
more or less for a day or two would not make any difference in this kind of circle sail- 
ing, as I have satisfied myself by working over the logs of 23d and 24lh with J \ point 
variation, when the result for the two days was only three miles South and four East of 
that given by the variation used, which is quite insignificant either as to general re- 
sults or the projections of the Chart and Diagrams. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 723 

at all different, the force of the current must have been greater, as the 
distance taken is the straight line between the points, and any deviation 
from that must make a greater distance. In as far then as rate is 
concerned, we have (supposing the run to be on the whole correctly 
estimated) taken the lowest. 

3. The construction of the Diagrams in Plate II from the log. 

The seaman will easily understand these (and I hope appreciate the 
tedious labour they cost), but writing for the meteorologist, and general 
reader also, I must explain that Fig. 1, is simply the courses and dis- 
tances of the log corrected for variation, and laid down on a plane 

For Fig. II. every separate course and distance was first worked as 
for a traverse, and then to it was applied the average current of S. 55° 
W. four miles per hour, for the number of hours of run on that course, 
and this corrected course and distance, taken as being the true one, was 
then laid down ; and the result of all these produces from point to point 
of the five day's scudding, the singular set of spirals shewn in the Dia- 
gram !* And these are in all probability not far from the average truth, 
as we shall now shew. 

The size and probable form of the vortices round which the Charles. 
Heddle scudded. 

There are three kinds of calculations to be made as to the size of the 
vortices. The first is to take the number of turns made in the whole 
five days against the whole distance run by log, and taking this as re- 
presenting the sum of the peripheries of so many circles as there are 
turns, the result divided by the number of turns will give the average 
size of the circles, and consequently from their diameters the average 
distance from the centre at which the brig scudded. 

The second is to consider each separate turn or circle made accord- 
ing to the log, with the number of hours employed, and distance run in 
making it, and to use this to determine the probable Diameter of the circle 
sailed round ; and the last, which will perhaps assist us in forming a no- 
tion of the shape of the vortices, to take each half circle only to calcu- 
late from in the same way. I shall shew the result of each of these 
calculations, premising that I take the circle or half circle to be com- 

* The points marked with dates on the diagram are the positions of the vessel at 
noon each day ; and are those taken for the same days on the general chart also. 

724 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

pleted at the nearest time and distance to which the log allows us to 
calculate it. 

First, it appears then that from November 22nd to November 27th, 
the Charles Heddle completed as follows : — 

1st Turn in 24 hours, running 387 Miles. 


38 „ 





23 „ 





17 ,, 





15 „ 





5 turns in 

117 hours, 




Means are 

1 turn 


23J hours, 




The average circle then was 274 3-, or say 275 miles in circumference, 
which would give not quite 90 miles of diameter, and the Brig's average 
distance from the centre, being the half of this, at about forty-five miles. 

Again, five turns of the circle are 160 points, which in 117 hours are 
1 point and three-quarters in an hour, and the 1373 miles divided by 
,160 are 8-6 miles of distance for each course, or chord of each arc. 
Taking every separate turn we have, 

1st Turn, 387 Miles of circumference, or 
2nd „ 426 
3rd „ 243 
4th „ 167 
5th „ 150 


Distance from 
the centre. 















Taking every separate half turn, which is suggested by the evident 
tendency of the spirals, and choosing from the log each half circle from 
WNW. to ENE. by compass,* and from ENE. to WNW. again, we 
have first, 

* About, or W.g N. and E.5 S. true course, on an average. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 


Hours. Miles. 


1st turn 22nd 

/ 1st 

half circle. 14 





r ist 

f24th "1 1st 
> and )> 
I 25th J 2nd 
f25th ] 1st 
<{ and } 
1 26th J 2nd 
f 1st 
' ' * ' \ 2nd 




167 334 
228 456 
127 254 
246 492 
103 206 

111 222 
60 120 

100 200 
55 110 
80 160 




from the 







214 68. 

160 51. 

135 43. 





Averaging, 4 1 . 

This table gives us then the daily and the average diameters of the 
circle sailed round on different days from North to South, or thereabouts. 
The following is the result when we begin with the time (8 p. m. 22d,) 
at which the vessel was running about North (NNE. by compass) and 
is thus a measurement from East to West ; or at right angles to the 
preceding one. 



Diameter. Dist. from 

. . rp, f 1st half circle. 
1st Turn, | 2nd 

17 — 2041 

18 — 202/ 


.. 129.2 .. 64.6 

2d Tu ™'{ 2 nd 

19 — 213\ 
13!_148.5/ db1 - 5 

.. 115.0 .. 57.5 

3d Turn, { }* 

11 — 112 i 

8 — 81/ 


61.4 .. 30.7 

4th Tura ' } 2nd 

10 — 96\ 
6 — 60/ 


49.6 .. 24.8 

5th Turn, { ^ 

8 — 80 1 
8 — *80/ 


50.0 .. 25.0 


The above averages it will be noted are derived from the run by Log. 

There is a third average to be derived from the measurement, on the 

Diagram, of the distance between the parallels nearest to the longest, 

or vertical, or North and South diameters of each spiral on Fig II, 

which are those nearest the meridians. The transverse (minor) or East 

* This is incomplete : the log of the 27th closing, as before noted, at a West course, 
and the weather becoming fine ; I have therefore supposed the latter half of the circle. 

726 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

and West axes of the spirals, or those bounded by the nearest courses 
to the meridians appear at first sight to be reduced by the effect of the 
current, and the longer (major) axes also appear reduced by the cross- 
ings of the old track from the same cause, but the letters A to B, B to 
C, &c. and a to b, b to c, &c. will show the measurements taken, the first 
being near the meridional, the last near the horizontal distances. Mea- 
surements of these parallels are also taken, as in the former case, twice 
for each circle to obtain a fair average, and are for the vertical axes. 

Mean Diameter. Mean distance 
from centre. 













































107 f 

85 1 

162 f 

77 I 
73 i 
64 (" 




" 123.5 








Mean. 41.7 
When the same kind of measurement is taken between the extreme 
meridians of the spirals, or from east to west, the results are as 
follows : — 

st Turn, 

2nd Turn, <[ 

3rd Turn, <{ 

4th Puni, (? J 

' \h to i 

5th Turn, ( * *° { 
\j to A 

a to b 92 
b to c 182 
c to d 89 
d to e 146 
e to / 
/to g 

33 1 



:an Diam. 

Mean distance from 
the centre. 











It is evident here that the second half circle is affected by the current 

which in the run during the first half is against the vessel, diminishing 

the breadth of the circle, and in the second half is in favor of, and 

increases it ; making thus double the difference. The average however 

singularly agrees with the others, as will appear in the following general 


* Incomplete as in page 725, and the blank cannot be supplied here. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 



>-3 ° 

I 2 

g 00 00 iO CO " 

2 <o o <n <?» «2 

d . ^ ® ^ 

2 n n m w 
.2 fo — m o 

■3 a. 

1 2 

03 ^ 


Q I 
d^ • ^ 
.2 C* ^ <o 



s irt ai c6 — oo 
.2 <m — i co an n> 



g — t-la6 CO CO 


n <r* co • • • 

(Tl —I rmt t^ GO t"» 

.2 t^io v* 

co asa^s^ 

<M © t^CO 


WtD (N H 


_0O .CO . 


£«,_- bt,*s- 


t^-d -5? 


J3 «y t^ u 


I I 

fl t>.inoino i o 
5 cN cri «gJ in ?* — 

2<o oco c^ c* I ^ 



5 E 

728 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

We arrive so near to the same results by all these different modes of 
calculation, that we can entertain no reasonable doubt that they are not 
far from the truth, as shewn by the original data, and that the vessel 
made in round numbers 

1 . In the first two days, circles of about 1 25 miles in diameter, and 
was sailing round at an average distance of 6l£ miles from their centre, 
the greatest distance being 68 and the least 57^ miles. 

2. That for the last three days she was sailing round in circles of 
about 56 miles in diameter, and consequently at a distance of 28 miles 
from the centre, the greatest distance being 39 miles, and the least 25. 

It appeared to me also interesting to know for how many hours 
during these five days each wind blew ; so as to obtain an idea of what 
the total resultant curve of the winds was, independent of the run of the 
ship. I explain these terms. By the total resultant of the winds is meant 
in meteorology the calculating each separate wind during the number 
of hours it blows in a given time, its direction being in nautical language 
a course, and the time or number of hours a distance ; the strength 
being always supposed the same (or this may also be used,) and all 
these courses and distances, (direction and time,) may make a traverse 
table, of which as usual one course and distance is the result. Thus if in 
24 hours we have 9 hours of NE., and 15 of SW. wind, the resultant 
is 6 of S W. Wind ; or the whole atmosphere of the place may be supposed 
to have moved for 6 hours to the N. E., if the strength of the two winds 
was always equal. This is the resultant of the wind. If instead of the 
traverse table we project the directions of the wind for courses, and 
the hours it blew for distances, we shall have a line of some kind, 
which in this case is a curve, and this is the resultant curve of the 
wind, Now in the run of a vessel scudding under bare poles her 
run per hour may be supposed to be an indication of the strength 
of the wind, but then, the course and distance shewn by log becomes 
the resultant, indicating from which quarter also the resultant wind blew, 
and this, as shewn already, is to the N. 42° E. by the log, Fig. I. 
It is true that the vessel being always carried to the SW. by the 
current shewn beyond doubt to have existed, this result is not so valu- 
able as it might have been had no current existed, but it neverthe- 
less has appeared to me to be one worth investigating, as giving an 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 

7 2D 

average of winds as prevailing along the track and close to the centre of 
the storm for the whole five days. 

This summary then, is as follows, beginning with the log of the 22nd, 
23rd, which is at Noon 22nd by Nautical time, and ending at Noon 
27th. The winds being given by compass are corrected for 1^ point 
of Westerly variation, to enable the reader better to compare the curve 
with Figs. I. and II. 

Winds. Per log Corrected Traverse. 

hours. forVar. N. S. E. W. 


.. 8 

NbW±W. . . 




.. 4 




. . 


.. 4 

. , 

NNEJE. . . 





.. 10 

. . 



. . 


. . 


.. 7 

EbNJN. . . 



. . 


.. 4 


. . 



, . 


.. 6 

SEbE|E. . . 

. . 




.. 10 


. . 



. . 


.. 11 

. . 


. x . 



, . 


.. 7 


. . 


. . 



.. 8 

SSW^W. .. 

. . 


. . 



.. 7 


. . 


. . 



.. 9 

WbS^S. . . 

. . 




.. 10 



. . 



.. 8 



. . 

. . 



.. 7 .. 

120 hours, 

NW±N. T. 
or five days. 





37.0 42.5 






Which gives as the resultant wind South 32° W. 6-5 (hours) in 
120h. or - 7 of the whole time or run, and as the run was in all 137 
miles, this would give 74-4 miles, calculated in distance. 

* Nautical men will notice that the vessel is always marked as changing her course 
two points. I suppose she was steered as long as possible with the wind veering a 
little on the quarter and then the gradual alteration taken as an average, as is often 
done in cases of squalls of long duration obliging a ship to bear up. At p. 721 it will 
have been noted that l\ point per hour is the average change. 

730 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

Now the course and distance made, corrected for 
variation shewn by the log, is. 

I N. 42. E. 111. 

That shewn by the average wind is, S. 32° W. for ) ^ „ 9 „ 

6.5 hour, or i 

the difference being occasioned by the varying distances made in the 
different times, arising from the varying strength of the wind, and the 
effect of the current. The result is always of great interest, for it 
proves that the vessel, to counteract the current, was obliged to run for 
one-tenth of the whole time, or ten hours extra in the SWbW. winds 
(S. 55° W.), and thus though it does not prove that the wind was 
less strong on the one side (the NW. side) of the storm circle than 
on the other, it shows that the current must have existed to a great 

The resultant curve made by the average of these different winds for 
the whole five days is also worth attention, and I have projected it in 
Fig. III. taking the hours for distances. If this, and Fig. IV. (which are 
on a larger scale than the other diagrams,) be considered attentively with 
them, we may, I think, without presumption say that, as they are the 
only Maps of the winds in such a hurricane yet traced out, so it will, I 
fear, be long before we obtain such another. 

Its form is also that which theoretically we should say it would assume ; 
for if we suppose a vortex of air of any size moving through the air (like 
a dust whirlwind) we should imagine it to be liable to be flattened in on 
the foremost, and elongated on the following side, and this ours evidently 
is. If we suppose that the vortex is not one of independent atoms of 
air moving forward, but of atoms in their usual places to which a rota- 
tory motion was successively given, like the undulatory movements of 
particles of water, the same flattening might still occur, though to a 
smaller degree, and in a different part of the circle. 

A somewhat different curve would be shewn by the number of hours 
of wind in the five days, with the distance run to each, as shewing 
the strength of the wind ; the vessel being for the whole time under 
bare poles.* The resultant of this which is projected at Fig. IV. 
will be that of the three elements, direction, time, and force, and it will 
also be the average of all the curves of Fig. I. The table is as follows, 

* And her resistance operating on a large scale like the counter-spring or weight, 
and friction of an Anemometer. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 


and I allow for it the same variation, 1| point, as in Fig. III. the } 
of a point more allowed during the last two days in the log making, as 
before shewn, no difference worth noting. 

Table of the distance run with each wind. 




There are farther considerations arising out of 
are much puzzled when we consider a vortex of air simply as whirling 
round and without any progressive motion, to say whether there would 
be a centrifugal or a centripetal tendency ? or a mere circular one, 
throughout ? or even centrifugal at the circumference and centripetal 
towards the centre ? 

The laws of physics would certainly indicate a centrifugal force, and 
we usually suppose then an attraction to counterbalance this ; or again, the 
mind reverts to the apparently well observed and attested accounts of 
water spouts and whirlwinds, which all seem to lean to the fact of these 
small vortices, at least, having rather a centripetal than a centrifugal 
force ; that is, a particle of air or dust in the neighbourhood would be 
drawn farther and farther inwards. Our present result is evidently to 
shew this sort of incurving, and the diameter of the storm was a de- 
creasing one ! 


per Log. 


































Distance run with 

for Var. 

that wind. 





























NWbW|W. . 




arising out of 

these results. We 

732 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

The consideration of Fig. III. in this point of view, leads I think to a 
practical result of some, or perhaps much importance ; I consider it thus, 

We see clearly that from X to Y in Fig III. and from x to y in Fig. 
IV. the whole tendency of the winds was to form a converging spiral, and 
not a diverging one, or in other words, a circle of which the wind- arrows 
would turn inwardly and not outwardly.* Now we can have no man- 
ner of doubt I think that this storm was one of those which, as I have 
previously shewn, is really the case (See Journal, Vol. IX. Coringa 
hurricane) was contracting in its progress, and not dilating as many do. 

Is it then the case that, when the storm contracts, the wind forms a con- 
verging spiral, and e contra if it is a dilating storm, the spiral is a di- 
verging one ? We are induced to think this highly probable, 'and apart 
from the great interest of it to the meteorologist, if we find it to be 
the case, it becomes of high importance to the accuracy of our investi- 
gations, and moreover to the practical application of the Law of Storms 
for the purposes of the Mariner ; and it is so from the influence which it 
has on the true bearing of the centre. 

An example will best shew this. 

If we suppose a contracting storm, i. e. one which has a tendency to 
diminish in size as it proceeds, of 320 miles in circumference, each arc 
from point to point of the compass of such a circle will have a chord of 
something less than ten miles ; across which we may supposed a scud- 
ding ship to run with one wind till it suddenly or gradually changes 
to another. But according to the hypothesis that the contracting 
storms are composed of winds converging to the centre, and not of arcs 
of a complete circle, we may suppose that each of these thirty-two winds 
and the corresponding chords of their arcs, which are the ship's courses, 
are also, not perpendiculars to a radius from the common centre, like true 
tangents, but to the radii from a succession of centres, which are disposed 
round the common centre ; in a word, that they converge inwardly also, 
like the wind- arrows on our charts. 

In the Northern hemisphere they will probably converge inwardly to 
the left. In the Southern hemisphere to the right? How much do 
they converge is the next question ? for its reply will give us this datum. 
The allowance we should make to ascertain the true bearing of the centre 
in projecting, and even in estimating its position at sea. 

* Our figure approaches to the volute of an Ionic capital. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 733 

It may be possible to estimate this ; approximately at least. 

Let us take our circle of 320 miles, and consider the chords of the 
wind arcs in a true circle as forming a polygon of 32 sides, or points. 

Now in our Fig. III. the amount of incurving at the two points is 
about seven miles for an average circle, say, of forty five miles. 

The diameter of our circle of 320 miles is (in round numbers always) 
102 miles, so that, at this rate of incurving, we may say that the total 
would be in the same proportion, sixteen ; i. e. 45 : 7 : 102 : 16. 

Now sixteen for 32 points is exactly half a mile for each point, and 
the chord of each arc of one point is 10-5. An incurving of half a 
mile in such an arc would give about 5°, or say half a point. 

In a circle of 200 miles in diameter, on which a ship would only be 
at 100 miles from the centre (at which time in our Bay of Bengal and 
China Sea Hurricanes a storm is usually fully and unequivocally mani- 
fest) the whole incurving would be thirty miles ; let us say thirty-two, 
or a mile for each point. 

Now the incurving of a mile to each point would make a difference 
on each arc of about 3° only in the direction of the chord, or say a 
quarter of a point : so that here it would not make much difference. 
But we may suppose that the incurving is double what we have 
here assumed, or even more ;* and then the difference as to the bearing 
of the centre might be a point, i. e. a vessel in the Northern hemisphere 
with a hurricane commencing at East, would have the centre bearing, 
not South but SbE. from her ; and if we suppose this on a circle of 
320 miles circumference as before, this would for our purposes, in 
protracting the winds and ship's place for the centre, make it rather 
more than 10 miles to the Eastward of its situation if there was 
no incurving; and if we again estimated this centre by the cross 
bearing from the winds of another ship on the Eastern edge of the 
same circle having the wind at South and the centre supposed to 
bear (without allowance for incurving) West, it would really bear with 
this allowance of the incurving WbS. and the position found by these 
allowances for the incurving winds would be 14 miles to the SE. of that 
shown without it ! 

I think this may often account for many of the discrepancies we have 

found in reconciling the ship's positions, winds, and bearings of the centre. 

* Is the rate of veering of the winds (in this case, see p. 724, If point per hour) 
any index to the amount of incurving ? 

734 Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 166. 

At present it is of course a mere theory, but the fact on which it is 
based, viz., the average incurving tendency of the winds in the Charles 
Heddle's storm seems fairly enough elicited, and to call for close 

Like all theories it will serve us as a torch and a partial guide for 
the present, and we must wait for more facts, to show if it be well 

If (for the sake of hypothesis only) we admit this incurving of the 
winds, it follows that there may be also, not a single incurving of the 
same rate throughout the whole breadth of the storm, but that the in- 
curving may be much more excessive, and amount to two or three points 
when the centre is nearly approached, and even be so violent at the centre 
as to prevent ships drifting out of it ? just like the vortex of a whirlpool 
or a tide-eddy, which last we know will often give a boat's crew a heavy 
pull, or a ship much trouble, before they get out of them. Does it not 
seem that we have here the explanation of how some ships, as in the 
case of the Runnimede and Briton in my last memoir, may be blown and 
drifted round and round, without drifting out of the fatal centre, which 
we should look for them, nautically, to do, and which other ships there is 
no doubt really do. An excessive incurving of the winds towards the 
centre, like the wind- arrows at the centres of Fig. III. and IV. is 
one, and one very likely method of accounting for vessels remaining in 
this hopeless state, and moreover it may assist us in supposing how 
some dismal losses have occurred whilst other ships in company have 
escaped. It adds also a most powerful argument, if any were want- 
ing, for every precaution to avoid the centres — and for every one who 
can contribute to these researches to do so. 

It is possible that at some periods of a storm, the state of it may 
be such that there is a centrifugal tendency at the circumference, 
and an incurving or centripetal tendency near the centre, and that 
at some point in the whole zone of the storm the winds are blow- 
ing in a true circle ? All this is matter of high interest to us, and for 
future careful research. I have perhaps been prolix in this section, 
but if I have been so, I trust it will be attributed to my anxious desire 

* I may notice here, that in my Third Memoir, Journal As. Society, vol. ix. p. 1047, 
in noticing the anomaly of the George and Mary's log, 1 have suggested theoretically 
that the storm might have divided. We have since abundant proof, that this frequently 
occurs in the Bay of Bengal, as seen in succeeding memoirs. 

1845.] Thirteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 735 

to urge the subject on the minds of others, and to elicit their views 
as well as my own. 


Every man and every set of men who are pursuing the investigation 
of any great question, are apt to overrate its importance ; and perhaps 
I shall only excite a smile when I say, that the day will yet come when 
ships will be sent out to investigate the nature and course of storms and 
hurricanes, as they are now sent out to reach the poles or to survey 
pestilential coasts, or on any other scientific service ; and it is be hoped 
that England will in this, as in every other nautical investigation, take 
the lead, and that without waiting till some astounding misfortune shall 
force the investigation upon us. Nothing indeed can more clearly 
shew how this may, with a well appointed and managed vessel be done 
in perfect safety, than the experiment which the foregoing pages detail ; 
performed by mere chance, by a fast sailing colonial brig, manned only 
as a bullock trader, but capitally officered, and developing for the sea- 
man and meteorologist a view of what we may almost call the internal 
phcenomena of the winds and waves in a hurricane, — and these as mathe- 
matically proved as the nature of things will allow, — which we could 
scarcely have hoped ever to have obtained. The importance of the ques- 
tions which arise when storms are considered in any of their relations, 
in war or in peace, to a great Naval and Commercial Nation, and to 
mankind in general, cannot I think now be doubted.* 

* While correcting this page for the press, we receive an account in the Newspapers 
of the dismal catastrophe of the loss of the Emigrant ship Cataraqui, at the entrance of 
Bass' Straits, in which 414 souls have perished in the prime of life! This vessel was 
evidently on the Northern side of a rotatory gale, and swept, in all human probability, by 
the storm wave, as in the analogous cases in the British Channel, far to the Eastward of 
any supposed possible drift. 

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Report of a Trial for Rebellion, held at Moulmein by the 
Commissioner of Tenasserim. Communicated by the 
Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. With a plate. 
NAG PAYN and 20 others. 
Charge — Rebellion attended with Murder. 
This trial came on before the commissioner of the 
Tenasserim Provinces at the sessions for the month of 
February 1844. 
The prisoners pleaded not guilty to the following charge : 

1 . Nga Pyan, Prisoner. 

1st. In having, during the month of May 1843, un- 
lawfully assembled men for purposes treasonable to the 
state, and subversive of the public tranquillity. 

2ndly. In having, on the 15th of the same month, un- 
lawfully resisted with arms the officers of the Govern- 
ment, thereby causing bloodshed. 

3rdly. In having been concerned as accessary in the 
wilful murder of Nga Kaloo, on the 15th May 1843. 

1 . Nga Shoay Loo, 

2. Nga Shoay Mounj 

3. Nga Dot, 

4. Nga Shoay Pho, 

5. Nga Yee, 

6. Nga Pathee, 

7. Nga Daray, 

8. Nga Pok, 

9. Nga Han, 
10. Nga Nyaik, 

1 1 . Nga Shoay Koo, 

12. Nga Wey, 

13. NgaOungMeng, 

14. NgaDok, 

15. Nga Mhwe, 

16. Nga Shoay Too, 

17. Nga Shoay Go, 
28. Nga Kyee, . 

19. Nga KyauGoung, 

20. Nga Mhe. 

1st. For having, during May 1843, unlawfully joined 
Nga Pyan for purposes treasonable to the state, and 
subversive of the public tranquillity. 

July 19. 

Case of Nga 
Pvan and 20 

In a trial for 
rebellion in the 
Tenasserim Pro- 
vinces, in which 
one life was lost, 
the Court, at the 
of the comissio- 
ner, who al- 
though he had 
recorded a sen- 
tence of death 
against him, pro- 
posed a mitigati- 
on of the punish- 
ment, sentenced 
the ringleader 
to imprisonment 
for life in the lo- 
cal jail, as a bet- 
ter warning to 
others than im- 
prisonment with 
transportion be- 
yond seas ; and 
the remaining 
prisoners to peri- 
ods of imprison- 
ment with labor 
and irons, vary- 
ing according to 
their several de- 
grees of guilt. 

748 Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. [No. 166. 

1844. 2ndly. In having, on the 15th of the same month, 

July 19. ' 

unlawfully resisted with arms the officers of Govern- 

Py*\n and G 20 ment > thereby causing bloodshed. 

others. 3rdly. For having been concerned as accessaries in 

the wilful murder of Nga Kaloo on the 15th of May 

The origin and scene of the disturbances for which 
the prisoners were tried, were thus described in the 
letter of reference accompanying the proceedings. 

" The insurrectionary movement which gave rise to 
the trial, was discovered in May 1843, very suddenly, 
and just at the moment of the intended outbreak. At 
first, every person denied knowledge of the affair ; but 
enquiry soon showed that it was well known to the 
Buddhist population of every rank, and that the leader, 
Nga Pyan, had long been becoming famous for sanctity, 
which, in these countries, is a necessary introduction to 
political power, for there is no priesthood in our sense 
of the word. Those whom we call priests are monks 
bound by temporary vows, seeking knowledge or their 
own individual subsistence. The civil magistrate is the 
real priest, being at the head of the nation taken as a 
religious as well as a civil community; — thence every 
Buddhist dynasty has been founded by religious fanatics, 
or impostors, having military talent, — and the reign- 
ing families always claim special powers from heaven. 
Religious ascetics and fanatics are therefore jealously 
watched, and put down with a strong hand when their 
followers become numerous, especially at the periods 
marked in their prophecies, or, in popular belief, as those 
in which great changes may be looked for. Such a period 
is the present, as will be seen from the proceedings. 

" The time chosen was judicious — he was to meet 
his followers from all parts of the country at Gyne, two 
days' journey from this, thence he was to come down 
to the White Pagoda, close to Maulmein, and declare 
against the English. This was to happen at the begin- 

1845.] Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. 749 

nine: of the rains when the country becomes impassable 184i - 

July 19. 
for troops, and he would have been master of the upper 

country during the rains — which would have produced £ ase ot N< ** 
a great effect on the people both here and in the Bur- others. 
mese territory, where also the people were much excited. 

" Captain McLeod, my principal assistant, was des- 
patched at once with a party of the local corps to Da- 
loung, near the Siamese frontier, where Nga Pyan was ; 
and the civil charge (revenue excepted) of that part of 
the country was also temporarily given him; at the 
same time the local native officers of districts and vil- 
lages were called on to arm a portion of the inhabitants, 
there being reason to suspect most of them of being 
implicated. The suspicions were made known, with a 
promise of no further enquiry in case of zeal. 

" Forced marches brought Captain McLeod up just 
in time to meet Nga Pyan as he was leaving the Pagoda, 
where he had performed the ascetic devotions required, 
according to popular belief, in founders of dynasties. He 
was proceeding to Gyne, where the people were at that 
moment assembling from all parts with arms. The trial 
details the proceedings — a party under the native ma- 
gistrate of the district (Moung Gyaing, the Goung Gy- 
ouk) ordered Nga Pyan and his people, who were in 
canoes, to stop and give themselves up, but they refus- 
ed, and a skirmish followed, in which a few of Nga 
Pyan's people were killed or wounded, and one man of 
the Government party was slain. Nga Pyan fled, but 
by great energy and zeal, and conciliation on the part 
of Captain McLeod, the Karens, who inhabit those dis- 
tricts and had all joined Nga Pyan, were led to confide 
in a promise of perfect amnesty if they prevented the 
flight of the insurgent party — very large rewards were 
at the same time offered, as far as rupees 1000, for 
Nga Pyan himself, and eventually nearly all the leaders 
were secured. At the same time the native servants of 
Government were assured of forgiveness. 

750 Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. [No. 166. 

1 f 44 io " * n P ursuance °f these promises the inquiries, at least 
those judicially made, have been limited to what suffic- 

Case of Nga e $ f or ^g conviction of the prisoners. It will be seen 

Pyan and 20 * 

others. that Nga Pyan first gained influence by works of religi- 

ous merit ; that he raised funds enough to build a number 
of Pagodas, and that during the prevalence of the cholera, 
people flocked to him for safety, trusting to his miraculous 
powers. Over the place where he sat at the White 
Pagoda, was hung one of the Burmese religious paintings 
setting forth his religious visions, and the superior beings 
indicating to him the site and the form of the Pagodas 
he was to build. This painting accompanies the pro- 
ceedings, (See Plate.) The Pagodas are actually similar 
to those represented, save the gilding, which is not com- 
pleted; but a great number of others, of smaller size, 
were built or begun all around them, by subscription of 
persons who had become Nga Pyan's disciples. It is the 
custom to fill the centre of them with images of Goda- 
ma, bearing the name of the donor, and it was the names 
on these which enabled me first to obtain a good clue 
to the affair — a few of these, out of many hundreds, are 
also forwarded. 

" The proceedings show how all this was directed 
beyond mere superstition. The people were by the 
reading and expounding of prophecies, led to look for 
the revival of a national dynasty of this country (Pegu) 
in the Burmese year 1206, the present year — and the 
future ruler was to be the person who should put the 
zee, or umbrella- shaped ornament on the new Pagodas 
— for the ordinary magistrate was not to do this. On 
the time approaching, it will be seen, Nga Pyan retired 
to Daloung with a few of his own devoted followers, to 
practise the austerities usual in such cases, — he seized 
the traders moving through the country, and made them 
swear allegiance, and before proceeding to the rendezvous 
at Gyne, learning that a part of the local corps was 
despatched against him, he issued the proclamations 

#$ ■ ■. S»l 5 , fta 

• « — 

■ yw 


r v 

t? r 

i& ., . 



1845.] Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. 751 

given in the proceedings, calling on them to give up jjfylg. 

their arms and join him. These proclamations* are in 

the form used only by the King of Ava, and never by p^ s A e N of a ^) 
a subject. He also assumed in all respects the titles of others. 
royalty, and set up the black flag which in these coun- 

If your soldiers, knowing that (this) victory-flag-order has been 
placed, Friday, the 13th of the waxing of Kah-zong, 1206 (a) (May 
11th 1843,) still presume to make forcible entrance, I, the golden 
personage, am possessed of the golden tsah-kyah bow, the gift of 
the celestial king, and I am possessed also of the tsah-kyah sword. 

According to the ancient custom of dynasty-founders, sovereigns 
only ought to engage in combat. You (the inferior pronoun, equi- 
valent to you fellows) and 1 (the superior pronoun, equivalent to 
Lord I) are not on a par, in point of glory and destiny. If I bind 
my golden tsah-kyah bow, I fear that death and destruction will 
come upon (many) creatures, and therefore I place (this) victory- 

A royal order from the sovereign lord of Da-mu- tsah-kyah. 


The sovereign of the four grand continents, the most glorious lord 
of the tsad-dan, white elephant, master of the aring-da-mah tsah- 
kyah spear, owner of the ma-nan-ma-yah gem, radiant in benevo- 
lence and power, (as) effulgence bursting from the summit of Myen- 
mo, — power to reign over the four continents — issues a royal order : 

Ho ! all ye soldiers, who come marching from afar unto the vic- 
tory flag, which I have set, Friday, the 13th of the waxing of Kah- 
zong, 1206, (May 11th 1843) ! That 1 may easily ascertain, whe- 
ther you will deliver up your lives, and become my own servants or 
not ; ye are to come by ones and twos, and lay down your arms and 
do me homage. 

A royal order from Lord Damu-tsah-kyah. (6) 
When the oath was administered by Nga Pyan, the royal words 
were thus recited :— The most excellent master of land and sea, 
lord of the tsah-dan, white elephant, master of the tsah-kyah weapon, 
Da-nu-ra-jah-men (king Da-nu) declares, that, whereas our sub- 
jects, the common people, are now in a poor and suffering state ; 
the towns and villages shall, under my reign, be so taken care of, 
that they (the common people) shall be quiet and happy. Which 
being read, the oath was administered. 
Testimony given before the magistrate. 

Moung Tan-Laye. 
(A true translation,) 

(Signed) A. Judson. 

(a) Evidently anachronistic. 
{b) Da-mu is Pali, and signifies bow. In the first order, he is styled 
Lord of the tsah-kyah bow— and in the second, Lord tsah-kyah bow. 

5 II 

752 Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. [No. 166. 

1844. tries is understood to indicate a resolution to subvert 

July 19. 

the Government de facto. It is as proverbial in this 

PYA^nd^O sense nere as t0 indicate pirates among European na- 
others. tions. 

The prisoner No. 10, Nga Han, being sick was not 
tried; and No. 11, Nga Nyaik was acquitted. The pri- 
soners No. 8, Nga Dairay, and No. 15, Nga Dok, were 
convicted on the 1st count, and acquitted on the 2d, 
and sentenced by the commissioner, Major Broadfoot 5 
to be imprisoned for seven years from the 1st June 1844 ; 
no mention was made of the 3d count. The commis- 
sioner convicted all the other prisoners, and recorded 
against them a sentence of death ; but, in his letter of 
reference, he recommended the following remissions of 
the extreme penalty of the law. 

To the prisoner No. 1, Nga Pyan, as the ringleader, 
he said he had held out no hope of any commutation of 
the sentence. Had no life been lost, he should have 
recommended that even this person should be sentenced 
merely to imprisonment for life ; but, as arms were re- 
sorted to, he refrained from recommending any mitiga- 
tion, leaving the matter entirely in the hands of the 
Court. In the 17th* paragraph of his letter however, 
he evidently leaned to the opinion, that justice would 
be satisfied, and that policy required a commutation of 
a sentence of death to one of imprisonment for life. 

The prisoners Nga Shoay Loo, No. 2, and Nga Shoay 
Koo, No. 12, as influential and dangerous persons, not 

* 17th Para — " I beg further to recommend that the sentences 
date from the 1st of July 1843, by which time all were apprehended 
— and finally I subjoin the reasons referred to above for having, in 
a case of offence so serious, and so nearly producing very calamit- 
ous results, recommended punishment so lenient. 

" 1st. — The superstitious and national feelings of the people were 
strongly appealed to; and leniency lessens the chance of the crimi- 
nals being looked on as martyrs; indeed, in this case, will destroy 
it. I believe if Nga Pyan be imprisoned for life, and the others 
punished as above recommended, the general feeling will be that 
mercy has been extreme, which is always the safer where the Go- 
vernment is concerned. 

1845.] Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. 753 

instigated by superstition as the others, but by the j^I'q 

desire of exciting a disturbance, with a view to profit by 

it; and as having been in Nga Pyan's confidence, he V™* °fj* «J 
proposed to sentence to imprisonment with labor for others. 
14 years. 

The next in activity, No. 3, Nga Shoay Moung, No. 
16, Nga Mhwe, No. 18, Nga Shoay Go, and No. 19, 
Nga Kyee, he proposed should be sentenced to imprison « 
ment for 10 years with labor, — unless the Court should 
think the fact of Nos. 18 and 19 being brothers of Nga 
Pyan, and men above the average incapacity and resolu- 
tion, required a longer period of imprisonment. 

The rest (with the exception of Nos. 13 and 21, whom 
he proposed to imprison for two years each,) he recom- 
mended should be imprisoned for five years with labor, 
viz. Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17 and 20. 

Why the commissioner sentenced Nos. 8 and 15, who 
were convicted on only the 1st count, to seven years, 
while he proposed to sentence those mentioned above to 
five and two years, was not apparent. 

The case in the Nizamut Adawlut was laid before 
Mr. Reid, who, under all the circumstances of the case, 
concurred with the commissioner in convicting the pri- 
soners as above recorded. For the reasons stated in the 
17th paragraph of the commissioner's letter, he did not 
think it would be expedient to sentence the prisoner 
Nga Pyan to suffer death, and accordingly sentenced 
him to be imprisoned for life. Transportation beyond 
seas was not added, because imprisonment among those 
whom he attempted to seduce from their allegiance was 
deemed a more proper punishment. The prisoners Nga 
Shoay Loo, No. 2, and Nga Shoay Koo, No. 12, were 
sentenced to imprisonment with labor in irons for four- 
teen (14) years; Nga Shoay Moung, No. 3, Nga Mhwe, 
No. 16, Nga Shoay Go, No. 18, and Nga Kyee, No. 19, to 
imprisonment with labor in irons for ten (10) years ; and 
the prisoners Nga Dot, No. 4, Nga Shoay Pho, No. 5, 

754 Report of a Trial for Rebellion, at Moulmein. [No. 166. 

July 4 19. Nga Yee ' No * 6 ' N S a Pathee, No. 7, Nga Pok, No. 9, 
Nga Oung Meng, No. 14, Nga Shoay Too, No. 17, and 

P^AN °an? 20 Nag Kyan Goun S' No " 20 > to the same for five ( 5 ) y ears - 
others. The sentence of seven (7) years' imprisonment passed by 

the commissioner on Nga Daray, No. 8, and Nga Dok, 

No. 15, was annulled, and they were sentenced each to be 

imprisoned, with labor in irons, for five (5) years. Nga 

Wey, No. 13, and Nga Mhe, No. 21, were sentenced 

to be imprisoned, with labor in irons, for two (2) years. 

The sentences of temporary imprisonment were ordered 

to commence, as recommended by the commissioner, from 

the 1st July 1843. 

In regard to the prisoner Nga Han, No. 10, whose 

trial was not completed in consequence of his sickness, 

the commissioner was directed to use his discretion, and 

either conclude the trial against him, or hold him to 

bail for his future good conduct. 

Note. — The banner represented in the accompanying lithograph 
has been copied with care from the original, deposited by the sanc- 
tion of the Sudder Judges in the Society's Museum. — Eds. 

Memorandum on the Iron Works of Beerbhoom. Z^Welby Jackson, 
Esq., C. S. forwarded with specimens for the Museum of Eco- 
nomic Geology. 

Sir, — I send with this letter several specimens of the iron ore of 
Zillah Beerbhoom; which it may perhaps be worth while to examine, 
in order to ascertain its value, and the nature and proportion of its 

This ore is now worked in the vicinity of Seory in Beerbhoom ; 
but the manner of working and smelting it is so rude, that I have 
little doubt much of the iron is left in the refuse; if railways are 
established, the demand for the iron of Beerbhoom may be greatly in- 

1845.] Memorandum on the Iron Works of Beerbhoom. 755 

creased, more particularly as the ore is found at no very great distance 
from two of the most probable lines of railway, those between Cal- 
cutta and Rajmahal, and between Calcutta and Benares or Mirzapore. 

The soil of the whole of the vicinity of Seory consists oHronstone, 
but the work is chiefly carried on at Deocha, which is marked in 
Rennell ; also at Bharcata, Damra and Goonpore ; it is found in these 
places, and is also brought from Sibperbaree, and other places in the 
Pergunnah Mullarpore; all to the north, a little east of Seory, the 
Sudder Station of Zillah Beerbhoom. 

The ore is I believe argillaceous iron ore;* no flux is used in smelt- 
ing it, which is done entirely with wood charcoal ; a manner of working 
which may have a good effect on the produce, which is said to be of good 
quality ; but it must be very expensive, and the progress of the work is 
gradually destroying the fuel in the vicinity ; it is smelted twice in 
circular kilns, the ore being taken out in a mass from the bottom. I 
send specimens of the iron after the first, and after the second smelt- 
ing, also of the refuse of each burning ; each smelting occupies four 
days and nights ; and I am informed, produces 25 mds. of iron, at a 
cost of 17 rupees from each kiln ; there are about 30 kilns, each of which 
pays one rupee for each smelting to the farmer of the Loha Muhal, 
who claims a monopoly of the iron manufacture; the iron thus pro- 
duced, is sold for 1 rupee a maund to the refiners, who again pay six 
pie per maund to the monopolist. I understand the iron produced is 
of very good quality. 

It is common, I believe, to find limestone and coal in the vicinity 
of iron ore of this description : no limestone has yet been found in 
Zillah Beerbhoom, but the country has not been well examined ; coal 
is found in abundance near the river Dumoodar, about seventy miles 
off; the want of limestone, the usual flux, is a serious difficulty, and 
it would be worth while to examine the country to the north of Seory, 
as far as the foot of the range of hills which runs out from the 
Ganges at Rajmahal towards Deogurh, perhaps coal might be found 

* Jt is rather an argillaceous iron-ore matrix, with brown haematite and small, 
semi-crystallised nodules of magnetic iron-ore ; called, according to the labels, Beej 
pathur (seed stones,) and from these last the iron is said to be made; but the mix- 
ture of the hematite and the magnetic ore would give very fine iron.— Cur. Mus. 
Econ. Geology. 


756 Memorandum on the Iron Works of Beerbhoom. [No. 166. 

nearer the place where the works are now carried on ; the only lime 
procurable is made from the common kunkur. 

The circumstance of a monopoly of the iron manufacture existing 
in Zillah Beerbhoom is curious ; I spoke to the agent of the monopolist 
on the subject ; it seems he claims and exercises the monopoly 
throughout what was formerly the Zemindaree of the Rajah of Beer, 
bhoom, which is by far the greater portion of the whole Zillah ; the 
Rajah no longer holds the Zemindaree, which has been divided and 
sold ; the monopoly is said to have been purchased at a revenue sale, 
and to have been acknowledged by a decision of the Sudder Court. 
I was enquiring more carefully into this subject, but was obliged 
suddenly to leave the district ; I am much inclined to doubt the right 
claimed, but have not yet seen the documents on which it is grounded. 
I cannot conceive how such a right can have originated. 

Welby Jackson. 

Account of certain Agate Splinters found in the clay stratum border- 
ing the river Narbudda, with specimens accompanying. By Capt. 
J. Abbott, late Assistant in Nimaur. 

My dear Sir. — May I claim the favor of your attention to a sin- 
gular phenomenon exhibited by the clay and kunkur strata, bordering 
the river Narbudda. 

2 The valley of this river in Nimaur is a basin of black trap 
rock, perforated occasionally by peaks of granite. Upon the trap, is usu- 
ally found a bed of clay twenty feet in depth, rendered barren by an 
admixture of sand and lime. Upon this bed is imposed black or an 
iron- brown soil, from half a foot to three feet in depth, composed 
almost exclusively of the debris of decayed, and the charcoal of burnt 
vegetation. Masses of trap (occasionally basaltic) break through these 
strata, and large hollow nodules of quartz filled with white or with 
amethystine crystals are found scattered over the surface ; but more com- 
monly in those portions of the valley which owing to superior height 
or other peculiarities, have no covering of clay nor of vegetable soil. 

3. Along the Narbudda's brink, the black soil has been generally 
abraded by the torrents, leaving barren ravines of clay and kunkur, 

1845.] Account of certain Agate Splinters, 757 

the section of which is yearly exposed as the surface crumbles. The 
kunkur in this bed is scattered through the thickness of the soil, with 
little visible stratification ; existing there in small drops of the size of 
pocket-pistol bullets, which being found collected in the rocky beds of 
torrents, are used as gravel for garden walks. 

4. As the cliffs of clay aforesaid crumble away, fragments of agate, 
milk-white, pellucid or streaked, are brought to light, sown equally 
through their substance ; not as complete pebbles occasionally fractur- 
ed or chipped, but universally as fragments, such as might be shiver- 
ed from pebbles placed between an anvil and a sledge-hammer ; 
about half of the specimens which I happen to have preserved, accom- 
pany this letter. They are faithful samples of the general appearance 
of this mineral in the clay stratum. It will be observed that the sur- 
face is always un corroded, so that they must have been shivered in 
their present position as parts of a clay-bed twenty feet in depth ; 
or more probably, immediately previous to their present location : for, 
all agates acquire a milky crust by long exposure to the action of the 
elements. They are found in abundance at the foot of all the clay 
cliffs, and may be picked out of the strata on ascending. I have 
seldom if ever found a complete series of fragments constituting a 
pebble : whence I would argue, that they were shattered previous to 
being involved in the clay. They are the only stones,* occurring in 
this bed, and I have never found one of them unshattered, although 
there are abundance such in the river bed close by, and the trap rock 
is full of perfect agate pebbles. 

5. You will observe how violent and decided must have been the 
concussion, to shiver so hard a stone into splinters so sharp and slen- 
der ; an application of force, known in Nature at present only at 
the foot of water-falls having a shallow basin, or upon any rocky 
ledge at the base of a volcano. Were the fragments found in such a 
position, the projection upon their original masses of other rocks, might 
have sufficed to strike them off; but the clay matrix in which they 
are involved, would have preserved agates unshattered beneath the fall 
of mountains. 

* The river channel contains agates, rolled masses of jasper, porphyry, sandstone 
and limestone. The soil around has few stones excepting boulders of trap and no- 
dules of white quartz. 

758 Account of certain Agate Splinters. [No. 166. 

6. As we believe the trap to be less ancient than the granite be- 
neath it, so we naturally conclude the clay stratum to be less an- 
cient than the trap upon which it rests, and which otherwise must 
have submerged it. The agate pebbles seem evidently to belong to 
the trap formation, in the solid substance of which they prevail in 
such numbers as occasionally to give it the appearance of pudding 
stone. The convulsion which shattered the agates under considera- 
tion must have happened after the deposit of the trap strata, but I 
think previous to the deposit of the clay bed, the first soil sprinkled 
over the rocky surface. Whilst the valley was still a basin of naked 
trap, the fall or rolling together of rocks might shatter even the solid 
substance of agate. But this effect could be produced under water, 
only I think at the foot of water-falls. And, that every agate of a 
stratum, twenty feet in depth and many miles in area, should have 
been subjected to this action, seems improbable. The very clay itself 
belongs not to the formation upon which it rests ; but has been wafted 
hither from mountains probably hundreds of miles distant, and thus 
mixed up with the agates, by some deluge of a very extensive cha- 
racter. And the appearance of these splinters of agate might lead 
conjecture to regard the primitive soils of our earth, as ground from 
the living rock, rather by some brief but most violent convulsion of 
the elements, than by the gradual and equable action of an ocean, 
in a succession of ages. 

7- With such speculations all Geologists are familiar; yet every 

fresh illustration seems worthy of attention ; and it is perhaps seldom 

that we have so clear an evidence of the action of secondary forces 

in an interval so remote as that separating the formation of the trap 

layers from the era of the clay deposit. 

J. Abbott. 
4, Ballard's Buildings, 1st Sept. 1845. 


Notes, chiefly Geological, across Southern India from Pondicherry, 
Lat. N. 11° 56', to Beypoor, in Lat. N. li° 12', through the great 
Gap of Palphautcherry. By Captain Newbold, F.R.S., M.N. I., 
Assistant Commissioner, Kurnool. No. III., with a plate. 

At Pondicherry, the soil on the surface is sandy ; but the subsoil 
consists of a blackish stiff clay imbedding existing pelagic shells. A 
well lately dug near the factory of M. Buirette, exhibits the layers 
according to the diagram below. 

Immediately to the west of the city the land gently rises into the 
low eminences called the Red Hills, which are intersected by numer- 
ous small ravines ; and rugged with inequalities of surface. 

In the valley and rising ground between them and the village of 
Trivicary, about sixteen miles westerly from Pondicherry, are the 
Neocomian beds of limestone, and near Trivicary itself, the celebrated 
fossil wood deposit which has been described elsewhere. The princi- 
pal shell limestone localities are in the vicinity of the villages of Syda- 
pett, Carassoo, Coolypett and Vurdavoor. 

Trivicary. — At Trivicary the granite and hornblende schist are 
again seen, and also at Belpoor, or Vellapur, the kusbah of a taluk of 
this name in South Arcot, twenty-four miles westerly from Pondicher- 
ry. These rocks are penetrated by trap ; and on them rest in little dis- 
turbed stratification, the Neocomian limestone beds, which support, like 
the nummulitic limestone of Egppt, beds of loose sandstone entombing 
the large silicified trunks of both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous 
trees, the former being by far the most abundant both in the Egyptian 
Desert, and likewise at Trivicary. In both cases no beds of soil in 
which the trees formerly grew, no Dirt bed, as in the Portland fossil 
forest, in which the roots and stems stand erect as they grow, could be 
traced ; nothing but the bare calcareous beds of the ancient cretaceous 
and nummuliferous oceans in which they were severally deposited. 

Belpoor. — The face of the country between Trivicary and Belpoor 
is rough, with ravines and water courses ; with surface blocks and 
bosses of granite and hornblende schists. These rocks are covered in 
one or two localities by patches of laterite, and support a sandy soil ; 
which, in the vicinity of Belpoor, assumes the character of a tolerably 
fertile loam, producing Indigo, Rice, Tobacco, Raggi, Bajra, Culti, §c. 

5 i 

760 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

A bed of red clay, coarse sand, or the gravelly detritus of the sub- 
jacent rock, often form a subsoil of considerable thickness. Water is 
found at depths of from twelve to fourteen feet, and of excellent quality ; 
efflorescences either of common salt, or carbonate of soda on the surface 
soils are rare. 

The town appears populous and thriving, and contains about 500 
houses, inhabited principally by cloth merchants, and cultivators 
(Kongyes). Near it lie the ruins of an old Jain temple. Two of its 
mutilated images stand at the Traveller's bungalow gateway, with their 
faces turned towards the pillars. 

Large equestrian statues of Ayanar, constructed of brick and chu- 
nam, are scattered about this and other portions of the ancient Hindoo 
kingdom of Dravida, in the country of the Tamuls. I do not recollect 
seeing these statues in my travels through the ancient regions of 
Andhra, Karnata, or Maharashtra, whose boundaries are even to 
the present day marked by their vernacular languages, viz. Telinghi, 
Canarese and Mahratta. 

These statues are not frequently colossal, and generally stand in. the 
open air near pagodas or in sacred groves. 

Wnlundoorpet. — This village lies about twenty-nine and a half 
miles SW. from Belpoor. The aspect of the surrounding country is 
almost unbroken by elevations, covered with a sandy soil, and angular 
quartzy gravel, through which the subjacent rock, viz. hornblende 
schist, and gneiss, occasionally jut out in almost vertical lamina?, 
with a general direction towards the SW., and the dip towards the 
SE. The gneiss is often curiously contorted, and passes by weather- 
ing into a loose micaceous grit, which being washed away, leaves 
gaps in the continuation of its bed. The gneiss alternates with the 
hornblende schists, which often appears in thin layers conforming to 
the general direction and dip of the strata. 

These rocks are penetrated by veins of a prophyritic granite, con- 
sisting principally, like that at Permacoil, of reddish felspar, with 
adularia, and but little mica. The last mineral and hornblende in 
foliated crystals are seen aggregated in nests in the gneiss with py- 
rites; and chlorite appears as a dull green earth in cavities ; sometimes 
these minerals are entirely wanting. The conditions under which they 
as well as other minerals are subject to this state of segregation, and 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Beypoor. 761 

again of equable diffusion throughout the entire mass of rock, are 
matter of interesting enquiry. It is a well known fact, that heat un- 
der fusion will contribute to the concentration of particles of copper 
ore diffused through a matrix, and it seems probable these effects in 
the hypogene rocks have been produced during their subjection to 
metamorphic heat and crystallization. 

Foliated garnet and reddish felspar occur in the more quartzy part3 
of the gneiss. 

In the steps of a large well in front of the Traveller's bungalow, 
are a few blocks of a gritty sandstone, resembling the more con- 
solidated portions of the loose sandstone imbedding silicified wood at 
Trivicary. It was marked with brick red, and ochre yellow, having 
bands. It is said to have been quarried about two miles off, and also 
to occur near Verdachelum. This led me to infer the possibility of 
the extension of the fossiliferous beds of Pondicherry in this direction^ 
an inference subsequently verified by Mr. Kaye, ot the Madras civil 
service, (Vide Madras Journal for June 1844.) 

The limestone in which the Verdachelum fossils are imbedded, 
resembles more that of the Trichinopoly beds, and the pelagic shells 
it contains are supposed to be of a rather more recent epoch than the 
Neocomien, or lower cretaceous series of Pondicherry, but this is a 
point not yet quite settled by the present talented Secretary of the 
Geological Society, Professor Forbes. The limestone was found to be 
associated with beds of an overlying sandstone, imbedding silicified 
wood, precisely resembling that of Trivicary and Pondicherry. These 
beds, I have little doubt were once continuous. 

It is a point of much importance to ascertain the fact of the lime- 
stone beds being continuous or not, or whether the Pondicherry beds 
occupy a lower place in the order of superposition than those of Ver- 
dachelum and Trichinopoly. The Verdachelum beds lie between 
Paroor, a village about seven miles WN W. from Verdachelum and 
the town of Verdachelum itself, which lies about twelve miles S. by E. 
from Wallundoorpett. If the account given me by the natives be 
true, the sandstone beds extend to within two miles of Wallundoor- 
pett. The boiling point of water gives the plain at Wallundoorpett 
but little elevation, if any, above the surface of the sea. 

A lunar halo occurred here, the radius of which I found to measure 
21° 30', sky hazy, slight sensible depression of the thermometer 2°. 

762 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

The superstratum of soil is sandy, frequently entirely composed of 
sand, some of which has doubtless been washed from, or forms part of 
the sandstone and silicified wood beds. In other parts a rich greyish 
clayey loam, mixed with a portion of lime, occurs, yielding fine crops. 
Staple articles of cultivation are similar to those of the last village. 
Kunker is occasionally met with in surface nodules, and as a sub- 
stratum. The water is sometimes brackish here. 

Wallundoorpett was once a place of some note under a Poligar, but 
now dwindled into insignificance. A sulphuriferous earth is said by 
natives to exist in the Wodiapolium jungle near Womaloor, a few 
miles south of this, occurring in the bed of a swamp, about half a 
mile in extent. Specimens were sent me by Mr. Fischer of Salem. 
The soil is of a greyish colour, friable, and the sulphur occurs in small 
crystals and impure nodules distributed through the soil. 

Chinna Salem. — The country between this and Wallundoorpett 
is an undulating plain. On approaching Chinna Salem, which is 
about twenty-six and a half miles W. from Wallundoorpett, and fifty- 
five miles direct distance from the coast at Cuddalore, a chain of lofty 
hills with undulating ridge, broken in one or two places, is seen to 
the NNE. coming down from the N. apparently about ten or twelve 
miles distant, but ending or turning abruptly towards the W. These 
hills are the southern extremity of the Subghautine chain, called the 
Jeddya or Javidie, which flanks the eastern side of the Amloor valley. 

R6gur, or black cotton soil, I first observed covering the plain between 
Chinna Salem and Wallundoorpett, immediately to the W. of the 
Traveller's bungalow at Congrypollum, after crossing the rivulet 
which flows from the Jeddya hills by Verdachelum to the Vellaur or 
Porto Novo river. It is much mingled with the sandy alluvial local 
soil, with which it covers the surface in alternate stripes. The shrub 
which is almost peculiar to Regur, viz. the Jatropha glandulifera, is 
seen in great strength ; and also the interlacing fibrous roots of the 
nutgrass. Crops of cotton now begin to appear. Beds of kunker are 
seen in ravines and stream banks, and sometimes occurring in higher 
situations, in the form of small mammillary mounds, which appear to 
have concreted around the mouths of springs now choked up. 

In the plain, hornblende schist is the most prevalent rock. Gneiss, 
often granitoidal, alternates with it, still penetrated by the porphyritic 
veins previously described. The layers of gneiss are seen in some 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Beypoor. 763 

localities running round spheroidal masses in its substance, which do 
not partake of the laminal structure, and have just the appearance 
of knots in layers of wood. These spheroids when broken have the 
structure and composition of true grantic, and were probably boulders, 
or fragments of granite, embedded in the gneiss prior to its passing 
into the metamorphic state, when it was first formed as an aqueous 
deposit ; a few dykes of basaltic greenstone now rear their black crests 
above the surface. 

Chinna Salem is a large village in the South Arcot district, near its 
boundary on the West by Salem. The inhabitants are mostly engaged 
in agriculture and the weaving of cotton cloths. It was formerly under 
a Poligar, whose descendants are still in existence. Some of the wells 
are brackish. 

Ahtoor.-— The Arcot frontier is crossed into the Salem district, 
between the villages of Royapanoor and Nuttakara (about six miles 
westerly from Chinna Salem), to Ahtoor, which is about twenty-one 
miles distant. 

Around Ahtoor gneiss is prevalent, penetrated by granitic veins, 
and also by dykes of basaltic greenstone ; one of which crosses the bed 
of the river in a SSW. direction. The hornblende of the gneiss is 
often replaced by the magnetic oxide of iron in thin regular layers, 
alternating with the felspar and quartz of the gneiss. It also occurs 
in beautiful octahedral crystals with polarity. The exterior planes of 
the crystals have often a bright silvery appearance from lamella of 
mica. Their specific gravity is estimated so high as 5° 13' at a tempe- 
rature of 60°. The ore is also found in steel-coloured grains, and nests 
disseminated in the more quartzy beds of gneiss. This is the rich iron 
ore employed in the smelting establishment at Porto Novo. First 
rate Wootz is manufactured from it. It is also used by the native 
smelters, who informed me that the best sort of ore is got from two 
hills about one and two koss distant to the SSW. of the village, which 
they say are full of the ore, and are called Callurchan and Moora- 
gutta Mullaye. The natives here employ a mixture of black magnetic 
sand from the Nullah beds with the steel grey magnetic oxide in the 
manufacture of steel. The native furnaces rarely produce more than 
from four to six maunds of iron per diem, which sells on the spot for 
one rupee or less per maund. The steel and iron of Nagrepetta is 

764 Notes, chiefly Geological. [No. 166. 

most prized by the natives, but whether this excellence is attributable 
to a better mode of smelting or better ore, does not appear. According 
to the natives, about 100 families of the Dhairs at Ahtoor are employ- 
ed in getting iron ore ; there are about thirty or forty iron furnaces in 
this vicinity. 

Ahtoor lies near the base of the great break of Salem, where the 
high table lands of Mysore, the Balaghat, &c. descend by an abrupt 
step to the plains of Salem and Coimbatoor. To the south of this 
break, a broken disjointed mass of bare rocks forms a sort of talus to 
the lofty steeps on the North ; but separated from them by a narrow 
and in general flat-bottomed valley, along which the road runs to Salem. 
The extreme height of the ranges to the right (or N.) by a rough tri- 
gonometrical observation from a paced base, I made to be (?) feet above 
the level of the valley, or foot of the break at Ahtoor. And Ahtoor by 
the boiling point of water I find to be about (?) feet above the sea : 
but these observations must only be regarded as some approximation 
to the truth. 

The subjoined diagram* will give an idea of this profile presented in 
the bolder parts of this great feature, in the physical configuration of 
South India. The rocks to the South of this break, after running 
southerly some miles, attain near Shendanumgalum, not far from their 
termination to the SW., an elevation little inferior to that of the ranges 
on the North of the break. The break itself varies from one and a half 
to three or four miles in width. It contracts East of Ahtoor, and opens 
out West of it as Salem is neared, and is about fifty-six miles long. 

Ahtoor was formerly held by a Poligar, the remains of whose 
palace, are still to be seen in the fort, a low building supported on 
Saracenic arches, and covered with a terrace roof. The fort which 
was, it is said, built about four centuries ago by the then Poligar, 
Ghut Moodely, stands on the North bank of the river, rectangular in 
shape, and provided with wet ditch, glacis and covered way, except on 
the South face, which is washed by the river. The walls are of stone, 
with a ruinous brick parapet, garnished with mud bastions, and square 
cavaliers in the usual Hindoo style. It is entered by a gate on its 
eastern face : and, besides the palace, contains two temples to Siva and 
Vishnu ; the remains of buildings occupied by the European garrison 

* See plate. 

Dicvqrarn ic^J^HI 
of Cajpi *.A%w&olM 

in/ PenlrwiUay 



1845.] from Pondicherry to Bet/poor. 765 

which held it after the fall of Seringapatam ; granaries, powder 
magazines, and in the NW. angle, a tomb inscribed to the memory 
of Lieut. Colonel John Murray, 1st Cavalry, who died 1799, erected 
by his widow, (6th May) also an obelisk, from which the inscription 
evidently has been shamefully removed. 

Ahtoor is now the Kusbah, or capital town, of a Taluk, Lat. N. 11° 
40' and Long. E. 7#° 48'. It comprises, the natives say, upwards of 
1,200 houses, occupied chiefly by Kuddiyans, or cultivators, (exclusive 
of the Nellalo, Pulli, Agmuddi, Nattaman, Mullayman, Latraman 
&c.,) and Dhairs, chiefly engaged in procuring and smelting iron. 
There are also nearly fifty families of Brahmins, of whom the Smaltal 
sect is much the most numerous ;next the Maduals, and finally the 
Sri Vaishnovams. There are about fifty houses of Mussulmans, chiefly 
employed as peons, in mat-making, day-labour, and a few in agricul- 
ture. To hold the plough is almost a dernier resort with a Mussul- 
man of South India. 

The houses are neater, and more cleanly than any I have seen in 
this part of India, and are often tiled. Mr. Fischer, who may be truly 
styled the Salem Zemindar, has a depot for indigo and cotton here. 
I saw thirty- six women and children employed in cleaning cotton, 
which is done by means of wooden cylinders, resembling those of an 
Indian Sugar-cane mill on a small scale, revolving horizontally, and 
turned by the hand. 

The table land on the hills to the North is said to be held free by Poli- 
gar Pedda Collaray. It produces hill rice, castor-oil plant, Kimbgoni, 
and a little common rice. The produce of the land about Ahtoor is 
much the same as at Chinna Salem. The water of the wells is often 

Salem-. — From Ahtoor to within three miles East of Salem, the Pass 
continues along the southern base of the elevated table lands of the 
Balaghat. Near Salem the mountains which support them assume 
a bolder and more indented outline, rising in separate conical peaks, 
domes, and abrupt ridges. The highest peak of the Moolnad by 
rough trigonometrical calculation, is upwards of 3000 feet above 
Salem, and Salem itself, by the boiling point of water, is about 1,131 
feet above the sea. 

The same formation prevails around Salem as at Ahtoor. The 
gneiss is often penetrated by veins of eurite, of a faint reddish and 

766 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

greenish white ; and with red felspar coloured with actynolite and 
chlorite. Hornblende schist is very prevalent, mica and talcose schists 
less so. 

The foot of the steep descent of the Shevaroy hills is about six 
miles to the N. by E. from Salem. The granite lossing its mica passes 
often into a pegmatite, and gneiss into leptinite. 

Both Regur, alluvial reddish, sandy and clay soils, and mussub 
or regur mixed with alluvia, are found around Salem. The staple pro- 
ductions are cotton, indigo, rice, bagra, and juari. The table lands of 
the Shevaroy hills produce fine coffee, of which extensive plantations 
have been recently formed. 

Heyne tells us that formerly the East India Company had an esta- 
blishment for the purchase of cotton- manufactured goods here, but now 
English cotton cloths drive the Indian out of the market, and the raw 
material is exported to England, manufactured into cloth, and under- 
sells the Indian cloth after having perform two voyages, collectively 
equal to the circuit of the globe. 

The subsoils are hunker and mhurrum (gravelly detritus of rocks 
in situ) saltpetre, murate and carbonate of soda, occur in the surface 

Salem. — Salem is capital of a collectorate of the same name, situated 
Lat. North 11° 41' Long. East 78 3 14' in the plain a few miles to the 
SW. of the great break in the table land of the Balaghat, which here 
descends upwards of 3000 feet to the plains of Salem and Coimbatore, 
by the steeps of the Shevaroy mountains. 

The Civil and Judicial head-quarters of the district are fixed here, 
though the collector generally resides at Ossoor, on the table land. 
A detachment of Native Infantry, furnished from the garrison of 
Trichinopoly, of three Companies, supplies the treasure and jail guards, 
&c. (March 1840.) 

The native town lies on the left or eastern bank of the Tirrimani 
stream, which empties itself into the Cauvery, and separates the town 
of Salem from the fort, barracks, and residences of the Europeans. It 
is about sixty paces broad, and crossed by a bridge of five arches. 
During the dry season, like the other streams of South India, it cannot 
boast of too much water. 

The native town is nearly a mile in length, the main street broad, 
clean, and in general well drained. 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 767 

The houses are usually tiled, with verandas in front, supported by 
wooden pillars, and sheltered from the oblique rays of the sun by 
awnings of cotton cloth. The market day is held on Tuesday. Beside 
cloth manufactories, Salem boasts of the best steel manufactory in 
South India, and the name of Arnachelum, for beautifully tempered 
heads for hog spears, and couteaus de chasse stands unrivalled. The 
iron and steel come principally from Ahtoor, Tumbumputty, Shenda- 
mungalum, Trimulkerry, and Namgurpett, Indigo is another of its 
principal exports. 

A considerable quantity of salt-fish is imported from the Western 

The population of the town and suburbs cannot be less than 35,000, 
of which the weavers form the greater proportion. 

The fort is of mud and stone, and now a ruin. It was built by 
Chinnaper, and contains a temple to Alighirry Permalvo. 

Mr. Fischer holds lands in and around Salem, amounting to about 
1,25,000 acres, from the Government, on the yearly payment of 5,000 
pagodas. He has an experimental garden here, which is promising, 
in which I observed tea from Assam, Guinea grass, Otaheite sugar- 
cane ; and among many other rare fruits, the apple and pear, which 
do not appear to thrive. 

The physical as pect of this district is particularly varied and beau- 
tiful, extending over the table lands of the Balaghat, and over the 
plain of the Baramahal, which is said to be 550 feet higher than 
Salem. Besides the Jiwadie, Sh^yaroy, and Ahtoor ranges already 
touched on, and which belong to the line of Ghaut elevation, are the 
ranges of Shendamungalum and Collymully, on the SE. confines of 
the district, all inhabited and cultivated. To the South-westward, the 
country is more open, and descends slightly in a plain to the bed of the 
Cauvery, which, with the Palaur in the Baramahal, are the princi- 
pal and almost only drainage lines of any importance> East of Salem 
the slope is easterly to the sea. In the Baramahal, towards the NE., 
the area is estimated at 6,520 square miles, of which only about 
3-10ths are cultivated, with a population, (exceeding that of Coim- 
batore) of 9,05,000 souls, or about 112 per square mile, chiefly em- 
ployed in agriculture and weaving. The annual revenue is about 
1 9| lacs of rupees. 

5k * 

768 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

The roads through the Salem district, made under the judicious 
directions of Mr. Orr, are the best in the Madras Presidency. 

Chrome and Magnesite Mines, — From Salem I visited the Chro- 
mate of Iron and Magnesite mines, of which an account will be found 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. XIII, for May 1842. 
The former are situate about four miles to the NW. of Salem, in a 
bed of magnesian rock, analogous to serpentine, and associated with 
talcose mica, and hornblende schists, and gneiss. 

The mineral is found in veins with the magnesite, the mines for 
which are hard by: but the latter seems to exist in greatest abundance 
in the hornblende schist, which is highly garnetiferous. 

The mining tract is an assemblage of low broken rocks, spreading 
over an extensive jungly tract, at the West base of the Shevaroy moun- 

S anker ry-droog. The rock on which stands this old Droog, is 
about twenty-four miles SW. from Salem. It is composed of a fine 
porphyritic granite, which has broken up the gneiss on its flanks, and 
rises boldly from the plain to a height (approximated by a trigono- 
metrical observation from a paced base) of 930 feet. 

The sides are masses of bare rock, often precipitous, between which 
not unfrequently pushes forth a vigorous vegetation. 

The porphyritic granite has invaded the hypogene rocks, and burst 
through them in innumerable dykes on its SW. flank; the gneiss rests 
like a mantle, with a general dip of 75°. S. 15' W. but the strata are 
in much disorder and confusion. On the western side, the gneiss is 
seen interstratified with layers of hornblende, actynolitic schist, 
and garnet rock, in which is a layer of a fine crystalline limestone, 
(marble) which from its effervescence with acid, and peculiar appear- 
ance and weight, I should think is magnesian. Near its contact with the 
garnet rock, its substance is starred with innumerable minute garnets, 
both red and green. Garnets of a light brown colour, resembling cin- 
namon stone, also occur in this limestone stratum ; the limestone is 
seamed by a dull amber-coloured hornstone, which penetrates the 
rock in thin seams, and stands out in relief on the surface of the more 
rapidly weathering limestone, giving it a grooved and corrugated aspect. 

The green garnet is found in the largest crystals, in the white quartz 
veins which intersect the hornblende schist and gneiss. The green 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 769 

garnet, (if so it is, for I have not yet had opportunity of submitting 
it to analysis) is in general of the foliated, rhomboidal variety, and 
with its white quartz matrix form a very beautiful rock. The quartz 
imbedded also a mineral of a hair-brown colour in hexagonal prisms. 

The variegated appearance imparted to the limestone near the line 
of junction by the admixture in irregular lines of red and green 
crystals, is curious and interesting. 

These beds can be traced on the side of the rock till they disappear 
under masses of porphyritic granite, which have slidden down from 
above. In contract with veins of granite the garnet rock acquires a 
glazed surface, and a disposition to split into prisms when struck with 
a hammer. 

The felspar of the porphyritic granite is usually reddish; the mica 
dark green, and the quartz of a light transparent grey. The two 
latter minerals are occasionally wanting ; the felspar becomes a granu- 
lar or compact paste, imbedding larger crystals of felspar ; in short, a 
true porphyry. 

The country surrounding the base of this rock, which affords so 
instructive an example of the effects of Plutonic intrusion among the 
metamorphic schist, is bold and rocky ; and, towards Salem, the dark 
low ridges show that hornblende schist is the prevailing rock, inter- 
sected by low ridges of white quartz. 

Near Sankerry-droog granite and gneiss are more common ; the 
presence of the first being clearly indicated to the traveller by the 
bolder aspect of the country. 

The gneiss and other hypogene strata are almost every where bent 
and contorted. The Traveller's bungalow stands on a bare surface of 
gneiss, presenting a curious example of contortion, and the rock of 
Sankerry-droog is a finer example of granite veins in gneiss than the 
far famed Cape Wrath itself, figured by AlcCulloch and Lyell. 

The soil is mixed regur and red alluvial ; saltpetre is manufactured 
in the vicinity. 

The hill fart was once a place of great strength, and originally built 
by a Beder Poligar, it was subsequently strengthened by Hyder and 
Tippoo, and within the last twenty years was garrisoned by the Com- 
pany's troops. 

c * 

770 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

The village of Sankerry-droog now contains nearly 300 houses, 
chiefly of Telinghi, Bulgawar, JMahomedans, Pullaywars, Yeddyers, 
cloth- weavers, and a few Brahmins of the Madul, Smartal and Sri- 
vaisnavam sects; the first predominating. It is worthy of remark 
that a few Canarese families are to be found here, also a few Telas 
and Comtis. Saltpetre and silk are manufactured here. 

The Thermometer (Faht.) placed on the naked rocks at this place, at 
2 p. m. in a clear tranquil day, and fully exposed to the sun's rays, 
stood at 120°, at 5^ p. m. 100°. 

About six feet above the rock's surface it indicated 110° at 2 p. m., 
shade 90°, and at 5| p. m. 90°, shade 82°. 

On the sandy soil at 2 p. m. the mercury rose 4° higher than on 
the rock. 

The temperature of a spring was 82 c 4. These observations were 
made in the middle of March. 

Erode. From Sankerry-droog to Erode, which lies about If mile on 
the right or South bank of the Cauvery, there is a gentle sinking of the 
face of the country towards the bed of the river; the formation is 
chiefly gneiss and hornblende schist; strike of strata towards S. 20° E. 
and dip at an angle of 80° E. 20° N. There are many irregularities 
and exceptions to this rule. 

The mica of the gneiss in the bed of the Cauvery near Erode is 
dark shining and foliated. 

The surface of the rock has been scooped out by the action of the 
water into longitudinal furrows and troughs, following the line of 
stratification, which here happens to be parallel to the course of the 

An examination of the grooves and troughs is interesting in many 
points ; and especially as demonstrating the difference caused either 
by the action of water alone, or by gravel and sand hurried along by 
water over rocky surfaces, in contradiction to the furrows resulting 
from glacial action. 

The latter run on in straight undeviating parallel lines, unaffected 
by the different degrees of hardness of the rocks, while the depth of 
the former, and sometimes even their direction, perpetually varies with 
the varying resistive powers of the rock, and are particularly obvious 

1845] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 771 

whenever quartz or chert veins happen to cross the gneiss in the di- 
rection of the stream, when they stand out usually in relief, and but 
little comparatively worn down. 

In the channel of the river I found a coarse sand and gravel 
consisting of rolled fragments of quartz, syenitic granite, granite por- 
phyry, basaltic greenstone, augite rock, hornblende schist, reddish 
porphyry, with tourmaline, like that higher up in the bed at Serin- 
gapatam, chert, jasper and iron ore, (oxides and hydrates). The sand 
contained magnetic iron sand, garnet, corundum, and a pale sapphire- 
coloured quartz the latter rarely; evincing the existence of mines 
of these minerals in the rocks higher up the bed. 

The corundum, ruby, and sapphire are all known to exist in the 
Permutty Taluk lower down, and the beryl at no great distance. 

The Cauvery at Erode divides the Salem and Coimbatore Collee- 
torates. Erode stands in the latter, and is Kusbah of a Taluk of the 
same name. Latitude 11° 20' N., longitude 77° 48' E. Buchanan 
states that, under Hyder's government, Erode numbered 3000 houses ; 
in Buchanan's time it had scarcely more than 300, having been sacked 
by General Meadows' army in the war with Tippoo. The population 
has not much increased, it consists of the same castes as at Sankerry- 
droog, with Brahmins of the three sects. 

The cultivation is principally rice, the produce of a tract watered 
by a canal from the Bhowani river to the North, dug, it is said, by a 
Vellala, named Kalinga Raya Conda. 

The ruins of the extensive mud fort, formerly one of our garrison, 
now contains nothing but a pagoda, the houses of a few Pujaris 
(officiating priests), and a depot for saltpetre manufactured in the vici- 
nity, the property of Mr. Fischer of Salem. 

The earth from which it is here obtained is that from the sites of 
decayed villages. It is reddish in colour, and mingled with old 
coarsely pulverized brick and mortar, wood ashes, and decayed vege- 
table and animal matter. The saltpetre is extracted by the usual 
process of lixiviation and evaporation, and boated down the Cauvery 
from Moganore during the monsoon months, to Nagore, whence it is 
shipped by sea to Madras. 

The boiling point of water in this part of the Cauvery valley indi- 
cated a depression below the plains of Salem of about 250 feet. 

772 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

Chennamulla. — From Erode to Chennamulla a number of rocky 
undulations are crossed, running parallel with the strike of the strata 
nearly SSW. The formation is gneiss alternating with mica, and 
hornblende schist, with layers of actynolitic schist. The dip is gene- 
rally E. 15° S. 

The hill of Chennamulla is a mass of stratified quartz sprinkled 
with garnets and passing into garnet rock. Some of the imbedded 
garnets are tolerably well crystallized, and of deep rich colour. The 
prevalent form of crystal is the dodecahedral, the rhombic dodeca- 
hedron (Almandine) is not so common. The gneiss is often coated 
with incrustations of a flesh-coloured kunker: and beds of it form 
in many places the subsoil. The surface soil is in general reddish and 

At the foot of the rock I picked up a fine garnet imbedded in a nest 
of a dark fibrous hornblende. 

Beryl mines of Konghyum. — From Chennamulla I visited the Beryl 
mines of Konghyum, of which a description has been already given 
by me in Jamieson's Philosophical Journal. 

I shall now content myself by pointing out, that they lie close to 
the village of Poddioor in the Konghium Taluk, about forty miles 
ENE. from the town of Coimbatore, which lies in 11° N, and 77° 1' 
E. It occurs in the vicinity of granitic, porphyritic, and pegmatitic 
veins in the gneiss, associated with fine specimens of rock crystal 
Cleavelandite, and, though rarely, pyramidal felspar or scapholite. 
Konghium was the ancient name for the Coimbatore district. 

Avenashy. — Gneiss, and hornblende schist penetrated by granite 
and basaltic greenstone, are the rocks next within the plain around 
Avenashy. Dip of strata, E. 10° S. strike N. 10° W. Soil and sub- 
soil similar to those of Chennamulla. Saltpetre is here manufactured 
from a mixture of old village refuse with the rich vegetable soil dug 
from the bottom of a tank. Patches of the ordinary soil are seen 
moist with impregnations of soda. The staple articles of produce are 
juari, raggi, and bajra. Cotton is grown at a little distance in the 
regur plains. Cotton cloths are here manufactured. 

The village is pleasantly situated in the plain at the base, and within 
view of the towering peaks of the blue mountains; it was anciently 
a place of note, but has decayed latterly, and the Kusbah is transferred 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 773 

to Cheyoor. It now comprises about 100 houses, principally of the 
cotton-cloth weavers, comtis, musicians, ( Bajindris,) dancing girls, 
Pullaywars, and Brahmans principally of the Smartal sect. 

It possesses a temple of some sanctity, and holds a Jatra and great 
cattle fair once a year, in the month Chaitra. The temple, which is 
dedicated to Iswara, faces the East, and is approached by a bridge 
built in the old Hindu style as at Bijanugger, that is, formed by slabs 
of stone resting horizontally on perpendicular stone pillars, sunk in a 
triple row into the bed of the stream. Near this is a colossal statue of 
the sacred bull. 

The great archbishop, or Swami of the Smartal sect, Sencra Bharti, 
of Singhery Math, has a branch Math here, now under charge of 
Mathmudra, Samana Shastri. 

Coimbatore. — As the base of the western ghauts is approached, the 
plain undergoes a gentle but sensible rise. It is now covered with 
wild vegetation, and its surface more rugged with the channels of the 
Ghaut streams. Patches both of red soil and regur cover for the most 
part the subjacent rocks, which the sections afforded by wells, banks 
of streams, &c. show to be hornblende schists, gneiss, with large beds 
of quartz, and dykes of basaltic greenstone. The subsoil is generally 
either a gravelly detritus of these rocks, or beds of kunker from one 
foot to twelve feet thick; often grey, and ash-coloured. In some 
places both red and black soils abound in soda and common salt, and 
excellent saltpetre is extensively manufactured. 

The staple articles of cultivation, are cotton, juari, bajra, tobacco, 
and rice. The Company since my visit have established a cotton farm 
here, under the able superintendence of Dr. Wight, the principal 
object of which is the improvement, by a better course of agriculture, 
of this staple, for European markets ; Indian cotton being decidedly in- 
ferior to American in this respect ; also the trial of the introduction 
of the cotton plants of other countries, viz. America, Bourbon, &c. 

Iron ore, principally the black magnetic sand, is smelted at Topum- 
betea and Contempully, it is found near Colengoda, and in most of the 
hilly districts north of the town. According to barometrical obser- 
vations by Messrs. Baikie and Dalmahoy, the palace of Coimbatore is 
1483 feet above the sea's level. This pretty nearly coincides with the 
height given by the boiling point of water on the ground of the mili- 

774 Notes, chiefly Gelogical, [No. 166. 

tary lines, which I found to give 1416 feet. Coimbatore town lies about 
sixteen miles to the E. by N. of that singular gap in the Western 
ghauts, the Paulgaut Pass ; it is laid out on the surface of a high plain 
in regular and broad streets, lined with houses having tiled roofs, and 
verandas in front. The houses have rarely an upper story, and are 
inferior to those of Salem. Near the middle of the town stand the 
remains of a palace built or rebuilt by Tippoo, who made it his occa- 
sional residence. It is used as a kutcherry and depot for tobacco, which 
is brought here in large quantities from the interior for export to 
the Malabar Coast. The palace hardly deserves the name. It is a 
terraced, massive building, with open quadrangles, closed by ponder- 
ous gates. A neat mosque is pointed out as also erected by Tippoo. 

About a mile on the rising ground to the NE. of the town stand 
the barracks and officers' quarters, occupied by two companies of 
Infantry and their officers, from the garrison of Trichinopoly. Here 
is also the Chapel and burial ground of the Church Mission. The 
Traveller's bungalow and post office are in the town. The fort is a 
complete ruin. There are also a Roman Catholic Chapel, four mission 
schools, and two private English schools. 

About 'five miles westerly, at Perur, is a temple to Siva, called 
Mailehittumbra, celebrated for its sanctity, and as having been one of 
three pagodas spared by Tippoo. The others were those of Seringa- 
patam and Mailcotta in Mysore. The natives assert that this temple 
was built 3000 years ago by one of the Pandion kings of Madura ; but 
I did not find any inscription on stone to corroborate such an assertion. 

The temple itself is neither grand nor beautiful; but the style 
and rudeness of the architecture and sculpture indicate a considerable 

The province of Coimbatore was formerly part of the Chera king- 
dom. Perur, just mentioned (or the city), is supposed to have been one 
of its greatest towns, and the Talakad, on the banks of the Cauvery, 
which separates the northern extremity of Coimbatore from Mysore is 
said to be on the site of its ancient capital (Dalavanpura.) 

I cannot find that the present capital town, Coimbatore, was of any 
great ancient importance; it probably rose upon the decay of its 
neighbour Perur. The descendants of the old sovereigns, the Velar 
Rajas, still exist, I am told. 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 775 

The physical aspect of Coimbatore, though broken by hills on its 
northern, western, and southern confines, presents, generally speaking, 
an undulating open plain, sloping away southerly and easterly from 
the great break of the Ghauts, — with an average elevation of about 
900 foot above the sea. The Cauvery, to which the inferior lines of 
drainage, viz. the Bowany, Noel, and Amberutty converge, carries off 
the superfluous water to the Bay of Bengal. 

Its area is estimated at about 8,400 square miles, with a population 
of upwards of 800,000, of which about 8-10ths are engaged in agricul- 
ture and weaving. The number of females, according to the census 
published in the Madras Almanack for 1839, slightly exceeds that 
of the males, which whether fact or not, is a circumstance worthy of 
enquiry, in a country where (among the Mahomedans) polygamy is 
allowed, marriage a religious duty, and concubinage and prostitution 
prevalent among all castes and sects. The revenue is estimated to 
average 21 lacks of rupees annually. 

, Coimbatore, at an early period of its history, fell into the hands of 
the Madura Rajas, and in the 17th century was wrested from them 
by the Mysore Rajas, from whose hands it fell into those of Hyder and 
Tippoo. The English took it from Tippoo in 1783, but restored it at 
the peace 1784. Again taken possession of in 1790, repulsed the efforts 
of Tippoo to storm it, but afterwards surrendered on terms which were 
violated, and the garrison detained prisoners until the peace of 1702. 
Since the fall of Seringapatam in 1799, it has formed an integral part 
of our possessions. 

The population of the town of Coimbatore (1840) is said to be from 
25,000 to 30,000 souls— composed chiefly of weavers, agriculturists, and 
merchants, Brahmans of the three chief sects, as at Sankerry-droog. 
Mussulmans, musicians and dancing girls are numerous here, as might 
be expected. 

Tamul and Canarese are both spoken at Coimbatore, which ap- 
proaches the southern boundary of the ancient kingdom of Karnata, 
where Canarese almost exclusively prevails, and also the eastern 
boundary of Malabar, where Malayalim i3 the vernacular language of 
the country. 

Pass of Palghaut. — This great chasm in the wall of the Western 
Ghauts is about fifteen miles in average breadth from N. to S. and 

776 Notes, chiefly Geological. [No. 166. 

about twenty-eight miles long from E. to W. It is about twenty- 
eight miles wide where it opens upon the Malabar coast, and twenty- 
two at its debouchment on the plains of Coinibatore ; between these 
points its width is irregular, but it narrows in some parts to eight or 
nine miles. Its surface, and the lower flank of the Ghauts on each 
side, are covered with elephant jungle and thickets of bamboo growing 
in a thick reddish and grey soil, which cover the rocks, and are great 
obstacles with the jungle to geological examination. Glimpses are 
occasionally obtained in passing through this forest of the lofty heights 
of the Nilgherris and Koondas, which flank the right of the Pass, some 
of which tower 2000 feet above it, and of the mountains, which re- 
sume the line of elevation on the left. 

The bottom of the Pass is a plain, gradually rising toward the west 
by rocky undulations running parallel with the line of elevation, 
which cause alternate rises and falls in its surface. The ascent from 
Coimbatore and the descent to the sea-coast on the other side are so 
gentle, that I conceive it probable that the height of the Pass never 
much exceeds that of Coimbatore itself. 

The boiling point of water makes the town of Palghaut on the 
Western slope 7-10ths of a degree lower than that of Coimbatore. 
Down the middle of the Pass winds the Ponani river to the Malabar 
Coast, and the Indian sea. It is formed by rills from the Ghauts unit- 
ing in the centre of the Pass west of the water-shed. 

The rocks observed in the Pass, and on its Northern flank, were 
chiefly of gneiss and hornblende schist, massive hornblende rock, and 
a small grained quartzy granite, with both black mica and hornblende : 
the mica is occasionally wanting. 

The mass of gneiss on which the Traveller's Bungalow at Wolioor 
stands, is of the variety which is termed by geologists granitoidal, or 
thick-bedded gneiss, and by others, laminar granite. This however 
though its structure may appear granitic in hand specimens, is evident- 
ly a stratified rock, and is seen, a few miles westward, to pass into a 
beautifully characteristic, stratified gneiss, which imbeds small black 
shining scales of mica, and a granular white quartz in alternate layers. 

A large grained granite penetrates the gneiss, often containing large 
reddish crystals of foliated felspar, greenish felspar coloured by acty- 
nolite, and occasionally adularia. 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Beypoor. 777 

The strike of the stratification is generally W. 5° N., and dip 80° 
S. 5 E. Stratification, with the help of a telescope, is seen beauti- 
fully distinct in some of the highest bare peaks which occasionally 
overlook the Pass;— for example, North of the hamlet of Ganjicota, 
where the Pass opens out to the Westward. 

The sand brought down the mountain sides by rills and streamlets, 
consists chiefly of quartz and mica, with magnetic iron sand, and oc- 
casionally particles of gold found after heavy rains, comminuted garnet 
and hornblende, and rusty ferruginous particles. Bits of the bronzite 
and hyperstene varieties of hornblende are also met with in thin 

The surface soil, when mingled with the decayed vegetable matter 
of the forest, forms an ash-grey coloured mould, soft and friable to the 
touch; this is the prevailing soil. Around protruding rocky masses, 
the usual reddish alluvium and detritus from the surrounding rocks, 

The subsoil is usually a bed of angular gravel, the under fragments 
of these rocks. Beds of clay and kunker are occasionally substituted. 

While journeying through the forest, the more than midnight silence 
of a tropical noon was suddenly disturbed by the loud crashing of 
the tall, dry clumps of bamboos, and underwood of the jungle in front 
of U3, as if some infuriate elephant was advancing upon us in 
all the frenzy of the periodical madness these animals are afflicted 
with. Raising our eyes in haste, we beheld a tall white column of 
dust madly gyrating here and there, high above the highest trees 
of the forest, whirling about fragments of sticks and leaves, the wreck 
of the bamboo clumps in which its lower extremity was performing 
most destructive gambols. 

After crashing about for some time, its lower half, like that of a 

water spout, separated from the upper or more celestial portion, — 

which curling upwards gathered itself into a canopy, or cloud above 

our heads, from which dropped the heavier particles it had whirled 

into mid-air; then gradually dissolving it vanished, leaving the forest 

to its former death-like stillness, after a temporary disturbance of three 


d * 

778 Notes, chiefly Geological. [No. 166. 

Such is a Peshash (a devil) in the jungle. 

The Thermometer stood in the shade at 116°, and a death calm 
prevailed in the surrounding atmosphere. 

Puducherry. — Near the little fort of Puducherry, which is in the 
Pass, the laterite of Malabar (for the Salem boundary was crossed near 
the Ponani stream) is seen resting on gneiss ; between this and Pal- 
ghaut the country is less jungly, but still well wooded, with fine trees. 

Palghaut.— This town, fort, and military station stands near the 
opening of the Pass on the Malabar coast, and is about fifty- two miles 
direct distance from the sea, and about four miles W. of Puducherry. 
The Ponani stream is navigable for boats to within fifteen miles of 

The town is almost surrounded by the Agrarums of Brahmans and 
enclosed estates of wealthy Nairs: it is laid out into neat streets: the 
houses look clean, and are usually tiled or thatched with the bamboo 
and palm leaf. 

The pagodas here and elsewhere in Malabar, (the old Malayalam 
kingdom) differ from those of the Carnatic and Balaghat in being 
covered with conical tiled roofs, like a Malay mosque, and in wood 
being largely employed in their construction. The different physical 
features of the country account sufficiently for this difference in the 
religious architecture of the Malayalam nation. Granite is scarce, 
and usually lies at a distance : the porous laterite would make indiffer- 
ent roofing slabs ; whilst the great forests of Malabar yield a never fail- 
ing and cheap supply of the finest timber. 

The roofs of the pagodas terminate in the usual gilded Calas. The 
colossal equestrian statues so common in the Chola kingdom, are now 
no longer seen, but in their room we have the isolated granite blocks of 
Carculla carved into the gigantic statue of Gomuta Raya. 

The fort stands on the commanding ground on which the Military 
lines are built, about three-quarters of a mile easterly from the pettah. 

The fort is small, but well put together, of stone, in shape quadran- 
gular, and consists of a curtain flanked by round bastions ; the whole 
surrounded by a wet ditch, covered- way, and glacis. The only gate 
faces the east, and is protected by an outwork in the European style, 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Beypoor. 779 

the work, probably of some French engineer in the service of Hyder, 
who is said to have built the fort itself, in 1766, but at all events 
remodelled it. 

The parapet is high, pierced with loopholes for musketry, and the 
bastions with embrasures for guns. I counted about forty guns, rusty 
and apparently unservicable, lying about the place. 

Palghaut is now the head-quarters of a regiment of Native Infantry : 
It is the key of the Coimbatore and Salem districts, from the western 

It used to be noted for the manufacture of furniture. Rice is the 
staple article of cultivation. The mountains in the vicinity can supply 
large quantities of teak and other valuable timber. The pepper and 
card am um flourish on their sides and in their defiles; and their 
forests shelter herds of bison and elk, whose horns form an article of 

Palghaut before Hyder's time, was under a Wair Raja, who was in 
some measure feudatory to the Hindu Rajas of Mysore. 

On their downfall, it fell into Hyder's hands, who strengthened it 
as a Military post, commanding the only communication with Mala- 
bar from Coimbatore. 

It was early seized by the English in their wars with Hyder ; 
evacuated 1768, by Lieut. Bryant; retaken 17^3, by Col. Fullarton ; 
again fell into the hands of Tippoo, but retaken in 1790, by Col. Stuart. 

The Pass of Palghaut, as might be anticipated, exerts a considerable 
influence over the meteorology of the places to the East and West of it. 
In the SW. monsoon while the table lands of the Balaghat, and the 
plains of the Carnatic, sheltered by the great wall of the Western 
Ghauts, are burnt up with the rays of a scorching sun, the places im- 
mediately to the East of this wide gap are favoured with a portion of 
the Gooling showers and breezes which are wafted through this moun- 
tain opening over the forests of Malabar from the Indian ocean. 

On the other hand, it serves as an outlet to those furious storms 
from the Eastward, which sweep the Bay of Bengal, and after tra- 
versing the peninsula, burst forth through it to the Indian sea. 

Vaniencolam. — This is a village in South Malabar, about twenty- 
four miles and a half W. by N. from Palghaut. Like most Malabar 
villages in the interior, it consists of huts in separate enclosures, 

780 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 166. 

shaded by the cocoa, areca palm, and the jack, spreading over a large 
area, the surface of which is diversified with two wooded hills, and 
watered by numerous mountain rills. 

The Traveller's bungalow stands on one of these low eminences on 
a bed of laterite resting on gneiss. The gneiss is hornblendic, strike of 
strata W. 50° N., and dip 86° S. 5° E. 

The soil is red, and often consists of a barren laterite detritus. A 
well, twenty-four feet, is cut in the laterite. 

A market for salt fish from the coast, cotton cloths from Coimbatore, 
&c. is held here every Saturday. Approximate height above sea by 
boiling point, 393 feet. 

Waliyar. — A tiled Bungalow for the accommodation of travellers, 
has been erected by a liberal native banker of Coimbatore, named Bis* 
ram Singh, in this forest hamlet, which consists only of a few rude 
huts. The surrounding jungles are rather notorious for being the fa- 
vourite haunt of the tiger and elephant at certain seasons. Few in- 
stances, however, have been recorded of their attacking travellers. The 
natives affirm it is dangerous to sleep here during the cold months of 
November, December and January, on account of a jungle miasma 
which engenders fever. Laterite is the prevalent surface rock. 

The approximate height above sea by boiling point 283 feet. 

Tirtalla. — This is a large village in S. Malabar, a few miles from 
Palghaut,, about sixteen miles direct distance from the sea at Panani. 
It is pleasantly situated in a valley, flanked by hills of gneiss and 
hornblende schist partially overlaid by laterite, on the banks of the 
Walliyar or Ponani river. The strata of gneiss, which is highly wea- 
thered, run E. by S. and dip 45° toward the S. The banks of the 
river consist of a loosely consolidated laterite clay and sandstone over- 
lying a bed of a stiff black carbonaceous clay. It is not improbable 
that lignite and mineral copal exist in this vicinity, as I found a small 
fragment of the latter in the river bed. The sand which covers it, is 
quartz and micaceous. On digging to the depth of five feet, I found 
layers of a white coloured sand alternating with sand of a ferrugi- 
nous colour and thin layers of a dark brown clay passing into 

The soil in the rice grounds is a sandy clay mingled with decayed 
vegetable matter. 

1845.] from Pondicherry to Bey poor. 781 

The staple article of cultivation here is rice, and the prevailing 
castes, are Namburis, Tiars, Moplays, Churmars and Vellalis. 

In the jungle I saw some of the squalid aborigines of Malabar, — 
the Neadis — who reminded me in feature and lowness of stature of 
those of the Malay Peninsula, and of the Chensu-var, inhabiting the 
jungles of the Eastern Ghauts. 

Betiangady.— The houses, or huts rather, composing this Malabar 
village, are scattered as usual over a large space of ground. The flat, 
cultivated rice vallies run down towards the sea, flanked by steep, low 
ranges of laterite, like so many rivers enclosed by banks. The soil is 
lateritic, manured chiefly with decayed vegetable matter and wood 

Staple article of cultivation, rice ; and the prevailing castes much 
the same as the last march. The Traveller's bungalow stands on a 
low hill of laterite, which by the boiling point is about 320 feet above 
the sea. 

The temperature of water in a well twenty feet deep, in laterite, 
was 82°. Of air in shade at the time (March 23rd, 5 p. m.) 87°. 

Beypoor. — The sea is first seen at Beypoor, a large village at the 
mouth of the Beypoor river, Lat. N. 11° 12', and Long. E. 75° 52'. 
The cliff on which the Traveller's bungalow is pleasantly situated, is 
of laterite. It is on the north bank, and commands a good view of 
the embouchure and bar. The prevailing rock is laterite, running 
down in low flat topped ridges from the interior, separated by flat 
bottomed tortuous vallies, which have been evidently scooped in it 
when the land was uplifted from the bed of the sea. These ranges 
usually terminate in precipices of from forty to one hundred feet high 
at the sea. 

The laterite embeds layers of lignite associated with sulphates of 
iron and alumina (the result probably of the decomposition of iron 
pyrites,) and occasionally mineral copal. The largest bed of lignite 
occurs at the base of the cliff of lateritic sandstone, which overlies it a 
short distance up the river, on its right bank, in a bed of black and 
grey micaceous slate clays and shales. 

Beypoor was formerly a favourite sea- port of Tippoo, who styled it 
Sultan-patnam, the city of the Sultan ; he constructed a fort on the 
river, warehouses, and an arsenal. 

782 Notes, chiefly Geological, from Pondicherry to Beypoor. [No. 166. 

The Portuguese formed an early settlement here. The ruins of 
this fort are still pointed out by natives on the sand bar. The river 
is navigable during the monsoon many miles into the teak forests 
of the interior, and affords a capital mode for the transit of ship, 
building timber, by rafting to the coast. A low mill with sails 
moved by the wind is standing, but I believe no longer in use. A large 
quantity of timber is still shipped for the supply of the Dock-yards at 
Bombay, and large vessels (to 700 tons) are occasionally built here. 
Sail-cloth is manufactured, and excellent tar from teak-wood shav- 
ings and saw dust. 

The village contains about 400 houses, inhabited chiefly by Tiars, 
Mairs, Polliars, Churmars, Soottars, Mukkoons; with a few Nam- 
buri Brahmans, Kunnishuns, and Moplays, and has a busy thriving 

The Beypoor river is one of the most considerable in Malabar. It 
will admit vessels of 300 tons within the bar, and it is navigable 
during the greater part of the year to Ariacode, twenty-five miles, and 
during the monsoon to Nellumboor, the principal teak forest, forty- 
four miles. In its sands after the rain, and along the sea-coast, gold 
dust is frequently found in small quantity. 



Review of L/histoire du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. By Dr. 

E. Roer. 

It is with great satisfaction, that we hail the appearance of a work, 
which will, we suspect, form an epoch in our knowledge of Buddhism. 
Seeing the name of the author at the head of this " Introduction to the 
History of Buddhism" important results were to be expected from his 
knowledge of Sanscrit and of Pali literature, but we did not anticipate, 
that a great part of his researches was based on Sanscrit sources. It is^ 
indeed singular, that our first information about Buddhism should have 
been derived from secondary sources ; from the Burmese, the Moguls, 
the Chinese, &c. and should only gradually have returned to its main 
spring. Our first acquaintance with Buddhism was in fact not of a kind 
to invite research ; the mixture of extravagant fables, apparent histori- 
cal facts, philosophical and religious doctrines was so monstrous, that 
it seemed to defy every attempt to unravel it. There were architec- 
tural monuments in abundance, which bore witness to high ancient 
civilization among Buddhist nations, but in referring to their tradi- 
tional or written records, which alone could give language to those 
relics, enquiry was startled at their incoherence and inconsistency. The 
researches of Abel Remusat, especially on the Buddhist writings of the 
Mongolian nations, threw the first light on these mysteries. He was 
closely followed by F. J. Smith, and from Chinese authorities by 

No. 167. No. 83. New Series. 5 m 

784 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

Klaproth, Landresse, A. C. de Koros, whose indefatigable zeal and 
perseverance opened new sources for the history and religion of the 
Buddhists in the literature of the Tibetans. About the same time the 
excavations of Buddhist monuments in the Punjaub and other places, 
secured a geographical basis for the empires of the Buddhists, and the 
coins found in the topes, with the decyphering of their legends by J. 
Prinsep, brought to light a series of facts, which were of the highest im- 
portance to true history. All these results were eminently corroborat- 
ed and illustrated by an ancient Buddhist work, written in Pali, the 
" Mahawanso," of which a translation into the English was published by 
the Hon. Mr. Tumour. From a different quarter of India the numerous 
communications of Mr. Hogdson on Buddhism in Nepaul, and his dis- 
covery of an immense number of Buddhist works, written in Sanscrit, 
excited the highest interest ; but a critical examination of these books not 
having been given, no dependance could be placed upon these illustra- 
tions otherwise so valuable. The present work of Mr. Burnouf is the 
result of such a research, and through it we have returned to the central 
source of the Buddhist writings, from which all others, with exception 
of the Pali, are only radiations. It owes its origin to a number of Sanscrit 
manuscripts (80) which Mr. Hodgson collected in Nepaul, and which, 
with his disinterested liberality in promoting the cultivation of Oriental 
studies, he presented, about the end of 1837, to the Asiatic Society of 
Paris ; a liberality, the first fruit of which is this remarkable work of 
Burnouf, who does not fail to do full justice to the noble disinter- 
estedness of Mr. Hodgson. There are very few scholars capable of 
undertaking a research into the materials. As a fortunate combination 
of circumstances had concentrated at Paris all the first and secondary 
sources for the history of Buddhism, a man was required who united 
to a profound knowledge of the ancient languages of India, an ac- 
quaintance with the modern languages and literature of the Bud- 
dhists, the critical tact of the philologist and historian, and the com- 
prehensive grasp of the philosopher, qualities, which in E. Burnouf 
are most happily blended together. It is certainly not an easy task 
to go through eighty large manuscript works, written in a barbarous 
language, made often unintelligible by the ignorance of the copyist, to 
analyse the contents of all, to bring them in their true chronological 
order, to compare them with the documents of other nations, written 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnovf. 785 

in a different language, and lastly use them as sources for the history, 
religion, and philosophy of the Buddhists. 

The Buddhist religion claims in many respects a peculiar interest. 
The changes it has undergone are most remarkable. Having over- 
come the religion of the Brahmans on its own ground, having swayed 
by its kings the greater part of India, it has been banished from its 
native soil so entirely, that it is almost forgotten there by the bulk 
of the population, while its followers in other parts of the earth are more 
numerous than those of any other religion. It is an undeniable fact, 
that a great part of mankind were humanized by it, and that for the 
civilization of central and western Asia it has done the same, as Chris- 
tianity has for the barbarians of Europe. 

But a higher interest is connected with its history for the philanthro- 
pist. Has Buddhism been able to produce such a religious revolution 
in India ? Has it been able to overcome the intellectual barrier with a 
great number of the Hindoos, the tenacious adherence to their religious 
impressions ? We may also perhaps be able to exercise a similar in- 
fluence on the Hindoo mind, to break the instinctive resistance against 
a religion which reveals the true aim of mankind, and is connected 
with all the progress which mankind has made in science, in art, and 
in the true spirit of government. 

And in this respect the annals of Buddhism should be attentively 
studied. Truth in itself alone is not sufficient to eradicate errors, which 
a long habit has accustomed people to consider as their most sacred 
inheritance ; the mind of man being not prepared for a religious or even 
a scientific truth, will reject it. As regards the propagation of religious 
truth among a people, its character, habits, institutions should be 
intimately known, before a lasting impression can be made on them. 
The Buddhist annals are in this respect especially instructive, showing 
the means, by which they succeeded in converting a people, every insti- 
tution of which is calculated to perpetuate its religious associations. 
Among the many important results, which are the fruit of Burnoufs 
researches, we will here notice one, which appears to us of immense 
importance to the future studies of Indian antiquity ; it is, that there 
is established beyond doubt the higher antiquity of Brahmanism ; and 
before we enter into a description of the work itself, we beg to be 
permitted to consider this object from another point of view than that in 

786 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

which Burnouf regarded it, in the hope, we may contribute to remove 
some prejudices, which obstruct not only the study of the history of 
Buddhism, but of all other religions. 

The question, whether Buddhism or Brahmanism be the more an- 
cient religion, has not yet been decided to general satisfaction, though 
there should not be any doubt about it among those who have studied 
Indian antiquities. The incertitude, which still prevails on this subject, 
appears to originate in the opinion of men, who not paying sufficient 
attention to a most authentic document, — the ancient Sanscrit litera- 
ture, allowed their judgment to be swayed by modern Buddhist sources. 
And even these w*ere not critically examined by them, as the Buddhists 
themselves explicitly, as well as implicitly, acknowledge the higher 
antiquity of the religion of the Vedas. 

It is not difficult to discover the cause of this predilection for the 
antiquity of Buddhism. We have above remarked, that the religion of 
Buddha, as derived from more modern documents, offers an inextricable 
web of history, legends, religious and philosophical tenets, which appear 
to some, to have a close affinity to Christian doctrines (for instance, to 
the dogma of the Trinity) ; to others, with the assertions of some ancient 
Grecian philosopher ; in a word, the apparent depth of some opi- 
nions, combined with the apparent want of historical documents, throws 
it back also into the depth of time. There is with many persons 
inclination to interest themselves in every thing which bears the 
semblance of remote antiquity. An event that disappears in the mists 
of time, has for them an enchantment which the most excellent histori- 
cal statement of the real connexion of cause and effect would fail to 
excite, as it thus would be encompassed in the notion of every-day 

The Buddhists themselves, although in sad contradiction with their 
own statements, have always shown an inclination to push back 
as far as possible the origin of their doctrine, or in other words, to 
pronounce their religion without beginning and end, a proceeding, 
which is quite in accordance with their position. The question of their 
opponents, why Sakya Muni did not appear in any former period, was cut 
off by the doctrine, that the universe always is under the government 
of a Buddha. This assertion however well it accords with the wishes 
of the Buddhist, has not the least foundation in the eyes of the critic. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 787 

We willingly admit, that Buddhism has for the critic and historian a 
peculiar interest, but of an opposite kind ; which is, that a religion, which, 
as regards even its origin, appears to belong to an advanced state of 
society, and which in all its stages manifests elements of a doctrine 
intended to be propagated, — that such a religion should at the same time 
recoil into the darkness of a primeval period. It is the peculiar object 
of the enquirer to raise the veil which was, as we may safely assert, 
woven in after days ; like as with the pretensions of Brahmanism to 
indefinite antiquity, made at a more recent period. 

On the other hand we may assert, that the darkness into which the 
origin of many religions is plunged, cannot be removed, because such 
darkness is, as it were, cause and consequence of their origin. 

A religion which is produced by the human mind, without being 
dependent on former religious opinions among a nation, but is rather 
the commencement of its religious convictions, has neither conscious- 
ness of itself, nor falls within the range of history. There is the same 
obscurity with regard to it, as with regard to language, the origin of 
which we may comprehend as a necessary effect from general causes 
in human nature, without being able to trace it by historical docu- 

We now assert, that Buddhism is no primitive religion, but one of 
those, which are founded on the development of preceding religious 

Religion has the same object with philosophy, which, however, is 
attained by either in a different way ; religion perceives its object by 
belief, while the other endeavours to realize it by knowledge. Both 
depend on the idea of infinity. As certainly as man has the idea of 
finite things, so has he also the idea of an infinite nature ; both are 
correlate ideas, and religion therefore is founded on the nature of man. 
By religion we believe in our connection with infinite power ; by philoso- 
phy, we attempt to trace it by a succession of arguments. Being both 
alike in their object and commencement, they must also have a similar 
development, or the steps which the one has to go to the goal of its 
perfection, are represented likewise in the other. 

Philosophy in its origin has two characteristics ; first, it is simple, or 
the object of knowledge is perceived in its simplest relations ; and, 
secondly, all its principles as well as its explanations are material. The 

788 Review of Vhistoire [No. 167. 

material causes and explanations are not even comprehensive, but are 
limited only to certain phenomena of nature. The next step in the 
march of reason, is to collect all these phenomena in one view, as well as 
to reflect upon the forms, in which they appear in our mind. When 
this circle of natural causes, of their being reduced to one and the same 
(material) cause, and their mode of connection with our perception has 
been completely passed through, when by this process the various stores 
of learning, and a progressive power of reflection and reflected notions 
have been produced, the mind will be perceived in its contrast with ma- 
terial nature, that is to say, as perceiving, as comprehending a variety of 
objects in one and the same view. This stage of philosophical reflection 
is impossible, without being preceded by the former, — the materialist 
consideration. At first, however, the more obvious acts and faculties of 
the mind are only perceived, that is to say, in its difference from 
nature, and only when they have been examined, are the various mani- 
festations of the mental activity submitted to investigation ; the mind 
appears then as a moral agent, and it is then the highest destination of 
mankind to realize a hierarchy of moral ends. 

It is evident, that in this exposition, the assertion is not included, 
that on the first stage of the philosophic development of the human 
mind, no notions of mental acts should have existed ; on the contrary, 
they undoubtedly existed ; for it is in the nature of the mind to be 
conscious of its acts ; but this consciousness is first found in an unre- 
flected perception ; as a clear, well defined notion it cannot exist, until 
by a series of opposite notions, the nature of the mind becomes manifest. 
The same law exists, as regards the perception of moral ends, which, 
however, is not necessary here further to discuss. 

Religion follows the same steps in its development. Powers of 
nature, or objects of external perception, have been first worshipped 
as the gods of man. They are, for instance, the elements, water, earth, 
fire, ether, or phenomena of short duration, though of overwhelming 
power, as the clouds, thunder and lightning, &c. ; or objects on the 
sky, as sun, moon and stars. In the Vedas prevails an adoration of the 
elements and the starry sky ; the Greeks previously to the worship 
of the Olympian gods, adored Uranos (sky), Gaia (earth), Chronos 
(time), &c. In a later period qualities of the mind are attributed to the 
gods, as we find the gods of Olympus, or the gods of the Indian pan- 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 789 

theon, which was produced after the period of the Vedas, until the gods 
are considered as the moral rulers of the world. 

Let us now apply these criteria to the religion of Buddha to see, 
whether it belongs to the primitive religions, or to those which can only 
arise in a more advanced age of mankind. First, its views of the world 
are not simple ; we find therein a developed theory of the material 
elements, of an eternal circle of life and death, of a necessary connec- 
tion of causes and effects ; of infinite spaces and times, &c. together with 
almost all the gods of the Brahmans. Further, the view of the world 
is not material, but there is clearly perceived the difference between 
mind and matter, a doctrine of the origin of all mental and material 
elements, from one element, which transcends the perception of our 
senses, and which in fact is the void, the nothing, a view which un- 
doubtedly requires a far advanced abstraction. Further, as regards the 
mind, many different stages of its development are distinguished, and 
it is explicitly stated, that it is the destination of man to pass through 
all these stages, to liberate himself from all the trammels of nature, and 
to aspire by his own efforts to the highest degree of spiritual existence. 
Lastly, the moral element prevails in Buddhism; it is essentially a 
religion, in which the highest object is Dharmma, the realization of the 
moral law by a finite being, as the only means of receiving true li- 
beration from the evil of life, and obtaining the state of a Buddha. 

This explanation goes far to prove, that Buddhism is not simple, 
that all its elements are based on a previous development, and we may 
therefore safely assert, that it is not a primitive religion, but the result 
of religious ideas, previously cultivated in the people ; or, with one 
word, Buddhism belongs to history, and if its documents be not lost, 
we must be able to trace its origin. The native country of Buddhism 
is India, and as there was no other religion but Brahmanism, this must 
have been its parent. If this be true, it cannot be difficult to show 
that form of Brahmanism to which it owes its existence. We, however, 
conclude here this exposition, which we made only for the purpose of 
contributing to settle a question which has too long been a matter of 
discussion to Oriental scholars, and return now to our immediate object. 

As we already observed, Burnouf's work gives the historical evi- 
dence of the connection between Brahmanism and Buddhism. It 
introduces us into the very circumstances from which Buddhism arose. 

790 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

The more we advance in the perusal of his book, the darkness as to 
the mysterious origin of Buddhism is gradually dispelled, and we com- 
mence to get an insight into the very motives of its founder and its first 
apostles ; in a word, we recognise in it a work of human intellect. 

Mr. Burnouf endeavours first to establish the place, which the San- 
scrit books of Nepaul claim to occupy among the Buddhist literature 
in Asia, and after a careful comparison of the great Tibetan collection of 
Buddhist works, of which Mr. A. C. de Koros gave a detailed and able 
analysis in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, of Mongolian and Chinese 
Buddhist works with the Nepalese collection, he comes to the conclu- 
sion, that all of them are translations from the Nepalese books. 

It is a fact, he says, proved now to evidence, that most of the sacred 
books of Tibet, Tartary and China, are only translations of the 
texts, discovered in Nepal, and this single fact marks positively the 
place of these texts in the series of documents which the Asiatic nations 
have furnished for the general history of Buddhism. 

Ancient Buddhism has, according to the author, only two true sources, 
the Sanscrit works of Nepal, and the Pali collection of Ceylon, of both 
of which he made use in his researches. 

The results of them are presented in the following order. His 
work is divided in three parts or memoirs. The first memoir is to 
describe, according to the Nepalese tradition, the Buddhist collection, 
discovered by Mr. Hodgson. For this purpose it is to enter into the 
necessary details concerning the great divisions of the sacred writings, 
admitted by the Buddhists of the North, by which it will be decided, 
whether they had been written at different periods or not. This me- 
moir will somewhat dispel the obscurity of the first times of Buddhism, 
and at least decide the long controverted question of the comparative 
antiquity of Buddhism and Brahmanism. The second memoir, which 
will be published in a subsequent volume, is to examine the Pali books 
of Ceylon ; and the third, to compare both collections and the traditions 
in the North and South concerning them. From this, says the author, 
will result the conviction, that there are two editions of the Buddhist 
works, the difference of which generally consists less in the matter 
than in the form and classification of the books ; and secondly, that the 
true elements of ancient Buddhism must be looked for in what is com- 
mon in either edition. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 791 

We now follow Mr. Burnouf into the description of the collection of 
the Nepalese works. 

The Buddhist collection of Nepal, he says, is composed of a great 
number of works, the titles of which announce treatises of very different 

Mr. Hodgson has published two long lists of these titles, which 
may be completed from the analysis which C. de Koros has given, 
of the Tibetan collection. 

We do not possess in Paris all these works, but the eighty Buddhist 
volumes, which we owe to Mr. Hodgson, probably contain the most 
important part of the religious collection of Nepal. 

The books, which are now extant, are divided into three classes, under 
the collective title Tripitaka. They are the Sutrapitaka, or the dis- 
course of Buddha, the Vinayapitaka, or the discipline, and the Abhi- 
dharmmapitaka, or the manifested laws, that is the metaphysics. This 
division, justified by the texts, is at the same time one of the bases of 
classification of the Kah-gyur, and is also familiar to the Chinese 
Buddhists, who explain it by the three words : sacred books, precepts, 
and discourses. 

The word Sutra denotes in the ancient literature of the Brahmans 
short, and obscure sentences, which contain the fundamental rules of 
the Brahminical sciences from grammar to philosophy. Though the word 
in this application is not unknown to the Buddhists, they use it also 
in another sense, and the treatises, which bear the title of Sutras, have 
a very different character from those known by this name in the Brah- 
minical literature. The Sutras, according to the Nepalese authorities, 
quoted by Mr. Hodgson, contain the sayings of the Buddhas; they 
are therefore often called " Buddha Vachana," the word of the Buddhas, 
or Mulagrantha, text-books. These books are ascribed to the last of 
the Buddhas, viz. to Sakyamuni, and in consequence occupy a very 
elevated place among the Buddhist literature in Nepal. The Sutras 
by their generally simple form and language, preserve the visible trace of 
their origin. They are dialogues, relative to ethics and philosophy, in 
which Sakya plays the part of teacher. Far from presenting his thoughts 
under the concise form, which is so intimately connected with Brah- 
minical instruction, he commits repetition, which, though fatiguing, 
bears the character of real preaching. There is a wide abyss between 

5 N 

792 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

his and the Brahminical methods ; instead of the mysterious doctrine, 
entrusted almost secretly to a limited number of hearers, instead of 
formulas, the studied obscurity of which seems as well to discourage 
the penetration of the disciple as to excite it, the Sutras present round 
Sakya a numerous assembly, composed of all those who desire to hear 
him. This vast difference is founded on the essence of Buddhism, a 
doctrine, in which proselytism is the characteristic feature ; which 
proselytism, however, is only the result of the universal benevolence 
and charity, which inspire Buddha, and which at the same time are the 
cause and the end of his mission on earth. 

The title of the second class, Vinaya, signifies discipline. The 
Chinese Buddhists understand this term in the same way, and Mr. 
R^musat defines it, the precepts, the rules, the laws or ordinances, 
literally the good government. The signification of this term is there- 
fore clear, but by a singularity, which appears difficult to be accounted 
for, the collection of Mr. Hodgson does not present, with the excep- 
tion of some short treatises on religious practices of little importance, 
works which belong to the class Vinaya. Why then is not the class 
Vinaya represented in the collection of Mr. Hodgson ? The attentive 
examination of some volumes of the Nepalese collection, compared 
with the works, mentioned in the Tibetan Kah-gyur, solves this dif- 
ficulty. In studying the analysis made by Csoma, I found there a 
certain number of treatises with titles, which also occur in the Nepalese 
collection. These treatises in general belong to the same class in either 
collection, and a work which, according to the double authority of the 
Nepalese tradition and of the manuscripts, is called Sutra, is classed 
according to the Tibetans, under the category of the Mdo, that is to say 
the Sutras. The collection of Mr. Hodgson, contains a great number 
of small treatises under the title Avadana, which has as large an appli- 
cation as the title of Sutra, and I even believe, that the number of 
Avadanas is greater. Several of these treatises, however, have exactly 
the form of Sutras, and a strict classification would compel us to 
separate them from the works which bear the title of Avadana, but 
do not possess the character of a real Sutra. 

The third division, the Abidharmma pitaka, contains in part the 
metaphysics, and in general the opinions, of the Buddhists concerning all 
that exists. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 793 

This classification of the books of Sakya, as it is found in the com- 
mentary of the Abidharmma Kosha and in the analysis of C. de Koros, 
appears to give the same authority to all the books. A more attentive 
examination, however, shows some differences between them. Thus I find 
some passages in the Abidharmma Kosha from which it may be inferred, 
that the Abidharmma does not directly emanate, nor with equal title, from 
the preaching of Sakya. The author of the above-mentioned treatise 
says for example, expressly, the book, which contains the metaphysics, 
is not derived from the word spoken by the Buddha. 

Mr. Burnouf in his more special examination of the Sutras, has 
chosen two fragments of the Nepalese collection, known under the title 
of Divya avadana, in which (fragments) he recognises the characteristics 
of the Sutras. The first refers to the period of Sakyamuni Buddha, 
and reveals some proceedings of his preaching ; the second is a legend 
of a mere mythological character, which Sakya relates, to show the 
advantage and recompense of giving alms. 

Sakya recommends in them the practice of the duties, which are the 
objects of his doctrine, and he shows the importance of them by 
the recital of the merits assigned to them, who act in accordance 
with them. He very often confirms his doctrine by relating events, 
which in a former life happened to him or to his disciples, admitting, 
as the Brahmans, that all beings are condemned by the law of trans- 
migration successively to pass a long series of existences, where they 
obtain the fruit of their good or bad acts. Sutras of this kind are 
very similar to legends, strictly speaking, and in fact they differ from 
them only in external characteristics of no great importance. A Sutra 
always commences with this formula : " Lo, what I have learnt", while 
this formula is wanting in all the Avadanas which are known to the 
author. It must be also said, that the legend forms the basis and 
the appropriate matter of the Avadana, while it is only an accessory to 
the Sutra, and serves only to confirm by an example the instruction 
of Buddha. 

The identity of the title which exists among all these treatises, the 
Sutras, the Mahayasa Sutras, and the Mahavaipalaya Siitras, announces 
at the first glance great similarities. The examination of the texts, 
however, does not fully bear out this presumption. A Sutra of the 
fuller or developed class is, as regards its form, a true, and real Sutra, it 

794 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

commences and terminates with the same formula, and is, as the simple 
Sutra, written in prose, with a more or less numerous intermixture 
of versified passages. It is moreover dedicated to the explanation of some 
one or other point of doctrine, and the legends are also subservient to 
example and authority. But here ends the resemblance, and numerous 
differences will be found, which are of such importance as to render 
the classification of these two kinds of Sutras in the same category im- 

A simple Sutra as written in prose, a developed one in prose mixed 
with verses, and the poetical portion, is merely a repetition of what is 
written in prose in another form. 

If these observations are true, we have a certain character by which 
to divide the Sutras into two classes, the first containing Sutras in the 
strict sense of the word, which are the most simple and probably the 
most ancient ; the second comprehending the Sutras of fuller develop- 
ment, which are more complicated, and therefore more modern. 

To this character is added another which separates, as regards the 
form, the simple from the great Sutras. The verses introduced into the 
former, do not differ in language from the body of the same treatise 
written in prose ; verse and prose are both Sanscrit, while the poetical parts 
of the developed Sutras are either written in an almost barbaric Sanscrit, 
or confounded with forms of all ages, Sanscrit, Pali and Pracrit. 

The Buddhist compositions of the North are not written in the 
epic style, the noble and at the same time simple style of the 
Ramayana and Mahabharat, nor in the rich and coloured language 
of the drama, nor also in the monotonous idiom of the Puranas, nor 
lastly in the compact, though a little obscure, prose of the commenta- 
tors. Their style differs from all of them. The Sanscrit words have 
often acquired new acceptations. The language of the Buddhists has 
followed the march of their ideas ; and as their conceptions in a marked 
degree, differ from those of the Brahmans, so their style is very differ- 
ent from the learned language of the latter. 

p. 105. The simple Sutras have also not the fastidious developments of 
the longer ones. There Buddha is generally placed in a central town of 
India, in the midst of an assembly of the religious, met to hear his 
preaching, and this assembly is sometimes increased by a multitude of 
gods ; in the great Sutras, however, the assembly consists of an exag- 

1845.] du Buddhism, Indien, par E. Burnovf. 795 

gerated number of religious men and women, of gods of all classes, and 
of Bodhi-sattwas, while in the simple Sutras these latter never make their 

p. 120. The idea of one or more superhuman Buddhas, and of 
Bodhi-sattwas, created by them, is as foreign to these books, as that 
of an Adhibuddha, or of a god. 

p. 121. With all the attention I have bestowed on the simple 
Sutras, I cannot discover the least trace of that vast mythological 
machinery, where the imagination luxuriates through infinite spaces in 
the midst of gigantic forms and numbers. I have only found Buddhas, 
who are considered human beings, and of whom Sakya is the last, and 
I have not even found a passage in which the qualification of human 
Buddhas was not given them, while the conception of a Buddha, who 
should not be a man, having attained the highest degree of holiness, is 
beyond the circle of ideas, forming the foundation of simple Sutras. 
In one word, the Buddhas, previous to Sakya, have by no means the 
divine character of the Buddhas of contemplation, they are men as 
himself, the sons of Brahmans or of kings. 

p. 128. The simple Sutras illustrate a very important point in the 
history of Buddhism, viz. its connexion with Brahmanism, on which 
point the merely speculative treatises preserve an almost complete 
silence. This circumstance alone suffices to establish the opinion, that 
these Sutras were composed, when both religions were cotemporane- 
ous, in the same way as the presence of Buddhist anchorites in several 
Brahminical dramas, proves the dramas to be written at a time, when 
followers of Buddha were still in India. The study of the Sutras, 
considered under this point of view, affords a new confirmation in favour 
of the opinion, according to which I place these monuments nearest 
to the preaching of Sakya. 

It solves moreover in the most decisive manner a question, the 
discussion of which has been lately renewed, viz. of the comparative 
antiquity of Brahmanism and Buddhism, on the ground, that most 
epigraphic monuments in India belong to Buddhism, (page 129,) and not 
to Brahmanism. Without entering into an examination of these monu- 
ments, which, I must say, are not yet studied with sufficient atten- 
tion and critical discretion, I observe, that from the existence of ancient 
Buddhist inscriptions in Pali, and even from the priority of these inscrip- 

796 Review of Uhistoire [No. 167. 

tions to Brtfhmanic monuments of the same class in Sanscrit, it may be 
inferred, not that the Pali is prior to the Sanscrit, which is impossible, not 
that Buddhism is prior to Brahmanism, which it is not less impossible, 
but that the regard for history and historical proceedings has been earlier 
displayed amongst the Buddhists than amongst the Brahmans. What 
more can, however, now be adduced in the presence of the formal evidence 
of the sacred texts of Nepal, in which the whole Brahmanic society with 
its religion, castes and laws appears ? Can it be pretended, that the 
society the existence of which is borne out by these books, was origi- 
nally Buddhist, and that the Brahmans, who afterwards became its 
masters, have borrowed from it certain elements to which they gave the 
form, in which we find them in the laws of Manu, or in the time of the 
Ramayana and Mahabharata ? Or rather, is it imagined, that the names 
of the gods and the Brahminical castes, of which the Sutras are full, have 
been introduced all at once ? And if so by whom ? By the Buddhists 
perhaps, to give themselves the honour of superiority, or at least of 
equality with regard to the Brahmans, which they could not retain in 
India ; or perhaps by the Brahmans to assign their existence to a much 
more ancient epoch that it really was ? In the first place, as if the 
compilers of the Buddhist books could have had any object in showing 
Buddhism separating itself from Brahmanism, unless the Brahmanism 
had existed in their time ; or in the second place, as if they would have 
allowed the Brahmans to bring in by stealth their abhorred name among 
the names of Sakya and his disciples. We cannot escape the following 
alternative : The Sutras, attesting the existence of the Brahmanical 
society, are either written about the period of Sakya, or a long time after- 
wards. If the first, the society, which they describe, must have existed, 
because one cannot conceive for what purpose they should have given all 
the detail of a society, which did not exist, at the time of Sakya ; if the 
second, one cannot better understand, why the gods and Brahminical 
personages occupy there so vast a place, because a long time after Buddha, 
Brahmanism was totally separated from Buddhism, and they had 
then only one common territory, that of polemical discussion and of 
discussion with the sword. Mr. Burnouf does not enter into all the in- 
dications which prove, that at the period when Sakya traversed India to 
teach his law, the Brahminical society had approached its acme, but 
he notes two points, its religion and its political organisation. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnovf. 797 

The gods, whose names appear in the Sutras, are Narayana, Siva, 
Varuna, Kuvera, Brahma, or Pitamaha, Sakra or Vasava, Hari or 
Janardana, and Samkara, which is only another name for Siva, and Vis- 
wakarman. After them a number of inferior gods are mentioned, as the 
Devas, Nagas, Asuras, Yakshas, Garudas, Kinnaras, Mahoragas, Gandha- 
vas, Pisachas, Danavas, and other good or evil genii. At the head of the 
secondary deities figures Indra, generally under the name of Sakra, or 
Sachfpati, the husband of Sachi. His name is most frequently of all 
found in the Sutras and legends. There he generally appears before 
Sakya, with whom he has frequent conversations, and receives the name 
of Katisika, which title he has also in the Upanishads. His name figures 
with that of Upendra, one of the most ancient epithets of Vishnu, even 
in the initiary formula, by which the legend expresses that an ascetic is 
come to the degree of an Arhat. The formula runs thus : " He be- 
comes one of those who deserve that the Devas with Indra and Upendra, 
respect, honour and salute them." 

All these divinities are those of the people, in the midst of which 
Sakya lives with his ascetics. They are on the part of all castes the 
objects of a constant and exclusive worship. Their power is not con- 
sidered absolute by the Buddhists, but inferior to that of Buddha. 

p. 134. The evidence adduced goes far to show the connexion of the 
popular deities of India with the founder of Buddhism. It is evident, 
that Sakya found their worship already existing. He could pronounce, 
and the authors of the legends believe, that a Buddha, even in this 
life, has a superior power even to the greatest gods, although he has 
not created them. 

The only support, which he could find in the minds of the people, 
was the universal belief, that great holiness is necessarily accom- 
panied with super- natural faculties ; but this was an immense support, 
and gave him the means of bringing to bear in justification of his mis- 
sion the belief of bygone ages ; this belief, however, is not exclusively 
divine, in its application ; the Buddha was, as all other beings, involved 
in the eternally moving circle of transmigration ; he had traversed several 
existences in the bodies of animals, of condemned persons, of men and of 
god3, having been alternately virtuous and criminal, rewarded and punish- 
ed, but accumulating gradually merits which rendered him agreeable to 

798 Review of Uhistoire [No. 167. 

the Buddhas under whom he lived, and secured him their benediction. 
We then observe, that in this system Sakya takes every thing from 
himself and from the grace of a prior Buddha, whose origin is no more 
divine than his own. The gods are beings of a power infinitely supe- 
rior to man, but also subject to the fatal law of transmigration. 

It remains to examine, first the extent and the nature of what the 
Buddhists have borrowed from the Brahmans. 

I quote as a single example of the results which may be expected from 
the study of the Sutras, that I have not found in the treatises of the 
Divya Avadana, the name of Krishna. The circumstance, that the 
name of Krishna does not occur in any of the treatises which I read, is 
in accordance with other signs, which show, that the religion, then 
existing in India, was different from that recorded in the Puranas. 

The Sutras appear to me coetaneous with an epoch, when the Vedas 
and the legends connected with them, formed the foundation of the 
religious belief in India. I do not support my opinion alone by the 
mentioning of the Vedas, which is made on almost every page of the 
Sutras, but much more by the part which Indra, the hero of the Vedas, 
plays in the Sutras, as he appears more frequently in the Sutras than 
all the other gods together. 

The details given by the Sutras on the condition of Indian society at 
the period of Sakya' s preaching, are still more numerous and important 
than those relating to religion. 

p. 138. India was at that time subject to the reign of the castes, 
which were those of the Brahmans, Ksattriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras and 
Chandalas, not to mention some subdivisions of the inferior classes. The 
names of the castes are quoted every moment, and their existence is so 
well established, that it is admitted by Sakya himself and by his dis- 
ciples, and does not become an object of special observation, unless 
it is made an obstacle to the preaching of the Buddha. The Brahmans 
appear most frequently, and their superiority over the other castes is 
uncontested. They distinguish themselves by their knowledge and their 
love of virtue. Some, arrived at the rank of Rishis, live in the midst of 
woods or in the caverns of mountains. They submit themselves to severe 
penances, recite the Brahminical Mantras and teach them to their dis- 
ciples. Their sciences are the four Vedas, and the practice of sacrifice. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnovf. 799 

Some Brahmans are employed by the Kings as Purohitas, or family 
priests, others as panegyrists to praise the Kings, for which they received 

The Ksatrya caste also existed at the time of Sakya, from which caste 
the Kings emanated. 

140. The superiority of the two higher classes is generally acknow- 
ledged. They appear to have favoured the mission of Buddha ; but not 
so all the Kings of central India ; the King of Rajagriha persecuted him 
for a long time. 

The Kings of the Ksatrya caste were in possession of an unlimited 
power, and it appears that no other obstacle was opposed to their will but 
the privileges of the castes. The ministers of some encouraged despotism 
by the most violent advices. The King of Kousala wanted money. His 
two ministers told him, — It is the same with a country as with grain of 
sesamum which does not give oil, unless pressed. 

The King of Kousala gave on mere suspicion of enmity towards him, 
the order to cut off his brother's hands and feet. The existence and 
perpetuity of the castes depends, according to the Sutras, on a double 
condition, the one for each to marry a wife of his own caste, the other to 
maintain his hereditary profession. 

Sakya's doctrine, which according to the Sutras is more moral than 
metaphysical, at least in its principle, was founded upon an opinion, which 
was considered as a fact, and on a hope, presented as a certitude. It is 
the opinion, that the visible world is in a perpetual change, that death 
succeeds life, and life death, that man, like every thing surrounding him, 
is passing through an eternal circle of transmigration, that he succes- 
sively passes through all the forms of life, and that his place in the scale 
of living creatures depends on the merits of his acts in this world. The 
hope held out by Sakya, is the possibility to escape the law of trans- 
migration, by entering into the state of Nirwana, that is annihilation. 
The definitive sign of annihilation is death ; but a preliminary sign was 
given in this life to the man destined for this supreme deliverance ; 
this was the possession of an unlimited science, which gave him a clear 
insight into the world ; that is, gave him the knowledge of the moral 
and physical laws, or to say all in one word, it was the practice of the six 
transcendent perfections, viz. of alms, of morals, of science, of energy, 
of patience, and of charity. The authority, on which Sakyamuni based his 
mission, was entirely personal, and consisted of two elements, the one 

SOO Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

real, the other ideal. The first was the regularity and holiness of 
his conduct, of which chastity, charity, and patience form the principal 
characteristics, the other his pretension to be a Buddha, and as such to 
possess superhuman science and power. He lastly presented himself 
as the saviour of mankind, and promised, that his doctrine would not be 
annihilated by his death, but would last a long series of centuries, and that 
another Buddha would appear to perpetuate it, if its influence should 
decrease. This is according to my view the most simple and primitive 
form, under which Sakya's doctrine is presented. Sakyamrini presented 
himself in the midst of a society, thus constituted, as one of the ascetics, 
who since the most ancient times traversed India, preaching morality, and 
the more respected by society, the more they appeared to contemn it ; he 
even entered religious life, by placing himself under the tutelage of the 
Brahmans. When he had learned from his teachers all their knowledge, 
Sakya as all other ascetics, subjected himself to severe mortifications, and 
at first he did not distinguish himself from other ascetics of Brahminical 
race. It is also evident, that the philosophical opinion, by which he jus- 
tified his mission, was partaken of by all classes of society ; all classes 
believed in the fatality of transmigration, the adjudgment of rewards 
and punishments, and at the same time in the difficulty of escaping 
altogether the changing condition of a relative existence. As far as 
this point he was in no opposition to Brahminical society. Philosopher 
and moralist, he believed the greater part of the truths admitted by 
the Brahmans, but he dissented from them, when the consequences 
deducible from these truths and the condition of salvation came into 

The means which Sakya employed to convert the people to his 
doctrine, were preaching, and according to the legends, miracles. The 
preaching is a means, worthy of attention, and is, I believe, never heard 
of before the mission of Sakya. 

I have already in the first portion of this work insisted upon the differ- 
ence of the Buddhist instruction from that of the Brahmans. The differ- 
ence especially appears in the preaching, the effect of which was to bring 
home to the common understanding all the truths, which were previously 
the property of the" privileged classes. It (the preaching) gives Buddhism 
a character of simplicity, and under a literary view, of mediocrity, which 
distinguishes it from the very profound manner of instruction of the 
Brahmans. It explains, how Sakya was induced to receive into the 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Bumovf. 801 

number of his hearers, men who were rejected by the more elevated classes 
of society ; it accounts for the success, with which his doctrine was pro- 
pagated and his disciples multiplied ; lastly, it reveals the secret of the 
radical modifications which the propagation of Buddhism must produce 
in the Brahmanical constitutions, and of the persecutions which apprehen- 
sion of changes necessarily brought down upon the Buddhists, when they 
should become powerful enough to endanger a political system, principally 
founded on the existence and perpetuity of castes. These facts are so 
intimately connected with each other, that the presence of the first 
(viz., the admission of the hitherto excluded classes) suffices to develop 
gradually the others as a matter of course. But external circumstances 
may have favoured this development ; the mind may have been more 
or less well prepared ; the moral condition of India in one word may 
have favoured the ardour of the people to hear the instruction of Sakya. 
It is this, which one can learn alone from the Sutras. 

I have before observed, that the second means for conversion was the 
splendor of his miracles. With this means always correspond the 
sentiments of benevolence and of belief, which are awakened within the 
hearers by the influence of his virtuous actions in his former existences. 
It is therefore a favourite theme of the legendists ; and in fact, there 
is not one conversion recorded, which had not been prepared by the 
benevolence, felt by the hearer for the Buddha and his doctrine. This 
virtue of the Buddha, or to name it more clearly, this kind of grace, was 
the great motive for conversions, which would be otherwise perfectly inex- 
plicable, it was the knot, by which Sakya connected the new religious light 
introduced by his doctrine, with an unknown state of past existences 
which he explains in favour of his preaching. It may be easily understood, 
what influence such a means must have exercised upon the minds 
of a people, among which the belief in the law of transmigration was 
firmly established. In starting from this belief, upon which he founded 
the authority of his mission, Sakya appeared rather to explain the 
past than to change the present : and it cannot be doubted, that he 
made use of it to justify the conversions, which the prejudices of the 
higher castes, to which he belonged by birth, condemned. But this 
motive of grace is entirely religious, and it is one of those, the employ- 
ment of which the legendists have undoubtedly exaggerated, and must 
have exaggerated, when Buddhism had afterwards acquired an import- 

802 Review of L' hist aire [No. 167. 

ance, which it certainly had not at the time of Sakya. Motives more 
human have probably influenced the minds, and favoured the propagation 
of a creed, the first steps of which looked like only one of the sects, 
which have been at all times so numerous in India. These motives are 
individual and general. 

While Buddhism attracted the ignorant Brahmans, it collected at 
the same time the poor and the unfortunate men of all conditions. 
A great and sudden misfortune was often a decisive motive to abandon 
the world and to become a Buddhist ascetic, so were also the despotism 
of the kings, and the fear inspired by their violence, and lastly, the 
greatness of rewards which Sakya promised to them, who embraced his 

The second class of the Nepal works, which bears the general title of 
Vinaya, or discipline, is represented by the Avadanas or legends. What 
has been before observed of the Sutras, also applies to the Avadanas. 
There are some among them which speak of Sakya alone and his first 
disciples, and these are the most ancient ; there are others, which, 
while relating events that happened to Buddha, mention the names 
of persons, who lived a long time after him, as for instance, Asdka; 
there are, lastly, some written in verse, which must be considered as 
modern amplifications of more or less ancient works. 

Another analogy between the Sutras and Avadanas is, that the dis- 
cipline in the Avadanas is equally as far from a strictly dogmatical expla- 
nation as the ethics and metaphysics in the Sutras. The Sutras, says 
Mr. Burnouf, treat ethics and metaphysics not systematically, because 
they ascend to a remoter epoch, when those two elements of every 
religion had not yet obtained their full maturity, or to say it more 
precisely, they reproduce the various and easy style of Sakya, who did 
not expound, but simply preach. This is also the case with the Ava- 
danas. The discipline has here no formal regularity, because they be- 
long to the same period as the Sutras, and Sakya did not require the 
measured steps of a didactic exposition to establish a point in discipline. 

To become a disciple of Buddha, it was sufficient to believe in him, 
and to declare to him the firm resolution to become his follower. The 
neophyte was then to shave his hair, to use as garb a kind of tunica and 
a cloak, made of yellow rags, and to place himself under the instruction 
of an older believer. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 803 

In the commencement of his preaching, however, when the number 
of his disciples was inconsiderable, Sakya instructed himself his neo- 
phytes. The investiture gave his followers the character of religious 
mendicants ; for after the obligation to observe the law of chastity, the 
most binding was to live on public charity alone. From the life of 
privation, to which his followers had to submit, they received the title 
of Sramanas, or ascetics, who subdue their senses, a title which Sakya 
bore himself, (both these titles, mendicants and ascetics, were borrowed 
from the Brahmans, who, however attached a different sense to them.) 

The first of all conditions, which those who wanted to become his 
disciples, had to fulfil, was belief ; and this being found satisfactory, all 
others might be dispensed with. Excluded from his assembly were 
persons, affected with incurable diseases (as lepers) or with gross defects 
of the body 5 criminals, as the parricide, the murderer of his mother or 
of an Arhat ; persons who had created dissensions among the religious, 
or who had committed one of the four great crimes of the Brahmans : 
persons under the age of 20 years, who had not the authority of their 
parents ; slaves who might be reclaimed by their masters ; debtors, who 
might be prosecuted for debt. No person could be admitted by a single 
follower, but he was to be examined and received by the whole assem- 
bly. The legends inform us, that Sakya conferred on the assembled 
body of the religious the office of receiving novices, and investing them 
when prepared, and also, that he appointed two chiefs of the assembly. 
The different classes of persons, composing the assembly, of which 
Sakya was the chief, were as follow. First, the mendicants; to 
them corresponded a body of female ascetics, the admission of whom 
was guided by the same regulations. They had also to submit to the 
same obligations, enjoined by the law of discipline, viz. to the ob- 
servance of perpetual chastity, and to the duty of supporting themselves 
by begging. These ascetics of both sexes compose the body of the 
assembly ; a degree lower are placed the Upasakas and Upasikas, 
that is to say, the devotees, or more generally, the believers, who pro- 
fessed to believe in the truth, revealed by Sakya, without having 
assumed the life of an ascetic. Mr. Burnouf believes, that this institu- 
tion was not introduced until after the death of Sakya. I do not think, 
he says, that Sakyamuni would from the commencement of his 
preaching have divided his assembly in Bhikchus (mendicants) and 

804 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

Upasakas, (devotees) of both sexes. The external organization of 
Buddhism like its metaphysics, must have rather passed through numer- 
ous degrees in consolidating itself, before it attained the state in which 
we find it among nations, a long time converted to Buddhism. The books 
of Nepal even allow us to watch the progress of this organization, which 
commences indeed from a small germ. Sakya has first five disciples, 
who soon desert him, when their master, exhausted from long fasting, 
has broken the vow of abstinence. The number of his disciples gra- 
dually increases ; kings, Brahmans, merchants, join them to hear the 
word of their master. These are the Upasakas, the assistants, at a 
later period the true devotees. 

Still the ascetics alone formed the assembly of Sakya ; it is therefore 
called in the texts " the assembly of the mendicants." The term 
San-gha implies a double relation, first of all the religious with the 
Buddha, and secondly, of the religious with each other. As regards 
the principle, the only bond, which unites them with their master and 
with each other, is the common submission to his word. Having re- 
ceived from Sakya the knowledge of the fundamental truths and the 
title of ascetic, they live in all other points differently, some in the soli- 
tude of woods and mountains, others in deserted houses, others in for- 
ests near villages or towns, which they leave only to procure their sub- 
sistence by begging. 

Several circumstances, related in the legends and Sutras, go far to 
show the commencement of this organization. While Sakya lived, it 
was natural, that his disciples should attach themselves to his person. 
Not all the religious, however, lived in solitary places, and even those who 
had chosen this kind of life, left it sometimes to hear the Buddha. At the 
approach of the rainy season the ascetics could give up the vagrant life of 
mendicants, and were allowed to retire to fixed abodes. Then they dis- 
persed to reside with Brahmans or house-holders, favourably disposed 
towards them, and occupied themselves with explaining the truths of their 
belief, or with studying and meditating on the points of their doctrine, with 
which they were less familiar. This was called staying during the rains 
(Varsha). When the Varsha expired, they again met, and formed a real 
religious assembly. All conspires to establish the opinion, that this usage 
was introduced by Sakya himself or his first disciples. This is one of 
the circumstances, which favoured the organization of the religious as a 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 805 

regular body. One of the first results was the establishment of Viharas, 
or monasteries, situated in forests or gardens, where the religious assem- 
bled to assist in the preaching of their master. These Viharas, however, 
were at first not establishments, to which the ascetics retired for their 
whole life ; on the contrary, they first were only places for temporary 
sojourn, or according to etymology, places where they sojourned, and 
the origin of the term is expressed in the very formula, which com- 
mences every Sutra, " At a certain time Sakya sojourned (viharati sma) 
at such or such a place." The principal destination of the Viharas, 
second only to their being intended as asylums for the religious, was to 
receive travelling ascetics and foreigners. There undoubtedly is a great 
distance between this almost pastoral state of Buddhism and the flour- 
ishing condition, in which Fahian found it in the fourth century A. C. in 
the rich Viharas and hermitages ; but between both periods nearly nine 
centuries are intervening. However great the difference may be between 
these two conditions of Buddhism, it is evident, that the second must 
have soon resulted from the first. Indeed, the ascetics having obtained 
fixed abodes, their mutual connection must have become closer, and 
owing to this circumstance, their body have become better organized 
and therefore more compact than that of the Brahminical ascetics. With 
this material fact there was combined the necessity of resisting the at- 
tacks of their adversaries. This made them sensible of the expediency 
of forming an association, which afterwards might be easily changed into 
a monastic institution. The religious assembly once established, a hier- 
archy must have soon formed itself to maintain order. Thus we see in 
all legends the Bhikchus taking rank according to their age and merit. 
In the assembly rank depended upon age, and the principal ascetics 
had the name of Sthavira (in Pali Thera) elders, who occupied in the as- 
sembly the first rank after Sakya. The Sthaviras were again divided 
into elders and elders of the elders. Merit also distinguished the ranks, 
and the author even thinks, that an incontestable superiority was only 
assigned to him, who combined merit with the privilege of seniority. 

Aryas, venerable, were called those, who had comprehended the four 
sublime truths, the fundamental axioms of the Buddhist doctrine, viz. 
1, there exists pain ; 2, all that is born in this world, suffers pain ; 3, it is 
necessary to liberate ourselves from it ; and 4, knowledge alone offers the 
means of this deliverance. The title of Arya was one of the highest 
obtainable ; beside the knowledge of those truths, it required the possession 

806 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

of supernatural faculties, and was given to the first and most eminent 
disciples of the Buddha. They are not called so according to their 
seniority as the Sthaviras, but owe this title to their virtues, superior 
faculties, and the perfections, by which they are free from the common 
conditions of human existence. Other titles were Srota apannas, Sakrida 
gamins, Anagamins, and Arhats. We cannot follow the author into 
the learned discussion, by which he endeavours to establish the meaning 
of those terms, but notice here only the result, that the first three 
appear to be derived from future states, promised to all believers by 
the word of the Buddha, while Arhat is a state, which a person can 
only obtain by superior knowledge, after having embraced religious life, 
and the consequence of which is the possession of the five supernatural 

To sum up with the author. The assembly of Sakya, or what is the 
same, the body of the religious followers of his doctrine, was composed 
of Bhikchus, or mendicants, who also called themselves Sramanas, or 
ascetics, and among whom the seniors assumed the name of Sthaviras, 
or elders. The first two titles were so to say absolute denominations, 
while in relation to other members of Indian society, the religious 
named themselves Aryas, or honourable, and in relation to their master, 
Sravakas, or hearers. Among these latter were distinguished the Maha 
sravakas, or great hearers. By applying the denominations of Srota 
Apanna, Sakrid Agamin and Anagamin to the believers, we must 
admit, that the advantages promised to those who were defined by 
these titles, were not withheld from the true followers, but these advan- 
tages, which could only be realized in a future life, did not constitute 
degrees of rank in the hierarchy. The only title of this kind is Arhat, 
or venerable, denoting an ascetic, superior to the other Bhikchus, on 
account of his knowledge and supernatural faculties, so that in fact, 
with the exception of synonymes and some minor varieties, just alluded 
to, there are only two classes of hearers, the Bhikchus and the Arhats. 

A very remarkable institution, which belongs even to the time of 
Sakya, is that of confession. Firmly established in the most ancient 
legends, it is easily recognised as one of the fundamental institutions of 
the Buddhist faith. The fatal law of transmigration attaches reward 
to good actions and punishment to bad actions, it even establishes the 
compensation of the one by the other, by offering to the sinner the 
means of liberating himself from its effects by the practice of virtue. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par E. Burnouf. 807 

This is the origin of expiation, which holds such prominent place 
in the Brahminical law. This theory is passed by in Buddhism, which 
takes it as a fact with so many other elements of Indian society ; but 
here it assumes a particular form, by which its practical application is 
considerably modified. The Buddhist believes with the Brahman, that 
bad actions may be compensated by good ones ; but as he does not 
believe any more in the moral efficacy of tortures and punishments, the 
expiation has returned to its principle, that is to say, to the feeling 
of repentance, and the only form which it receives in practice, is 

Among the principal duties of the ascetic were the obligation to take 
his meal together with those who lived in the same monastery, and the 
commandment, never to refuse his guest any assistance he required. 
The latter commandment, though based on the beautiful idea of the 
Orientals, as regards hospitality, had taken a peculiar application with 
the Buddhists. By a predilection for moral sentiments, they introduced 
these ideas into the religious life, which they always represent as the 
ideal of the life of man in this world. Hence appears the real charac- 
ter of Buddhism as a doctrine, where the practice of morality is the 
supreme law, and distinguishes it from Brahminism, where on the one 
hand philosophical speculation, and on the other, mythology, occupies so 
conspicuous a place. Hence Buddhism also bears witness to its being 
posterior to Brahminism. If moral systems are indeed subsequent to 
ontological theories, which is positively proved by the history of Greek 
philosophy, Buddhism is necessarily, and to say so genetically, posterior 
to Brahminism. 

The worship of Buddhism is most simple. A religion, says the author, 
without many dogmas has only a simple form of worship, and nothing 
in fact is simpler than that of the Buddhists. It is evident a priori, 
that Sakya attached little importance to such a form, and the Sutras 
give evidence, that he valued much higher the discharge of the moral 
duties than the practice of religious ceremonies. 

The religious ceremonies consisted in offering flowers and perfumes, 
which was accompanied with the noise of instruments and the recital of 
hymns and pious prayers. There were no bloody sacrifices. The worship 
is in fact not addressed to One God, or to a number of divine beings, 
invented by the imagination of the Brahmans ; it has only two objects, 
the representation of the figure of Sakyamuni, and the buildings en- 
shrining a part of his bones. An image and relics, this is the whole 

5 p 

808 Review of L'histoire [No. 167. 

worship of the Buddhists. Hence it is easily understood, why the 
legends are so much occupied with the physical beauty of Sakya. The 
Buddhists attribute, as is generally known, to the founder of their doc- 
trine, the possession of the 32 characteristics of beauty and 80 secondary 
signs. The image of Buddha is not, as those of Siva or Vishnu, an 
exaggerated number of attributes, but simply of a man, seated in the 
attitude of meditation, or making the sign of preaching. This image, 
with the exception of inconsiderable differences, is invariably the same. 

Here must, however, be considered the modifications which Buddhism 
underwent in the course of time. The worship indeed has not changed 
much ; but new objects of adoration are associated with the image 
of Sakya. In more ancient time these must have been the statues of 
the four Buddhas, previously to Sakya ; in more modern times the 
images of the five Dhyani Buddhas and the Bddhisattwas, known from 
the exact drawings of Mr. Hodgson ; but on the whole, the type is the 
same, viz. of a man who meditates and instructs. 

The second objects are the relics, which have the significant name of 
Sarira (body.) This application of the term is entirely foreign to the 
language of the Brahmans. It is the body of Sakya himself, adored in 
the relics. They were collected on the funeral pile, where his mortal 
remains were consumed, and according to the tradition, enclosed in 
eight cylinders of metal, over which the same number of monuments, 
called Chaityas, were raised. The monuments still extant in India, 
corroborate most satisfactorily this tradition. From Clemens of Alex- 
andria, who speaks of the venerable sages adoring a pyramid, under 
which the bones of a god were entombed, to Fahian, the Chinese tra- 
veller, to General Ventura, who in our time first opened these topes, 
the uninterrupted tradition of seventeen centuries confirms the existence, 
and even the destination of these monuments. 

But here we must pause, being afraid to have already trespassed 
upon the indulgence of the reader, and at the same time feeling unable 
to do justice in so short a sketch as this to the third part of the work, 
in which the author enters into the intricacies of the metaphysi- 
cal tenets of the Buddhists, and introduces us to their various schools. 
We only observe, that it is full of important results, and that Mr. 
Burnouf by discovering in one of the MSS. the names of the Buddhist 
schools, as they occur in the controversial writings of the Brahmans, 
has supplied the link, which appeared to be lost, between the historic 
philosophy of the Brahmans and Buddhists. 

1845.] du Buddhism Indien, par.E. Burnovf. 809 

In taking leave of the author with the hope, that he may soon be able 
to complete his important work, we conclude with expressing the wish, 
that it may contribute to revive the zeal for similar enquiries here in 
India. May it warn us that by collecting the Sanscrit and Pali MSS. 
from all parts of India, we may still open new sources to the learned, 
may it warn us, that there still are ancient architectural monuments, 
which are not sufficiently explored, and which may perhaps but for a 
short time longer, invite us to preserve the records which they have 
for centuries offered to the enquirer. 

On the genuine character of the Hord Sdstra, as regards the use of Greek 
terms. By J. Muir, Esq., C.S. 

In the " Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes," part 2nd, 
of the 4th volume, page 302, et seq. there is a translation of an 
article, from the translations of the Literary Society of Madras,* 
by Mr. C. M. Whish, on the origin and age of the Indian Zodiac, with 
remarks by Mr. Lassen. Mr. Whish's paper is written to prove the 
derivation of the Hindu Zodiac from the Greek Astronomers, and in 
pursuance of this object, he quotes from a Sanskrit Astrological work, 
called the Hora Sastra, a verse in which the names of the different 
signs of the Zodiac are evidently of Greek origin. Mr. Lassen in his 
remarks on Mr, Whish's paper, subjoined to the translation, expresses 
a doubt of the Hora Sastra being a genuine work of the ancient Astro- 
nomer Varaha Mihira ; and, (in the absence of the original works, to 
which he had not access,) refers to Mr. Colebrooke's account of that 
writer's works, in which no mention is made of the Hora Sastra. 

Being anxious to ascertain the age and genuineness, or otherwise, 
of the Hora Sastra, according to the idea of the Astrological Pundits 
at Benares, I sent a copy of the Slokes quoted from that work in Mr. 
Whish's paper to Bapu Deo Sastri, (an enlightened young man, an 
eleVe of the late Mr. L. Wilkinson, and now Professor of Natural Phi- 
losophy in the Government College at Benares. f) He at once recog- 

* Part I. London 1827, pp. 63—77. 
t Bapu Deo is an excellent Astronomer and Mathematician, well read in the 
Hindu system ; and in the European, advanced as far as the Calculus, and daily 
adding to his knowledge. He has written a Treatise on Algebra, on the European 
system, in Sanskrit and Hindi. 


On the genuine character of the Hord Sdstra. [No. 167. 

nized the verses as being from the Vrihat Jdtaka, which is mentioned 
in Mr. Colebrooke's Dissertation on the Algebra of the Hindus (Essays, 
Vol. II. p. 478,) as the work of Varaha Mihira. He also brought me 
a printed copy of this work from the press of Madhab Ram, Calcutta, 
which I forward by Bhangy for the Society's inspection, though it is 
probably already in your Library. So far therefore as the authority of 
Mr. Colebrooke, (who fixes the date of Varaha Mihira at the close of 
the 5 th or beginning of the 6th century of our Era) is conclusive ; and 
so far as the occurrence of the sloke in question in the modern copy 
of the work is admitted as a proof of its having been there from the 
commencement ; we have evidence for these Greek terms being known 
to the Hindu astrologers from the beginning of the 6th century. 

For the satisfaction of the curious, I quote the sloke containing the 
Greek names, and subjoin the Greek originals as given by Mr. Lassen 
from Mr. Whish's paper. The names differ a good deal in Madhab 
Ram's printed copy from those given by Mr. Lassen. 

Sanskrit Names, as given 
in Madhub Kam's printed 

Sanskrit Names, as given 
by Mr. Whish, as quoted 
by Lassen. 

Kriya, .... 

Tavuru, .... 

Juthuma, .... 

Kulira, .... 

Leya .... 

Parthona, .... 

Juka, .... 

K6rpya, .... 

Taukshika, .... 

Akokero, .... 

Hridoga, .... 

Ithusi, .... 

1 . Kriya, 

2. Taburi, 

3. Jituma, 

4. Kulira, 

5 . Leya, 

6. Patheya, 

7. Juka, 

8. Korpya, 

9. Taukshika. 

10. Akokero. 

1 1 . Hridroga, 

12. Bham (a San- 

skrit word ap- 
parently,). . . . 
The 4th word, Kulira (^J?5j^:) however, appears to be pure Sans- 

Original Greek terms, 
as given by Whish in 













1845.] On the genuine character of the Hord Sdstra. 811 

In addition to the Greek words above enumerated, the following 
occur in the verses quoted in Mr. Whish's paper, viz. 

Heli, "HXioc, The Sun. 

Heman, 'EppriQ, Mercury. 

A'ro, "Apr/c, Mars. 

Kono, Kpovoc, Saturn. 

A'sphujit, ' A(j>po^iTTj 9 Venus. 

Jyok, Zeve* Jupiter. 

For Iyok, however, Madhab Ram's edition reads Iyau : and Bapu 
Deo says it should be Ijyau, making with the preceding word (accord- 
ing to the rules of Sandhi, or combination of letters) Vachasdmpatijyau, 
(a"^intff?T52n)> Deui S * wo name s for Jupiter, but both pure Sanskrit. 

Mr. Colebrooke, had previously pointed out the following words 
which occur in Hindu astrological or arithmetical works, as being of 
Greek origin, viz : ^rj (Hora ;) fX^rP&T (dreshkana) (StKavoq ;) 
f%n?rTT (Lipta) (Xe7rra) a minute of a degree ; %^5 (Kendra) 
\KEvTpov.) He also instances, (" on a hasty glance over the Indian 
treatises on horoscopes,") anapha, sunapha, durudhara, and kemadruma, 
words " designating certain configurations of the planets," as " not 
Sanskrit, but apparently barbarian," the affinity of which to terms in 
other languages had not been traced. (Essays, vol. 2, p. 529.) The 
words anapha, and sunapha, Mr. Lassen derives, with evident pro- 
bability, from the Greek avatprj, and ovvatyrj. And it should be 
observed that, though rejecting the testimony of the Hora Sastra, he 
holds that the use of Greek terms by the Hindu astrologers dates as 
far back, as Varaha Mihira. The Hora Sastra is, however, as has been 
shown above, identical with the Vrihat Jataka. 

I add a list of other foreign terms, pointed out to me by the Sastri, 
as occurring in the Vrihat Jataka ; which denote, he informs me, the 
different compartments of a Kundali, or square astrological figure for 
casting nativities. They are as follows; f^jTJJ (rihpha), ^"f^^j 
(dushchiktha), mf (dyuna), qiljlh ^ Panaphara), ^pfxrrfWf apoklima 
qu . airoKXi/ma, f%^cfi (hibuka), ^nf%^ (jamitra), ilWIJ (mes- 
hurana) qu. /utaovpaviov ? 3"f^ (veshi.) 

Nov. IZth, 1845. 


Account of the Panjkora Valley, and of Lower and Upper Kdshkdr, by 
Rajah Khan,* of Cabool. Translated by Major R. Leech, C.B., Late 
Political Agent, Candahar, at whose request it was drawn up in 1840. 

Panjkora is inhabited by Maleezai Eesafzais, who are divided into 
two sub- divisions. One extending from the commencement of the 
valley of Panjkora to Ousheree, called Osai ; the other is called Sihsa- 
dah. The chief is a Paindah-khel. 

Grain is at all times eight times cheaper than at Cabool ; fruits are 
plentiful, as are herds and flocks. There are several iron mines. Mer- 
chants from Peshawar frequent the country. 

The following are the villages of Panjkora to the west of the river. 
Shagoolee darrah, Taimoor-galah darrah, Rabat-i-Mahammadkhan dar- 
rah, Kavanee jdarrah, Malahkand valley, (darrah) of Tormang, valley 
of Karoo, Nahag darrah, Ousheeree darrah, Zarakhel darrah, Bor-Ous- 
heeree darrah, Dral darrah. 

To the east of the river, the valley of Harhang (shrine of Ghazee 
Sahab), valley of Shooh, (river of Bajour falls into the Panjkora). 

Baba khels, formerly under Aslam khan, now under Ghazan khan. 

Valley of Maidan, valley of Panjkora, valley of Shamoor-gurh, 
valleys of Thankee and Doodba enter this. 

Barahwal, under Mahammad Alee khan, (an iron mine here). 

Bar Panjkora, Ghundee Chakgatin, ArotaSeen (river), Deer, Panakot, 
Kashkaree, Doobandai, Kheer, dependent on Deer. 

These valleys have all streams. One river from Bajour, which is to 
the west of the Panjkora range, falls into the Panjkora river through 
the valley of Shooh. The river of Panjkora runs from north to south. 

Villages of the valley of Shagoolee. Kazrah, Shahee khels, under 
Zardad khan; Kotkai, Shahee khels, under Hyder khan ; Gadee, Paindah 
khels, under Sadulla khan, brother of Ghazan khan ; Haraon, Shahee 
khels, under Masoom khan ; Shagoolee, Noor khels, under Aiyoob khan. 

Valley of Timoor-galahs. Timoor-galah Noor khels, under Sardar 

* This man also under my instructions visited most of the Turkistan, states and 
gained a quantity of information regarding the Siahposh Cafers. His notes are in 
my possession. 

1845.] Account of the Panjkora Valley. 813 

khan; Khoonkoh, Noor khels, under Mahsin and Ghafar; Mayan Man- 
dah, Sahabzadahs, under Mahsin and Ghafar; Datooh, Akhund khels, 
Charpherah, Nasradeen khels, under Mahammad khan ; Shahr, Nasara- 
deen khels, under Sarwar My an. 

Valley of Rabat. Samrai, Paindah khels, under Gul khan ; Rabat, 
Nasradeen khels, under Muhabat khan ; Kanjalah, Myan khels, under 
Agha Sahab. 

Valley of Kavnee. Walkhah, Paindah khels, 1000 houses; Mala- 
khand, mixed tribes, 1000 houses. 

Valley of Tormang. Akhqram, Painda khels, under Agad Rahman ; 
Doodba, Painda khels, under Sher Alee. 

Valley of Karoo. Inhabited by Taroozais and Eesafzais. 

Valley of Nhag. Nhag- Painda khels, under Chiragh Shah ; Wadee- 
Paindah khels, under Bazoo; Jaghakinj, Gadhai khels, under Allaiyar 
khan ; Darooj a- Sultan khels, under Sayad Ameer. 

Valley of Oosheeree. Oosheeree Sultan khels, under Kaza Abdu Rah- 
man ; Beebeeyawarah Paindah khels, under Abdulla Khan ; Kandeekan, 
Myan khels, under Sayad Adam, Kakazin, Myan khel ; Jahar- Sultan 
khels, under Mahammad Hawefa ; Jaharalmas Paindah khels, under 
Zareef khan ; Tar-pitar Painda khel, under Hujoom khan. 

Bar Oosheeree Valley. Oosheeree, Paindah khels, under Awar Shah 
khan ; Barkand Myan khels, Kareemdad, descendent of Akhund Dar- 
veza ; Daraazar, Paindah khels, Ahmad khan ; Palam, Paindah khels, 
Fazal Shah ; Samkot, Paindah khels, Sher Zeman ; Batil Myan khels, 
Khairulla Myan ; Nashtamii, Goorkhavee, Habeebee, Paidah khels, My- 
an Nazeem ; Kamangar Noor khels, under Hakeeb. 

Valley of Dral. Dependent on, and tributary to, Ghazan khan. 

Valley of Hurhang. Desolate beyond the villages of the Zyarat. 

Valley of Shooh. Having villages and gardens on each bank of the 
Bajour river. 

The Baba khels were formerly under their own chief, Aslam khan. 
Ten years ago, Ghazan khan subdued them. 

In the valley of Maidan, is Kheemah Shahee khels, under Baroon, 
and many other villages. The inhabitants are more formidable than 
those of the other valleys. 

Valley of Panjkora. Bar Panjkora, Sultan khels, Sher Alee ; Kooz 
Panjkora, Sultan khels, Pagal ; Patao, Sultan khels, Mardan. 

814 Account of the Panjkora Valley. [No. 167. 

Valley of Shamoor Gurh. Sharaoor Gurh, Paindah khels, no chief ; 
Geer, Paindah khels, Allaiyar khan ; Amlooknar ryots, Paindah khels ; 
Jublak ryots, Paindah khels. 

Barahwal, belonging to Mahammad Alee khan, included in, but not 
tributary to Panjkora ; an iron mine of long existence. 
The following villages are marts for merchandize. 
Surkhal, Loorkhal, Deer, Barahwal. The chief of this valley of Panj- 
kora is Ghazan khan, son of Kasam khan, son of Zafar khan, son of 
Ghulam khan, son of Akhund Ilyas, whose descendants are distin- 
guished from other Paindah khels, as Akhund kor, (kor-house.) 

Akhund Ilyas, was a holy man who had two sons, Aoob and 
Ismail, he lived in the time of Aurungzebe. 

Aiyoob was a domestic in the household of the governor of Cabool, 
and after a long period of faithful service, got leave to return to his 
native country, accompanied by four tradesmen, (one goldsmith, one 
carpenter, one huntsman and one mason.) 

Mulla Ilyas told his sons, he had only one sword, and one kajkol, 
(vessel in which beggars receive their alms,) to bequeath them, and told 
them to choose ; Ismail chose the kajkol, and his descendants are religi- 
ous recluses and beggars ; Aiyoob chose the sword, and his descendants 
are rulers. 

Kasem khan had three sons, Azad khan, Ghazan khan, and Sadulla 
khan, their mothers being Eesafzai. 

In the time of Shah Mahmood, Azad khan killed his father, in return 
for which Sadulla khan killed his brother ; Ghazan khan, with the as- 
sistance of Shah Kater got the country, to this day the same friendship 
exists with the Chatrar nation. 

This year, in the month of Muharam, the brothers had a fight, losing 
between them twenty-four killed and wounded. 

Herds and flocks are not taxed, but three rupees a year is taken from 
each house. 

They are friendly to the Lahore government, and exchange presents. 
Just now an elephant has been sent by the Lahore government, and 
in return they send iron, honey, or hill horses, through Sultan Maham- 
mad khan. 

They are continually sending to Peshawar Ceskaree slaves for the 

1845.] Account of the Pan jkor a Valley. 815 

From Oosheeree further to the north they have a measure called uganee, 
equal in weight to three charaks of Panjkora, (five Panjkora seers, four 
Cabool seers). Animals, sheep, buffaloes, &c. are plentiful and cheap. 

In Koonahteer they make yellow soap of oil, where they are all oil 
pressers. The whole Nobistan as far as Hujkoom is supplied from this. 

Panjkora is in length four stages, and in breadth one stage. There 
are four iron mines, and three of antimony, (white, red, and black). 

From Maidan valley to the west, is the road to Bajour. From Barrah- 
wal there is another. From Oosheeree to the east is a road to Swat ; 
from Karoo Darrah to the east, is a road to Swat; from Timurgalah 
and Katgalah via Talesh to the south-east, is the road to Ashnaghar 
and Peshawar, a gun- road, the only one into Panjkora. Sultan Maham- 
mad Khan has several times been in it. 

Talash is a district of the Goosafzais included in Panjkora, but with- 
out the valley, it is very fertile, grain being often exported thence to 
Peshawar. There are remains of buildings like towers, in which are 
stones of a cubit length, on which are Greek (?) characters. 

The following are the villages of Talash ; — Bagh, Shaha khels, Ghu- 
lam Shah ; Shamsee khan, Shaha khels, Shah Afzal khan, Gumbatee, 
Shaha khels, Shah Afzal khan, Amlook Darah, ryots. 

Muchoo, Noor khels under Ghazan khan ; Bajooroo, Noor and 
Shahee khels. Shah Afzal khan ; Kamangar ; the inhabitants are all 
bow-makers, whence the name. 

Deer is the boundary of the snow and rain. 

The river of Panjkora takes its rise at Laspoor, the commencement 
of the hilly country of Kashkar. 

From Deer to Kashkar, via the Pass of Doobandai, a night is spent in 
the road. 

Kashkar is an extensive fertile country, to the north of Panjkora, 
thickly inhabited by a prosperous class of people ; by religion, Sunnee 
Mahommadans : their nation is called Chatrar. 

There are two Kashkars, upper and lower ; the lower was under Shah 
Kator ; the upper under Malik A man formerly ; they are now dead, and 
have been succeeded by their sons, who rule together. They are inde- 
pendent, having their subjects under such subjection as to sell them 
like animals. 


816 Account of the Panjkora Valley. [No. 167. 

Wheat and rice are plentifully produced. The men dress in two or 
three choghas of the kind sold in Cabool, and the women dress in a 
loose garb like the women of Cashmeer. 

There are two sons of Shah Kator, one named Mehtar, and the other 
Tajamal Shah, who is the ruler. The revenue is not fixed, ~ £ and \ is 
taken in kind. They do not take ready money, but barter for Peshawar 

Slaves are cheaper at Kashkar than any where else, viz. 100 rupees 
each (a girl or a boy.) 200 or 300 are yearly exported via Dardu and 
Badakhshan to Turkistan, 

The following are the principal towns of Lower Kashkar. 

Laspoor, to the east ; Daroosh to the north ; Dral Pooreet, to the 
north ; Daroosh to the south ; Ashreet ; Ashreet, to the north ; Pooreet 
to the east ; Daroosh ; Daroosh is situated in the centre of Kashkar. 

Bedlooree, to the north ; Daroosh, to the south ; Hujkoom ; Daroosh 
is the capital of Shah Kator, on the east of the river of Kashkar, on a 
slight eminence, containing 2000 houses of stone and mud. There is a 
wooden bridge across the river ; most of the villages are to the north, 
east and west. 

Every one within four kos is obliged to have his case settled by the 

The Kashkar language approaches to the Persian. The imports tc 
Kashkar, are salt, which is very valuable, Peshawar cloths, and cheaj 
chintz and pedlary. Iron from Panjkora, goor, medicines, matchlocks, 
swords, and copper utensils. 

The exports from Kashkar are raw silk to Turkistan, known ii 
Cabool as Karah Kashkaree ; and Shalakees from two rupees to twenty 
rupees the piece. 

The finest silk is called Poodpat, and the coarsest Narinjpood, and 
wool choghas from one rupee to twenty rupees, the sleeves of which are 
larger than the arms, and when on the sleeves are creased. 

The slaves are very handsome. They use measures and not weights. 
They amount to 12,000 matchlockmen, (the matchlocks having a fork 
rest) and notwithstanding the scarcity of powder and lead, are excellent 

1845.] Account of the Panjkora Valley. 817 

Ten thousand Kamoz Cafers who are situated to the north of Katar 
and Kampar, pay tribute to Shah Kator ; they are very obedient subjects, 
and, unlike other Kohistanees, they do not rob. 

Upper Kashkar under Malik Aman, is called Shighnan. The people 
are Sheeah Musulmans, who know nothing of their sect, beyond the 
name. They pray and fast with the Sunnees of lower Kashkar. 

The horses are better than in the country of Shah Kator. 

The principal places of Shighnan are Mastooj, the capital of Gouhar 
Aman Padshah, formerly ; now under the son of Malik Aman ; to the 
south is Daroosh ; to the east Hujkoom ; to the south of which is 

From Daroosh, via the Pass of Soori to Mastooj, two nights are 
spent on the road, infested by Cafers in the summer. The road is a gun- 
one. Guns can go throughout the country of both Kashkars beyond 
Daroosh, but up to that the road is difficult for laden horses. 

Shighit to the north, and Shighnan to the east, are included in Kash- 
kar, but under a separate rule. 

From Shighnan to Shighit are five stages. The Cooner river passes to 
the west of Mastooj, and takes its rise in the lake of Neel. Beyond 
Mastooj, water runs to the north. 

On the Assam Petroleum Beds (in a letter to Major Jenkins, communi- 
cated by him.) By Capt. P. S. Hannay. 

Mr. Piddington having supplied me with a specimen of Asphalte 
rock from Pyremont, I have taken some trouble in trying to find some- 
thing of the kind amongst the numerous coal strata and bituminous 
springs which abound in the neighbourhood of this place, but as yet 
have not been successful in finding a calcareous Asphalte, which the 
specimen furnished appears to be, and this may be accounted for, proba- 
bly, by the absence of anything like a pure limestone rock, existing 
with the carboniferous strata which is visible. 

I have however the pleasure to send you a few specimens of the 
earthy Asphalte and indurated sandy Asphalte, found in and lying over 
the Petroleum beds, near a spot which I dare say you recollect as 

818 On the Assam Petroleum Beds. [No. 167. 

Nahore Doong, an old Salt Well, situated about two miles from this, 
on the road to the Naga hills. 

About 200 yards on the Jeypore side of this old Salt spring, the 
road crosses a vein of coal, of considerable thickness, accompanied 
by several beds of soft sandstone. This road is merely a ravine, which 
like many others, intersect the low hills here, in different directions, so as 
to give them the appearance of being distant from the more regular 
forms of the low range, which rise suddenly from the plain ; in fact, 
many are quite detached, and rise in knolls of some 50 feet high, sur- 
rounded on every side by a natural ravine, in which coal, various soft 
rocks, shells and clays, usually associated with the former substance are 
seen on regular strata, and also detached pieces of fossil wood, clay iron 
ore, and exceedingly hard quartz rock. This kind of ground extends 
for about a mile E. and N. of the coal first mentioned, and I believe 
there are few ravines in which there is not an appearance of Petroleum, 
either exuding from under a mass of limestone on a level with the bed of 
the ravine, or at some height up the slope of the hillocks. 

From this locality, or rather at two spots where, from the quantity 
of Petroleum visible on the surface, they are designated Tel Doong. 
(or Oil- springs) I have taken the specimens now sent, but you must 
recollect that these are taken from the mere surface, and it is quite 
possible that a more interesting and valuable formation of the same kind 
might b6' found at some depth, particularly as regards the connection 
of calcareous matter with that from which the Petroleum is thrown 
up. I mention this, because, from the 'appearance of the specimens of 
blue limestone found in the bed of the Dehing River, under the water 
(it being evident that this river cuts through the whole of the strata 
before-mentioned) it might be possible to find at the depth of the 
Dehing bed, inland, a purer limestone than that which is on the surface. 
However it may be as well to say, that the different strata appear to 
bend Eastward, and dip to the South towards the high range of Naga 
mountains, in the lower portions of which there are numerous salt 
springs, the prevailing rock there being clay slate. Nothing like 
mountain limestone is to be seen, as far as my travels extend, on 
the Assam side of these mountains : and I have an idea that with- 
out some extensive formation of this kind in contact with our carbo- 
niferous strata or bitumen springs, we shall fail to find a calcareous 

1845,] On the Assam Petroleum Beds. 819 

Asphalte like that of Pyremont. Our coal is, I believe, considered to be 
that of the higher series of secondary rocks, if then we could find bitu- 
men springs at the foot of the high range on N, B. of the Burrampooter, 
possibly a rock of the description would be found, but this is a question 
for Geologists to determine. 

Jeypore is not the only Petroleum locality in Upper Assam ; Borhath, 
Teroogong, Magawn, Namdeng and Namtchuk Pathar are noted for 
their earth oil springs. These are all situated in the low range of hills 
forming the base of that vast range of mountains which, bounding the 
Kymdwar valley on the West, would appear to run down to Cape Ne- 
grais. The first locality to the Westward is close to the Dekho River, 
south-east of Seebsagur ; but it is said that amongst the Nagas on the 
Western branch of this river, salt wells do not exist :* on the Eastern 
branch of the river, however, there are many salt wells, and near the 
source of this branch, in about Lat. 26° 20' the mountain range above- 
mentioned separates from the more western Naga ranges which run 
towards Cachar. The great Salt, Coal, and Petroleum deposits seem 
therefore to commence with the east branch of the Dekho, and con- 
tinued east as far as the Namtchuk river. At Namtchuk Pathar, near 
the mouth of the river, the Petroleum exudes from the banks, and a bed 
of very fine coking coal runs across the bed of the Namtchuk. The 
hills here are also intersected by ravines, and in one spot an extensive 
basin or hollow is formed at some height, which contains muddy pools 
in a constant state of activity, throwing out, with more or less force, 
white mud mixed with Petroleum. This is indeed a strange looking 
place, and I am told by the Singphos that at times there is an internal 
noise as of distant thunder, when it bursts forth suddenly, with a loud 
report, and then for a time subsides. Whether this may be the effect 
of distillation going on in consequence of the great mass of vegetable 
matter which lies under the surface, or from some more remote cause 
connected with volcanic action, it is impossible for me to give an opi- 
nion ; but from the connection of the Potkae with the Arracan range 
of mountains, the known existence of mud pools like these, in that 

* This is a mistake, there are salt springs on the banks of the Nambar and Dhunsin 
rivers, and it is supposed there are many more, but the Nagas West of the Dekho do 
not make salt, except at Semkur in very small quantities. By their traffic in cotton 
they obtain salt perhaps cheaper than they could make it. 

820 On the Assam Petroleum Beds. [No. 167. 

Province, and the fact, that the motions of our earthquakes are gene- 
rally from south to north, I have often thought that during an active 
state of some of the volcanoes in the Gulf of Martaban, they might 
affect us here. 

The Tel Doongs, or Oil-springs, and probably containing salt, are the 
resort of the wild animals of the forest, who eat the mud, particularly 
elephants, buffaloes and deer, and securely placed on a Michong, formed 
in one of the largest trees overlooking these pools, the Shikarrees of 
this frontier silently await, in the moonlight nights, the visits of these 
animals, and with a poisoned arrow fired from a musquet, shoot the 
largest elephants, which are afterwards tracked down probably for days. 
If the animal has a fine pair of tusks, the price of these amply repays 
the trouble and privations suffered in obtaining them ; — most of the 
ivory of the Singpho country is obtained in this manner. The springs 
in this neighbourhood afford good sport to the Shikarrees of the corps, 
and many a load of Saumer Deer flesh comes into cantonments, the result 
of a night's watch at, or an early morning visit to, the Tel Doongs. 

No. 1 Basket, contains specimens of soft rock through which the 
Petroleum rises : the whole mass of substance seems to be impregnated 
with it ; the soil however, is sometimes by itself in fissures and seams, 
running out as these are cut open. The Nodules are found embedded 
in regular veins intersecting the soft rock, and more or less oil is found 
mixed up with them. I have not dug deeper than ten feet into the bed. 
No. 2, contains the Earthy Asphalte which is found in consider- 
able quantity, where the Petroleum oozes out, and also adhering to the 
soft sandstone rock impregnated with, and laying in, the Petroleum bed. 
No. 3, contains the indurated sandy Asphalte rock, which I found 
overlying the spot where Petroleum exudes from under the low hills, 
of which it is in fact a portion, more or less of the red clayey soil being 
also impregnated with the bitumen ; and the distinguishing feature of 
the soil of the hills in the Petroleum vicinity, is a peculiar dryness, 
however wet the weather may be. The soil bears a thick tree jungle, 
principally of a species of oak, the acorw-fruited Hingooree of these 
parts. None of the specimens shew the presence of lime, but a hard 
rock, which effervesces slightly with acid, does not slake when burnt, 
and flies into splinters when heated, passes through the Petroleum bed ; 
specimens of this limestone I sent to you some years ago, calcined and 

1845.] On the Assam Petroleum Beds. 821 

pounded. It would, I think, make a cement similar to Parker's, or the 
Roman cement. 

No. 4, contains specimens of a conglomerate containing lime, form- 
ing a conspicuous rock a mile from this, directly on the edge of the 
river on both sides. In connection with this, indeed in some places 
adhering to its lower surface, as well as in the bed of the river itself 
at the same place, is the blue rock containing lime ; from the quantity 
of pure carbonate of lime adhering to the surface of one of the pieces, 
we might reasonably suppose that a rock even purer than the specimens 
now sent, does exist in the same place ; but the depth of the water will, 
I am afraid, effectually prevent its being worked ; what is found of this 
blue rock however, when burnt carefully, slakes into a very good buff 
coloured lime, quite fit for building purposes. The conglomerate when 
burnt, partially slakes, and, when pounded up, forms a very strong 
cement, well adapted for flooring or roofs, or lining of water tanks, &c. 
Accompanying these specimens, I have sent a sample of a mixture of 
Asphalte earth, and pounded unburnt conglomerate fused with a small 
quantity of the mikai tree rosin, also a few pieces of the clay and ore 
of the soil of the hills of the Petroleum locality : there appears to be 
too much earth in it ; as another trial I have made by covering the top 
of my boat, has succeeded very well, I do not see why we could not 
use the earthy Asphalte with success, in covering matting or plank roofs 
of boats or houses ; it deserves a trial certainly. 

Remarks upon the occurrence of Granite in the bed of the Narbudda. 

By Capt. J. Abbott, B. A. Late Principal Assistant Commissioner, 


In a report upon the Mhahlie Cotton of Nimarr, which I prepared 
about two years ago, and which, I believe, reached the Asiatic Society, 
I stated, that the trap stratum of Malwa was not penetrated to its 
base, even by the river Narbudda, which has mined its bed 1600 feet 
below the table summit of the Vindhecias. 

Some weeks after the despatch of this report, I visited an island 
of the Narbudda, opposite Mundlaisir, in order to inspect a block of 
grey granite, which I supposed had been accidentally deposited there. 

822 In the bed of the Narbudda Granite. [No. 167. 

I found, however, that this mass was in reality the pinnacle of a sub- 
stratum of granite, which had there, and in several other places, pierced 
the trap rock ; and upon attentive examination of the adjacent strata, 
there appeared a transition from the close, compact and uniform texture 
of the black trap to the granulated crystals of the granite. That 
is, the trap gradually assumed a less homogeneous character, sepa- 
rated into particles slightly blended together, and then into the dis- 
tinct crystals, characteristic of granite ; one stratum being the common 
grey kind, another the red, and a third the porphyritic, all forming 
with the horizon angles exceeding, I think, 75°. It was my intention to 
have selected and sent specimens of each transition ; but heavy duties, 
and my subsequent removal from the spot prevented me. Should the 
Society be curious to see such, I can write to Col. Outram, my succes- 
sor at Mundlaisir, and beg him to forward specimens. 

The fact seems to me of some interest, if only as exhibiting the 
thickness of the trap and amygdaloidal strata of Malwa, which may 
thus be plausibly calculated at 1600 feet. The whole scarp of the 
Vindhecia, forming the Southern limit of the province of Malwa, 
exhibits an abruptness which savors of disruption of surface, by the 
elevation of the table land, or the sudden subsidence of the valley of 
Nimarr. Yet I have never heard of granite occurring in any portion of 
the section of strata presented by these precipices. A stricter exami- 
nation of the strata is perhaps requisite to throw light upon the subject. 

If in all cases of the appearance of granite immediately beneath 
trap, the two formations blend their distinctive characters on contact, 
it might, with some shew of reason, be assumed, that both have been in 
a state of fusion at one and the same time ; and the more complete cry- 
stallization of the granite might be referred to the greater pressure under 
which it parted with its caloric. 


Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Koros. By Lieut. Colonel 

Lloyd, and A. Campbell, Esq. Superintendent at Darjeeling. 

[The following letters have been kept hack from publication owing to circumstances, 
which need not special detail. I should observe with reference to Lieut. Colonel 
Lloyd's remark as to the absence of any notice of the deceased scholar's literary 
labours in the Journal, that No. 124, contains a notice of his personal and literary 
habits, embodied in a Report as to his death, from Mr. Campbell, with remarks ap- 
pended by myself. I mention this for the facility of reference.] ifi 

With reference to the resolution of the Asiatic Society to place 
Rs. 1000 at my disposal, for the erection of a monument over the grave 
of the late Mr. Csoma de Koros, I have the honor to state, that in 
consideration of the necessary delay and difficulty in procuring a suit- 
able marble monument from Calcutta, I have had a plain pillar of sub- 
stantial masonry erected to mark the spot, and I purpose placing a 
simple tablet of stone in the pillar, with the date of his death, his 
name, and age only, inscribed thereon. This, however, is not wholly the 
manner in which I wish to see the Society's intentions fulfilled; I am 
anxious that a marble monument, with a suitable inscription to com- 
memorate the deceased, shall be placed in the Church at Darjeeling, 
and to enable me to do so for the Society, if the proposal is approved, 
I request to be furnished with the inscription which the Society may 
consider the most appropriate. 

Since the death of de Koros, I have not ceased to hope, that some 
member of the Society would furnish a connected account of his career 
in the East. It is now more than a year and a half since we lost 
him, yet we are without any such record in the Journal of the Society 
to shew, that his labours were valuable to the literary association he so 
earnestly studied to assist in its most important objects, as well as to 
shew that his labours have been duly appreciated. I know that I am 
not qualified by knowledge of the language and literature of Thibet, to do 
justice to the subject, and I have not on that account attempted it ; but 
in the belief that the Society will be better pleased to have an in- 
complete notice of his labours, than be altogether without one, I have 
compiled a note of his published contributions to the Asiatic Society 
on the language and literature of Thibet, which is hereunto annexed. I 
have also the pleasure to forward a copy of a Biographical sketch of the 


S24 Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Korbs. [No. 167. 

deceased by himself, which appeared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society many years ago, and which was corrected by the subject of 
it before his death. The number of the Journal containing the sketch, 
with the author's manuscript corrections, is now in my possession, and 
was, with the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, made over to 
me, according to the intentions of the deceased, as expressed previ- 
ous to his illness. 

Further, I have the pleasure to forward copy of a summary report of 
the contents of the Thibetan works in the possession of the deceased in 
A. D. 1825, which I cannot find has been published. It was forwarded 
to me by Lieutenant Robinson of Sirsa, in the belief, that as the work 
of de Koros it would be acceptable to me. If it has not hitherto been 
published, it will be an interesting addition to the contributions of the 
author.* At the time it was written, the European world was almost 
altogether ignorant of the subject on which it treats ; and the author 
himself had then but a faint glimmering of the light he afterwards shed 
on it. To admire the zeal, and laborious perseverance, by which 
he advanced in the ability to interpret the works he then so briefly 
reported on, and to compare the later elucidations of Thibetan works 
by the same pen with this his first essay in that line, will be a gratify- 
ing task to the admirers of his attainments, and an useful incentive 
to those who, in the commencement of a laborious study, may doubt 
their powers of advancing in it to renown and eminence. 

From the date of the Biographical sketch (1825) until his death 
on the 11th of April, 1842, the particulars of the life of Csoma de Ko- 
ros, are not fully known to me. I believe that he visited Western 
Thibet from Soobathoo in A. D. 1826, and that he continued to study 
at the monasteries in that country, living in the poorest possible manner 
until A. D. 1831, in October, of which year, I met him at Captain 
Kennedy's house, at Simla. He was then dressed exactly as when I 
saw him on his arrival at Darjeeling, in March 1842, in a coarse blue 
cloth loose gown extending to his heels, and a small cloth cap of the 
same materials, he wore a grizzly beard, shunned the society of Euro- 
peans, and passed his whole time in study. 

In May 1832, he went to Calcutta, where he lived in the Asiatic 
Society's Rooms, and had charge of the library until the beginning of 
* Forwarded to the Asiatic Societv, in December, 1843. 

1845.] Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Kbrbs. 825 

1836, when his anxiety to visit Lassa, induced him to leave Calcutta for 
Titalya, in the hope of accomplishing his design, through Bootan, Sikim, 
or Nipal. Colonel Lloyd, at that time on the Sikim Frontier, has 
furnished me with the following particulars of the deceased, while at 
Titalya, and its neighbourhood. 

Csoma de Koros, or more correctly, Alexander Csoma (as well as I 
recollect, without reference to papers which are sent away) came up to 
me in the beginning of 1836, say January, but it can be easily ascertained, 
when he quitted the apartments he had in the Asiatic Society's house. 
He wished to study Bengalee, and I sent him to Julpiegoree, where he 
remained about three months, and being dissatisfied there, returned to 
Titalya, I think in March ; he would not remain in my house, as he 
thought his eating and living with me would cause him to be deprived 
of the familiarity and society of the natives, with whom it was his wish 
to be colloquially intimate, and, I therefore got him a common native 
hut, and made as comfortable as I could for him, but still he seemed to 
me to be miserably off; I also got him a servant, to whom he paid three or 
four rupees a month, and his living did not cost him more than four more. 
He did not quit Titalya, I think, till the end of 1837, November, and 
all the time he was there was absorbed in the study of Sanscrit, Maha- 
ratta, and the Bengally languages. I think it was in November that he 
left, purposing to go to Calcutta first, but ultimately he seemed to intend 
getting into the Ducan ; at one time he was intending to travel through 
the mountains to Cathmandoo, and I am not certain whether he did 
not apply to Mr. Hodgson for a pass, but he seemed to have a great 
dread of trusting himself into Thibet, for, I repeatedly urged him to try 
to reach H'Lassa through Sikim, and he always said such an attempt 
could only be made at the risk of his life. I am therefore surprised at 
his after all coming here apparently with that intention, yet he seemed 
anxious to go to two monasteries in particular, where he said there were 
large libraries, and one where one or both the large works, the Kagzur 
and Sangzur, are, he said, printed. I suppose you to be writing some- 
thing regarding him, therefore 1 send you the foregoing, which is all I 
can recollect just now, though could I refer to my papers, I might have 
been able to say more. Yours truly, 

12M December, 1843. (Signed) G. W. A. Lloyd. 

826 Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Kurds. [No, 167. 

I recollect, that Mr. Hodgson had some correspondence with Csoma 
de Koros during the stay of the latter at Titalya, the subject of which 
was the possibility of his getting into Thibet, through Nipal ; so far 
as my memory serves me, Mr. Hodgson invited him to come to Cath- 
mandu, but did not give him any hope of being able to penetrate into 
Thibet, from that city. At that time the deceased was employed in the 
study of Sanscrit, which he continued with unabated perseverance until 
his death. When here he told me, that he had lost much valuable 
time from not having studied the Sanscrit previous to the Thibetan 
language, the former he said was the key to the whole literature 
of Thibet. It was on his then knowledge of Sanscrit, that he based 
enthusiastic hopes of realising the objects of his research. Could he 
reach Lassa, he felt that the Sanscrit would have quickly enabled him 
to master the contents of its libraries, and in them he believed was to 
be found all that was wanting to give him the real history of the 
Huns, in their original condition and migrations, and to him this was 
the completion of knowledge, as it was the star that led him on his 
untiring way of thought and study for 24 years. 

In 1838, M. Csoma de Koros was asked by Captain Pemberton to 
accompany him on his mission to Bootan, but as this did not give him 
any prospect of reaching Thibet, he declined the invitation, and remained 
in Calcutta until the beginning of 1842, when he left it for Darjeeling. 
The power of acquiring languages was the extraordinary talent of M. 
Csoma de Koros. He had studied the following ancient and modern 
tongues, and was a proficient in many of them, — Hebrew, Arabic, San- 
scrit, Pushtoo, Greek, Latin, Slavonic, German, English, Turkish, Persian, 
French, Russian, Thibetan, with the addition of Hindoostani, Mahratta, 
and Bengali. His library at his death had a dictionary of each of the 
languages he was acquainted with, and on all were his manuscript 
annotations. I have, &c. 

Darjeeling, December \2th, 1843. (Signed) A. Campbell. 

Catalogue of contributions to the Asiatic Society of Bengal on the lan- 
guage, literature, 8{C., of Thibet, by the late Mr. Alexander Csoma 
de Koros. 
I. Geographical notice of Thibet, published in vol. 1, of the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 4, 1832, Page 122. 

1845.] Further Notes respecting the late Csoma de Koros. 827 

2. Translation of a Thibetan Fragment, with remarks by H. H. 

Wilson, vol. 1, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 7, 
July 1832, p. 269. 

3. Note on the Kala Chakea, and Adi-Buddha Systems, vol. 2, 

Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 14, February 1833, 
p. 57. 

4. Translation of a Thibetan Passport, dated A. D. 1688, vol. 2, 

Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 201. 

5. Original of the Shakya Race, translated from the (La) or the 26th 

volume of the MDo class in the Ka-gyur, commencing on the 
161st leaf, vol. 2, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 385. 

6. Mode of expressing Numerals in the Thibetan language, vol. 

3, Journal Asiatic Society, p. 6. 

7. Extracts from Thibetan works, translated bv M. Alex. Csoma 

de Koros, vol. 3, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 57. 

8. Grammar and Dictionary of the Thibetan language in two vols. 

printed at the expense of the British India Government under 
the direction of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, aided by the 
immediate Superintendence of the author, Baptist Mission Press, 
Calcutta 1834. 

9. Interpretation of the Thibetan inscription on a Bholau Bunner 

taken in Assam, vol. 5, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
p. 264. 

10. Translation of the Motto on the margin of one of the white 

satin scarfs of the Thibetan Priests, vol. 5, Journal Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, p. 383. 

1 1 . Notices on the different systems of Buddhism, extracted from the 

Thibetan Authorities, vol. 7, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
p. 142. 

12. Enumeration of Historical and Grammatical works to be met 

with in Thibet, vol. 7, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
p. 147. 


Narrative of a tour over that part of the Naga Hills lying between the 
Diko and Dyang river, in a letter from Capt. Brodie, P. A. Commis- 
sioner to Major Jenkins, Commissioner of Assam. Communicated 
from the Foreign Department. 

I left Sibsagur on the 26th of January, accompanied by Mr. J. Bedford, 

Sub-Assistant, and Mr. J. W. Masters, late Superintendent of the 

Assam Company, with an escort of the strength noted in the margin, 

1 Subadar, furnished by the Officer Commanding the Assam 

4 Havildars, Light Infantry Battalion. We encamped at Mit- 

1 Bugler' tenswa, a small village near the foot of the hills the 

60 Sepoys. same evening. 

Leaving Mittenswa about 9 o'clock the next morning, we reached 
our encampment under the village of Namsang at 3 p.m.; the road is 
tolerably good, and the ascent easy, till towards the latter end of the 
march. Two long steep ascents, called by the Nagas Horoo Lejoo and 
Bar Lejoo, are then met with ; on the top of the latter we encamped, the 
village of Namsang being about quarter of a mile off, and from 300 to 
400 feet above us. 

On the 28th, the Seema Rajah came in with about 400 followers ; at 
the interview I had with him, he requested permission for his depen- 
dents to come down to the plains to trade. This was arranged, the 
Jattoong Chiefs consenting to their coming through the Matnug Mar- 
nug, one of their passes. 

Seema lies between Jaktoong and Mooloong, and has fourteen vil- 
lages tributary to it. The names given of them as are follows : Lenga, 
Seeyong, Taya, Juitaks, Burgaon, Chinkam, Singpho Jangha, Singlung, 
Lungwa, Sunjee, Haching, Kamling, Tingko. The Chief stated that he 
had no feud at present, and readily entered into engagements to ab- 
stain from warfare. 

On the departure of the Seema Chiefs, 1 had an interview with those 

of Jaktoonsr. You will recollect that on one of 
See my letter No. ° 

7, of the 9th April these named Hoaner Gohein, a fine had been im- 

posed in consequence of a murder that had been com- 
mitted in the plains by one of his sons. The Chief apologized for not 
having come down the preceding year, which he said was caused by the 
small pox raging violently in his village ; he alleged his inability to 

1845.] Tour over a part of the Naga Hills. 829 

pay the fine in money, and presenting a buffalo in lieu, begged he 
might be released from annual payment. 

I am of opinion that the fine can be realized, but it might be neces- 
sary to use force to effect this ; and as the expence attending the 
employment of troops, would far exceed the value of any thing to be 
realized, Government may deem it advisable to remit further payment. 
Before the time this fine was imposed, there had been frequent incur- 
sions on the plains by the Nagas in this direction, but for the last 
three years nothing of the kind has occurred ; and though no absolute 
confidence can be placed on such vile people as the Nagas, I have very 
great hopes that they will keep from disturbing the peace on the plains. 

There are three modes of dealing with the fine. 1 st — To realize it ; 
using force, if necessary. 2d — To let it remain in force, realizing it if 
possible without force — and, 3rdly, to remit it altogether ; and I should 
wish to be favored with the views of Government as to which of these 
courses should be followed. Should Government be pleased to remit the 
fine, it might be done on the ground of subsequent good behaviour, and 
the ready compliance with the request made for a passage for the Seema 

On the morning of the 29th we proceeded to Naugta ; there had been 
rain in the night, and the road was very slippery in consequence ; it 
passes through the village of Namsang, and from thence by a rapid 
and steep descent to the Diko. After winding up the left bank of this 
river for a short distance, we entered a narrow, stony nullah, called 
Hoodaee Jan, up which we went for about a mile and a half, and 
then had a very fatiguing ascent all the way to Nangta. This, for a 
Naga village, is a very small one, and is one of the few met with, that 
have no defences. The Tangsa and other tribes are reported to have 
destroyed it many years ago, since which the bulk of the former inha- 
bitants have settled in other villages ; those who remain appear to have 
thrown themselves entirely on the mercy of their more powerful neigh- 
bours, and they apparently enjoy a security for life and property beyond 
that of any other tribe. 

Before leaving Namsang, I had an interview with the Tubloong 
Rajah, who had arrived late on the preceding evening. On reference 
to my letter No. 7, of the 9th of April 1842, para. 5th, you will observe, 
that I met this Chief on my former tour. Our communication on the 


Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No, 167 

present occasion was much the same as before ; he is extremely anxious 
to get possession of the land and beels he formerly held : the land is now 
I believe either out of cultivation or in the occupation of other parties, 
and the Berhampooter has carried away one of the beels, and the others 
have been filled up. It is not easy therefore to restore exactly what 
he asks for, but an equivalent might be given him in a grant of 30 or 
40 poorahs of land rent free, in the Government Jykhumcfang Khat, 
and of one or other of the beels lying between the Diko and the De- 
sang, near where his own beels were situated. The circumstances 
under which the Chief lost his possessions in the plains, as detailed in 
the paragraph to which I have alluded, though giving him no right to 
compensation from the British Government, are such as call for a 
liberal consideration of his claim, and I would recommend its being 
complied with, as the most likely means of securing the attach- 
ment of a Chief whose influence is very considerable among the tribes 
in this direction, and who we expect to become estranged if it be re- 
fused : should it be deemed expedient to make the grant, its continuance 
after the present Chiefs death might be subject to review whenever that 
event takes place. 

On the 30th we marched to Kam Sing, a large and well stockaded 
village, commanding a fine view of the surrounding country ; the Chief 
is one of the best disposed we met with, and we received from him here, 
and afterwards, as much assistance as he could give us. The journey 
occupied us about three hours, the road being for the most part toler- 
ably level, with a few gentle slopes. 

On the 31st we halted, to enable me to adjust, as far as I could, some 
feuds that were here brought to notice. The Kam Sing Chief has a 
feud with the Yungya Abors ; but though I made every effort to get the 
Chiefs of this tribe brought in, I was unsuccessful : they are however 
on good terms with the Tubloong Chief, and I am not without hopes that 
I shall be able to get them to come down to the plains through his 
influence. He sent his nephew over, who brought in a few Yungya 
pynes, but they came invested with no authority from the community, 
and could give no account of the feuds of their clans. 

The Tangsa Abors were brought over by the Kam Sing Chief ; these 
Abors have been at war with the Namsang Nagas. The origin of the 
feud was represented by both parties as follows : Some years ago, a 

1845.] lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 831 

runaway Naga from Tangsa went to live in Namsang, and after having 
been kindly treated there for some time, he was turned out as a thief, 
and went back to his own village ; some articles which it was alleged he 
had stolen, were demanded by the Namsang Chief, and on the Tangsa 
Chief refusing to deliver them up, his village was attacked by the 
Namsang Chief, who was beaten back, losing one of his followers. 
The dispute was adjusted by the Tangsa Chief delivering to the 
Chief of Namsang, a war dress, sword, shield and spear. 

The Namsang Nagas had also a quarrel with the Nagas of Nowgong. 
It arose in a claim for tribute alleged to be due from Nowgong to Nam- 
sang ; the two tribes had long been at war, and numbers have been cut 
up on either side. On one occasion when the Nowgong Nagas had 
suffered severely, they made some presents to the Namsang Chief, which 
it was alleged by the former were given to put an end to the feud at 
that particular time. The other party maintained, that it was a tribute 
to be paid annually. The Namsang Chief now waived his claim on 
the Nowgong Chief, swearing publicly on a sword, that he had never 
promised to make an annual payment. 

These arrangements were made on the morning of the 1st February, 
after which we proceeded to Nowgong. The road was very similar to 
what we passed over in our last march, and the distance travelled much 
the same. Nowgong is strongly stockaded, and set with panjees ; it, 
like Kam Sing, commands a fine view of the surrounding country ; the 
population is large, and the houses compactly situated ; and judging 
from the clothing of the people, the ornaments of the women and chil- 
dren, their pigs, poultry and cattle, it may be looked upon as one of the 
richest villages in the hills ; water is scarce here, and was so at our 
two last halting places. 

On the 2nd we marched to Larayun, a village about as large as Now- 
gong, with the same kind of defences. The march occupied about four 
hours ; the road is not so level as in the two last marches, but it is 
tolerably good ; it has an easy descent to about midway, and then rises 
gradually to Larayun. 

Larayun is at war with the Chinko or Peugaho Abors, who live on the 
opposite side of the Diko ; I was anxious to adjust this, but could get 
no communication made to the latter tribe. They are said to hold no 
intercourse with any of our Boree Nagas, and none of our Kotokees know 

5 s 

832 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

any thing of them. I understand that the only chance of communi- 
cating with them, would be through the Yungya tribe, if we succeed in 
getting them to come in. 

On the 3rd and 4th we were halted, to get up supplies from the plains. 
On the the 4th we went out to Santung, a very large and populous 
village, about two miles from our encampment, in a south-westerly di- 
rection; both Santung and Larayun are on the ridge which separates 
the Diko from the Jazee ; and from the former there is a magnificent 
view of the gorge of the Diko, which here flows down directly from 
the southward. While at Larayun, I received its Chiefs, and the Chiefs 
of Santoong and Akocca, who entered into the usual engagements ; there 
was abundance of water from a rivulet on the Santung road. 

On the 5 th we had a very long and fatiguing march to the Jazee ; 
for the first one and a half mile, we retraced our steps on the Now- 
gong road, and then turned westerly, descending rapidly by a narrow, 
steep, slippery path, which brought us to a rocky nullah, called the 
Seemuk ; we followed the bed of this, till its junction with the Jazee, 
where we encamped. This march occupied us nearly nine hours. 

On the 6th we proceeded down the bed of the Jazee for some little 
distance, crossing and re-crossing it several times. After leaving the 
river, we ascended by a very narrow path, with high reed jungle on 
both sides. As we approached Diko Hymoong, the road became wider, 
and it was very good in the immediate neighbourhood of the village. 
We had intended to encamp here, but there was a difficulty in finding 
a sufficiency of water, and we proceeded on towards Boora Hymoong. 
The road between the two Hymoongs is tolerably level and open. Huts 
were ready for us under Boora Hymoong, at about half a mile north of 
the village ; the water we were able to get here, was very scanty, and 
had to be brought from a considerable distance. 

Both the Hymoongs stand on precipitous hills, and are well stockaded. 
Boora Hymoong has a feud with the Ooma Nagas, an Abor tribe, with 
whom I was unable to communicate, or to ascertain accurately in what 
direction they lie. The cause of the feud, as represented by the Chief 
of Boora Hymoong, is as follows : the Loongtaee and Campoongya 
Nagas, were formerly at war ; the Ooma Nagas joined the former tribe, 
and came to Boora Hymoong to make an attack on Campoongya; 
they quarrelled in drink ; and numbers were then, and afterwards, cut up 

1845.") lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 833 

on either side. During the late rule of Rajah Poorunder Sing, the Ooma 
Nagas surrounded Boora Hymoong, and threatened it with destruction, 
when the whole village turned out, and the Ooma tribe were defeated 
with great slaughter, though they are said to have had far superior 

Diko Hymoong has a feud with the Karee Nagas, but it does not 
appear that there has been any recent fighting. I endeavoured, but 
without success, to persuade the Chiefs to go on with me to the next 
Dwar, where I expected to meet the Karee Chiefs. They agreed, how- 
ever, to abstain from war, as did also the Karee Chiefs, when I met 
them a few days afterwards at Kolabaria. 

At Boora Hymoong, I met the Oormoong Chiefs ; they informed me 
that they had no feuds, and willingly entered into the engagements re- 
quired of them. We heard here too, that the Sorsoo Chiefs had been at 
Nowgong in the expectation of meeting me there ; they are said to be 
a numerous tribe, who cultivate cotton largely. Cotton is cultivated 
to some extent by all the Nagas in this direction, and to the westward, 
but we saw scarcely any traces of it in the route we went. 

On the 9 th we marched to Asringiya ; we first descended for about an 
hour by a narrow, precipitous path, to a stream called the Teeroo, which 
falls into the Jazee ; after crossing this, we began to ascend, and another 
hour and a half brought us to Laso, and in as much more, we reached 
Asringiya ; the road between the two latter villages is good, and toler- 
ably level. They and Campoongiya, are nearer to the plains than any 
Naga village we met with. 

At Asringiya, besides the Chiefs of that village, we met those of 
Laso, Booragoon, Campoongiya and Moon Sing, who all entered into the 
engagements required of them. 

On the 10th we moved to Kolabaria, which we reached in about 
2J hours, having passed through the village of Nowgong, about mid- 
way. For the most part the road is good, with no very steep as- 
cents or descents ; in some places it is narrow, with heavy reed jungle 
overhanging it. On our arrival we were told that there was no good 
water to be had, but after searching for about an hour, we found a very 
nice stream, and encamped on it in some ground that had been cleared 
for cultivation. 

834 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

After meeting the Kolabaria and Karee Chiefs, and taking agreements 
from them, we moved on the 11th to Samsa, reaching it in about 3 
hours : this is a considerable village, standing on the ridge which se- 
parates the Jazee and the Deesaee. Passing through the village, we 
descended rapidly, and in about an hour reached the huts that had been 
erected for us on the Sohopanee, a pretty large stream, flowing into the 
Deesaee. The road from Kolabaria to Samsa is easy. 

We remained encamped on the Sohopanee for the three following 
days, during which, I met the Chiefs of Nowgong, Loomtrya, Samsa, 
Bor Doobiya, Jafoo, Moonjee, and Aliepa. The Nagas come down here 
in very large numbers, and I was somewhat fearful of an outbreak ; for 
a great many of the Chiefs were in a state of intoxication, and appeared 
to have very little control over their followers. We saw a marked dif- 
ference in this respect here, and as we went on westward ; hitherto we 
had found the Chiefs sober, and their orders readily obeyed ; but hence- 
forward we were to meet with nothing but drunken rabbles. In each 
village there are dozens of aspirants for power, and we had daily to 
witness brawls between them that threatened to be serious, and perhaps 
lead to collision with us ; by great forbearance, however, on the part of 
my escort, things went on as well as could be hoped for, and we com- 
pleted our tour without any untoward occurrence. 

It may be right to mention here, an unfortunate circumstance 
that happened last year at Taratolla, in the plains. Some Nagas of 
Samsa had been down to trade, rather late in the season, and on their 
return, had to cross a small stream which had been dammed up, and at 
which about thirty or forty persons of the Non Cacharee Khel, were 
fishing : on the Nagas driving a bullock over the dam, a squabble ensu- 
ed, and a poor Naga was killed. At the time this occurred, a rumour 
reached me that something of the kind had happened, and very particu- 
lar enquiry was made into the matter. The reports of the Police, sent 
out to investigate it, and of the Mouzadars, led to the supposition that 
the man had died a natural death ; and as the Nagas would not then 
come down, I was obliged to put the case by till the cold season : even 
when I was close to the Samsa village, I could get no one who was 
with the deceased to appear before me, but subsequently they came 
down, and I have no reason to think, that their statement, as given 

1845.] lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 835 

above, is otherwise than true ; every exertion has been made by myself 
and my assistants to find out the individuals concerned, and a reward 
has been offered, under your authority. These Cacharees, however, are 
the most obstinate people possible, and it is but too probable, the guilty 
parties will not be discovered. Should it be found impossible to bring 
any of the parties to justice, I would ask permission to make some 
suitable present to the family of the deceased, to the extent of Rs. 100 
or 150, when communicating to them the result of the enquiry. The 
matter is still under investigation. 

On the 14th February we moved in the direction of Mikilaee. We 
started at 7-30 a. m. and kept winding down the Sohopanee till 2 p. m. 
when we again encamped on that stream. About an hour after leaving 
our former encampment, we came upon a small piece of rice cultivation, 
called Baka Pathar. I was informed that many Assamese ryots took 
refuge here, to avoid the exactions and oppressions they were subject to, 
in the late rule of Rajah Poorunder Sing ; a few still remain, but they 
complain of the incessant demands made on them by the Nagas, and it 
seems probable that in a short time they will return to the plains. 

On the 15th we continued our course along the Sohopanee, crossing 
and re-crossing it continually. After leaving it, we came upon frequent 
swamps, over which some frail bridges were thrown. On losing the 
swamps, we began to rise rapidly, and in about an hour reached the 
Mikilaee. The whole distance occupied about four hours ; we passed 
on, and reached Mohom in little more than half an hour ; immediately 
under it we found an excellent spot to encamp upon, with good clear 
water on every side. 

Mikilaee is a very large and strongly stockaded village, and being 

See para. 49th. high and openly situated, it commands a good view of 
the country round about. This village has a feud with the Soomtiya 
Nagas, which will be presently alluded to. 

We were obliged to halt for two days at Mohom to get up supplies. 
While here, I had interviews with the Chiefs of Mikilaee, Akook and 
Mohom, and after the usual interchange of presents, they gave in their 
engagements. Mohom is a small village, with no defences. 

On the 18th we started at 7-30 a. m. for Lakotee, which we reached 
at 10 a. m. At 8-15 we reached Akook, a long straggling village, and 
passed out of it at 8-35. The road is pretty good, for the most part 

836 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

level. About a mile beyond Akook, it is narrow for some distance, 
with thick reed jungle on both sides ; after getting out this, it began to 
improve, and as we neared Lakotee, it became wide and open. 

Lakotee is a very extensive village, with good wide roads about it in 
every direction. Its height, taken by a mountain thermometer, was 
found to be nearly 4,000 feet, the greatest height reached in our tour. 
We remained here for two days, during which I met the Chiefs of Lako- 
tee, Jangpang, Burgaon, Malusee, Lougjang, and Koreegaon. 

We left our camp on the morning of the 20th at 7-15, and reached 
the end of Lakotee at 8, Koreegaon at 10, Saneegaon at 11, and our 
encamping ground under Misangaon at noon. With the exception of 
one narrow precipitous path, about a mile from Koreegaon, the road 
between it and Lakotee is good ; it is wide and good from Koreegaon 
to Saneegaon, which are both villages of considerable size. After leav- 
ing Saneegaon, the road continues good for some distance, it then goes 
down a steep narrow path, and rises gradually to Misangaon. The 
latter part of the road had been cleared, or it would have been very bad. 

Saneegaon is stockaded, but not very strongly, and there are no 
ditches ; it is the first stockade we met with after leaving Mikilaee, and 
this is said to have been put up in consequence of a misunderstanding 
with Lakotee, which has been adjusted. We met with no other stock- 
ades to the westward, except one recently made at Nowgong, in conse- 
quence of an incursion said to have been made on them by some of 
the Abor tribes, who live between the Bagtee and Dyang, and which 
will be noticed hereafter. 

Our march on the 2 1 st was very long and fatiguing, and leaving our 
camp at 8 a. m. we proceeded down a steep, rugged descent, and at 
9-20, reached the Bagtee, a fine stream which falls into the Dyang. 
Shortly after leaving the Bagtee we came upon one of its feeders, called 
Kinnedea, and waded up its bed till 11-30. We then passed over 
some narrow, steep, slippery ridges, till 1 p. m. when we crossed a 
stream, called the Sufedee, and after ascending for an hour reached 
Bhedaree ; passing through this village, we again descended to the 
Sufedee, and encamped on it, between Bhedaree and Kaboong. A 
portion of the coolies did not get up till next morning, and this, and 
bad weather, obliged us to halt on the 2 2d, on which day I received 
visits from the Chiefs of Bhedaree, Kaboong, Durria and Tilleegaon. 

1845.] tying between the Diko and Dyang river. 837 

On the 23d we started at 6-45, a. m. and passing through Kaboong 
at 8-15, and Durria at 9-35, reached at 10-40, our halting place, on a 
stream called Durria Panee, between Durria and Rangagaon. The 
road throughout this march was bad, and had been made worse by wet 
weather ; it rose to Kaboong by the side of a precipitous hill, with 
scarcely room for the footing of a single person. From Kaboong to 
Durria it is pretty level, but narrow, and through dense reed jungle. 
The descent to the Durria Panee, is by a precipitous path of the same 

On the 24th we moved about 1\ a. m. and passing through Ranga- 
gaon and Kergaon, and between Sunkah and Teelagaon, encamped 
about 3 p. m. on a small stream under Sonaee, at a distance from it of 
about half a mile ; this march was a fatiguing one, from the slippery 
and muddy state of the road, which would have been tolerably good 
had not rain fallen. The ascent to Rangagaon is steep ; between it and 
Kergaon, the road is level, it then descends gradually to a stream which 
is crossed three times at short intervals. On leaving this, there is a 
fine wide road up an easy ascent to Sunkah, and from thence the road 
lay over undulating hills, to our encampment. 

We were halted on the 25th, and I received visits from the Chiefs of 
Rangagaon, Kergaon, Seeka, Khoragaon, Talagaon, Sonareegaon, and 
Teelagaon. I also took the opportunity of going up to Sonareegaon 
and Teelagaon, the two largest of the Lotah villages. They probably 
contain about 4,000 inhabitants each. The other Lotah villages are 
comparatively small. 

The Chief of Nowgong brought to my notice the aggression I have 
alluded to in para. 36th. There is no doubt that an incursion had been 
lately made, in which one of the Nowgong Nagas was killed, and an- 
other wounded ; but it is doubtful what tribes were concerned in it. The 
Chief of Nowgong accused the Nang Chang and Pengsa Abors, but ad- 
mitted that it could scarcely have happened without the connivance of the 
Sonaree and other Lotah Chiefs. A reference to the map which Mr. Bed- 
ford has prepared, will shew that if these Chiefs had been so inclined, the 
attacking party would in all probability have been cut up on their retreat. 
Nowgong is visible from Sonaree, and also from Teelagaon, and as 
these villages would be instantly aware of the attack, and could imme- 
diately communicate with Teelagaon and Sunkah, had they turned out 

838 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

in force, it is nearly certain that the party would have been intercepted. 
The Sonaree Chiefs denied all knowledge of the matter ; but I may men- 
tion that they were generally in a state of intoxication, and that it was 
not easy therefore to deal with them. Conformably with the views 
expressed by His Honor the President in Council, in para. 4th, of Mr. 
Assistant Secretary P. Melville's letter, No. 36, of the 1st February last 
year, I requested the Chiefs to give me their aid in obtaining an inter- 
view with the Abor tribes, which they promised to do, but it has not 
been accomplished as yet. 

An occurrence, however, that has lately taken place in this direction, 
which is reported in a letter from Mr. Wood, the Sub -Assistant, sta- 
tioned at Golaghat, No. 64 of the 4th ultimo, copy of which is annexed, 
will render a further communication with these Chiefs necessary in the 
ensuing cold season. It appears that six elephant hunters, while out 
hunting under the hills, were attacked by about thirty Nagas, who 
plundered whatever they could lay hold of, and wounded some of the 
hunters. Two of these escaped with their lives, and some are missing, 
and supposed to have been murdered. When applied to by Mr. Wood, 
the Lotah Chiefs objected to coming down to the plains in consequence 
of the lateness of the season, and I consider this objection reasonable 
enough. It is probable that they will come down when the rains are 
over, and give the explanation required of them, and until they refuse 
this, it seems unnecessary to take any measures of coercion. It is doubt- 
ful in my mind what tribe are the offenders, but from some of the 
depositions taken by Mr. Wood, and from the nature of the case, as 
detailed by him, I am inclined to think, that the affrays may have arisen 
from the Nagas supposing that they alone have the privilege of hunting 
wild elephants in the place where it occurred. It happened within the 
jurisdiction of the principal assistant at Nowgong, and I should wish to 
be furnished with instructions, as to whether the enquiry shall be made 
by him or by myself. 

On the 26th we moved down to the plains ; passing close under 
Sonareegaon, we turned off to the right to Nowgong, and reached it 
in about two hours, another hour brought us to the Dyang. The first 
part of the road between Sonareegaon and Nowgong is wide and 
open ; in a short time, however, we entered narrow and difficult passes 
cut through the hill : these led to a small stream, up the bed of which 

J 845.] lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 839 

we passed for about half a mile, and then got into a narrow path 
through high reed jungle, which continued till we reached Nowgong ; 
after leaving this, we descended rapidly, till we came near to the level 
of the plains, and then passed through very heavy reed jungle, till we 
came out on the Dyung. After proceeding down thus for about two 
hours, we encamped on one of its sands. 

On the 27th we continued our route, following the course of the 
Dyung. After a very long march, we encamped a little above Nogora, and 
reached Golaghat next day about 2 p.m. The country under the hills 
is a wild, dreary, swampy forest, and continued so till we came out at 
Nogora. There was nothing like a road or even a beaten path, which 
is accounted for, by the Lotah Nagas generally using boats. 

In my report of the 15th September 1841, I have mentioned that the 
Naga tribes are distinguished by the names of Boree and Abor — the for- 
mer being dependent, and the latter independent tribes. To the east- 
ward, however, the Boree Chiefs who acknowledge a kind of dependance 
on us, have numerous Abor tribes tributary to them, which I did not 
find to be the case to the westward. There is here, therefore, consider- 
ably great difficulty in ascertaining the merits of any dispute, in which 
one party are Boree, and the other Abor ; the former being bent on pre- 
venting all kinds of intercourse between us and the Abor tribes. It is 
only when they meet with some reverse, that they ask for aid ; and then 
it is probable, that they will do nothing, but in furtherance of their own 
ends, which are to slaughter their enemies, burn their villages, and 
drive them to the jungles. 

Having taken engagements from all the Boree Chiefs to abstain from 
warfare, it seems necessary, that the officer, in charge here, should be 
furnished with instructions as to how far he should interfere in their 
quarrels. It is obviously desirable, that he should do so as little as pos- 
sible, but in the following cases it seems necessary : — 

1st. In any attack by one Boree tribe on another. In this case both 
parties might be summoned down, and in the event of refusal to come, 
or to settle the dispute as directed, their village might be occupied till 
they complied. 2d. In an attack by a Boree on an Abor tribe, depen- 
dent or independent of a Boree tribe. On proper complaint being made 
in a case of this kind, the same course might be followed. In both 

5 T 

840 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

cases, the parties complained against are our dependents, and we have 
a clear right to their submission. 

These are the only cases in which it seems to me to be absolutely 
necessary that interference by force should take place. But in the event 
of a Boree complaining against an Abor tribe, every means might be 
taken — either through the Boree Chiefs, on whom they are dependent ; 
or if not so dependent, through any Boree tribe which may be on 
friendly terms with them — to induce the Abor tribe to come down, and 
submit their dispute to adjustment. If this cannot be accomplished, 
I am of opinion, that interference should not take place ; for I believe 
that in almost every case of the kind, the Boree tribe could point out 
means by which the Abors might be got down, and that it is for 
objects of their own, that they do not do so. Before leaving this part 
of the subject, I would beg to mention again, what I stated in the 7th 
paragraph of my letter of the 15th September 1841, that I believed 
the Assam Government had found it more convenient to conciliate 
the Nagas by presents, than to overawe them by coercion; and I am 
still of opinion that the Political Officer, who has charge of the rela- 
tions with these tribes, should have power to dispense presents liberally. 

I may here state, that the following applications have been made to 
me, since I returned to Seebsagur. 

The Chief of Boora Hymoong, came in on the 9th of March, and 
reported that his village had been burnt and plundered by the Nagas of 
Losiatua, Booragaon, and Loougliooug; these were summoned through 
their Kutokies, but objected to come to the plains so late in the season. 
It turned out, however, that the matter had been much exaggerated, 
and that the affair originated in some claims of certain Nagas who had 
left Boora Hymoong, and settled in Booragaon. The Chief of Boora 
Hymoong afterwards acknowledged, that the Loougliooug Nagas had re- 
turned what they took away ; and I hope that after the rains, the matter 
will be adjusted with the other parties. 

On the same date, the Loongjang Chief complained, that two women 
of his village had been cut up in their fields by the Moongjing Nagas. 
The Kutokies were directed to summon the Chiefs of Moongjing, who 
also objected to come down to the plains at that season, and nothing 
further can be done till November or December next. 

1845.] lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 841 

The Mulotopeah Chief came in on the 9th April 1844, and mention- 
ed that his tribe were afraid to come to the plains, from fear of being 
waylaid by the Langtooug and Nowgong Nagas, on account of an old 
feud. This Chief said, he would come in again after the rains, and I 
hope to be able to adjust the matter to the satisfaction of the parties. 

Besides these cases which have lately been brought to notice, there 
are the following, which I was unable to adjust while in the hills, from 
not being able to bring the parties together. 

A feud between Mikilaie and Losuctuja early in 1834. The Chief of 
the former tribe complained, that 14 of his men had been cut up by 
the Hatheegurh Nagas. These denied all knowledge of the matter, and 
said it was probably done by the Soomtiya Nagas, who were at enmity 
with Mikilaee. The Soomtiya Nagas deny it, but allow that there is 
an old feud between their tribe and Mikilaee, and I will endeavour to 
bring the parties together at the earliest period possible. 

About the beginning of December last, the Sonarree Chiefs complain- 
ed that the Topoo and Tootee Abors had carried off and detained a boy 
and girl from their village ; I had hoped to have settled this, but could 
find no means of getting the opposite party present. It would appear 
that the Nagas in this direction are in the habit of making captives, 
with a view to obtain ransom. 

The following occurrences among the Nagas to the eastward have 
been brought to notice. 

I received a report towards the end of November last, that the Paun- 
dwar, Makrong, and Singpoongiya Nagas, had cut up three men, be- 
longing to Horoo Bansary. On enquiry it turned out, that Mokreng 
or Koting-gaon is tributary to Horoo Bansary ; and that a Naga be- 
longing to the former tribe had gone with tribute to the latter, and was 
put to death. The Koting Nagas shortly after this, cut up the three 
men alluded to. The Pandwar Chief came in himself, and stated 
that he was in no way whatever concerned in the matter ; he thought 
the dispute might be settled through the Burdwar and Namsang Chiefs ; 
and they were applied to, but I have not heard that they have yet been 
able to adjust it. Both parties in this case are Abors. 

A report reached me at Boora Hymoong, that the Khetree Nagas 
had, on the 18th of January, attacked Boonting-gaon, burning the vil- 
lage and killing eight men. Both parties are Abors, and I fear there is 

842 Tour over that part of the Naga Hills [No. 167. 

little chance of doing any thing in this direction, without the assistance 
of the Namsang and Burdwar Chiefs, who shew any thing but a readi- 
ness to give it. 

On the 8th of April, a complaint was made to Mr. Bedford at Jai- 
pore, by the Baufera Nagas, who stated that two men and a woman 
belonging to their village, had been put to death in Horoo Mootoon. 
An enquiry was immediately directed ; and on the 24th of May, the 
Naga Chowtangs of both villages came before me, and stated that the 
parties put to death were slaves, who had run away from Baufera, and 
that according to the Naga custom, they had very properly been put to 
death. The Baufera Chowtang said, that this should have taken place 
in presence of both parties, and on the borders, and not at Horoo 
Mootun, but that the matter had been settled amicably among them- 

On the 1st of May the Chowtang of Jaboka reported that he was 
fearful of being attacked by the Abors of Seuhoon, Roodooa, Kyouting, 
Poomau and Mijuo. A guard from the Assam militia was offered for 
their protection, but the Chowtang said it was unnecessary ; that the 
village could take care of itself till the rains were over ; and if matters 
were not adjusted then, he would make another report. 

Before concluding this report, it may be convenient to refer to my 
reports of the 15th September 1841, and 9th April 1842, regarding the 
habits of the Nagas, their defences, arms, &c. and to observe that the 
observations made therein, will apply generally to the tribes I met 
with in my present tour. The villages we met with in the tour, are in 
general, large and thickly populated, the largest may contain from 4000 
to 5000 inhabitants, and few could have had less than 2000. 

The Naga country lying between the Diko and Dyang, is divided 
into six Dwars, as follows : Namsang, Dopdar, Charingaya or Asringiya, 
Hatheegurhiya, Dyungiya and Paneephat. A list of villages comprised 
in these Dwars, is appended. 

The Nagas of Namsang Dwar enter the plains in Gelakee, and ex- 
change cotton, cloths, ginger, pepper and beetlenut, for salt, rice, dhan, 
daws, cattle, poultry, and dried fish. These are the principal articles of 
exchange in all the other Dwars ; but raw cotton is brought down by the 
westerly Dwars, particularly by the Paneeput or Lotah tribes; this 
cotton, or the bulk of it, is exchanged in the first instance by the above 

1845.] lying between the Diko and Dyang river. 843 

Nagas to the Borees, for their own products and products of their plains, 
and it is then brought down by the Boree Nagas, and exchanged to the 
Assamese ; a small quantity comes down at Dopdar, and larger quanti- 
ties at the Dwars west of it. 

The Dopdar, Charingaya, Hatheegurh, Dyungiya, and Paneephat Na- 
gas, come down respectively by Dossdur, Taratollee, Morecomee, Bosa, 
and Mokrung. In Bosa and Mokrung there are several Passes. 

To each of the Dwars are attached Kutokies, who are the channel of 
communication between the Government Officers and the Boree Nagas ; 
these were formerly paid for their services by a remission of the poll 
tax, and they now receive a remission on their land, equal to what was 
remitted when the poll tax existed ; some of them derive advantage 
from having the management of Khats, which the former rulers of 
Assam gave certain of the Naga tribes, and to which they attach import- 
ance ; a list shewing the number of Kutokies, their allowances, and the 
Naga Khats, and quantity of land in each, as far as is known, is an- 
nexed to this report. 

The Lotah Nagas had formerly Khats on the Morung side, and they 
are particularly anxious to obtain an equivalent for them on this side of 
the Dhunsuree. The Khats they formerly held are either out of cultiva- 
tion, or taken up by the ryots ; and I would recommend that they be 
allowed to take up from 30 to 40 Poorahs of any Puteet land they can 
point out. The value they attach to these Khats, is a great security for 
their peaceable behaviour. 

Mr. Masters has kindly favoured me with his observations on the 
botany of that portion of the hills which we passed over, and which I 
have much pleasure in submitting with this report. Mr. Bedford has also 
made a most accurate map of our route, including all villages seen from 
it, which will be of great use hereafter. To both these gentlemen, I am 
under considerable obligations, for the assistance they gave me on many 

Our tour was necessarily a very hurried one ; I could have wished to 
remain longer in almost every place, but we started in rain, and had a 
good deal of it in the hills ; and I was fearful of being driven down be- 
fore I had completed the tour ; and in fact continued and heavy rain set 
in immediately we left the hills. We have now, however, a knowledge 
of the localities of all the tribes on our borders, and for some distance 

S44 Tour over a part of the Noga Hills. [No. 167. 

in the interior, and they can be visited at any time there may be occa- 
sion for it. It is hardly to be supposed, that a barbarous people, who 
have lived and gloried in war for ages, will at once leave off their wild 
habits ; and no doubt we shall have to remonstrate with them frequent- 
ly ; but I have every reason to think, that less bloodshed now takes place 
than formerly, and it is to be hoped, that all these tribes will fall gra- 
dually into more peaceful habits. 

1 cannot conclude this report without again bringing to notice, the 
very great assistance I derived from Noramaee Deka Phokun, Naga 
Surburakar, in my dealings with the Chiefs who visited me. He was 
far from well when we started, and had frequent attacks of fever, but 
nothing would induce him to leave his post, and he continued with me 
throughout the tour, under circumstances in which few of his class 
would have remained. 

I beg to submit a Bill for the expences incurred on the present ex- 
pedition, which I beg you will recommend being passed. 

P. A. Comr. Office; 6th Aug. 1844. 



Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 
(Comprising the Animals of the Himalaya Mountains, those of the Valley 
of the Indus, of the Provinces of Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah, Arracan, and 
of Ceylon, with Occasional Notices of Species from the Neighbouring 
Countries *J 
By Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, %c. %c. 

No. 1. The Columbidce, or Pigeons and Doves. 
Order IV. Gyratores, Pr. Bonap. Gemitores, McGillivray. 
This consists but of a single family, that of the Pigeons, — 

Fam. Coluwbidje, — 
Which subdivides into three marked sub-families, viz. — Treronince, 
or arboreal fruit pigeons, — Gourince, or ground pigeons, — and Columbince, 
or ordinary pigeons and doves. 

* The object of publishing the present series of Monographs of various groups 
of animals, is to elicit, as much as to impart, information that might be incorporated 
in a general work now in preparation ; and it is, therefore, earnestly requested that 
observers, interested in the subject, will favour the author with any additional facts 
or corrections that may occur to them, and that they will also endeavour to settle any 
questions that are still at issue, and in short, to render the future conspectus of Indian 
animals as complete as circumstances will permit of. In the class of birds, it may be 
here remarked, that any information on the niditication and colour of the eggs of 
species generally, and of the song-notes of the smaller Inscssores, will be particu- 
larly acceptable. 

* No. 168. No. 84, New Series. 5 u 

846 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

Sub-fam. Treroninje. 

The members of this group are eminently frugivorous and arbo- 
real, scarcely ever descending to the ground, and some perhaps never, 
unless to drink ;* and in general they are of a green colour, which 
renders them difficult to discern amid the foliage of trees. They 
are distinguished from other pigeons (with the sole known exception of 
Ectopistes carolinensisj by having constantly fourteen tail-feathers, 
instead of twelve, f In form of bill, they present a gradation from 
the strongest beak that occurs throughout the order, to a feeble organ, 
soft and tumid to near its tip, which alone is corneous ; but the gape, 
especially in the latter case, is very capacious. The tarsi are short, 
stout, and more or less feathered ; and the toes (except in one 
sub-genus) are remarkably broad- soled, and are furnished with strong 
and sharp claws, commonly much hooked ; hence they have great power 
of clasping, or holding on to the small branches of trees, while strain- 
ing to pluck the fruit or berries from the terminal sprays ; so that, 
when feeding, these birds may be commonly observed to lean over and 
downward so far as to be inverted, and then draw themselves back 
by the unaided muscular strength of the extremities. The flight of all 
is powerful and rapid. Three strongly marked genera occur, numerous 
species of which inhabit the warm regions of the Old World, Australia, 
and Polynesia ; but from America they are wholly excluded. 

Genus TRERON, Vieillot : Vinago, Cuvier. {Hurrial and Hurrwa, 
H. ; Hurtel, Beng. ; N'goo, Arracan). The Hurrials. 

In this genus may be observed the gradation in form of bill, that has 
been adverted to, in its full extent ; but all the strong- billed species 
are here included. The plumage is blent and glossless, and almost 
without exception of a lively green, varied with ashy, and with a 
stripe of bright yellow on the wings margining their coverts ; while the 
males are commonly further adorned with a deep maronne huej on the 

* An individual of Treron bicincta, has been seen feeding on the ground; but 
such instances are extremely rare. Vide, also, description of Tr. nipalensis. 

f Perhaps, however, certain of the ground pigeons may also have more than twelve 
tail-feathers; which remains to be ascertained. In the domestic breed of fan-tails, the 
number is abnormally multiplied to as many as thirty or more. It is very remarkable 
that of the two species of Ectopistes, which are nearly allied to each other, one should 
have fourteen tail-feathers, while the other— the celebrated passenger pigeon of 
North America, should possess but the usual number— twelve. This fact was observed 
and recorded by the Prince of Canino. 

% This hue, in different shades of vinous, or claret-colour, occurs in a great, 
number of Columbidee, and has been remarked to be almost peculiar to the tribe. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 847 

mantle, and with orange, or orange and lilach, on the breast. Irides 
crimson, with a blue ring encircling the pupil.* The voice, a melodious 
deep- toned whistle, considerably prolonged and varied in different 
cadences. Nidification, as in most other arboreal doves and pigeons, and 
two white eggs produced, of a somewhat less elongated shape than in 
common pigeons. Except in the pairing season, these birds collect in 
small, or moderately large flocks, on the topmost branches of high jun- 
gle trees, where, if one can be descried and is shot at, two or three will 
commonly fall, that had eluded observation from the similarity of their 
colouring to that of the foliage. They subsist on fruits and berries of all 
kinds, and during the season, especially on the small figs of the Ficus 
indica and F. religiosa ; and they have likewise been observed " devour- 
ing the blossoms and newly formed fruit of the mangoe and tamarind 
trees." Their flesh is esteemed for the table, but the skin requires to be 
removed, this having a strong bitter taste ; and hanging them up for a day 
or two, when the season will permit of it, improves them much for 
culinary purposes. 

It is necessary to distinguish three well marked sub -genera, as 
follow, — 

A. tori a (since altered to RomerisJ, Hodgson. Distinguished by the 
great strength and vertical depth of the corneous terminal portion 
of the beak, which, in the typical species, is continued back to beyond 
the feathers of the forehead. The eyes are surrounded by a naked 

Tr. nipalensis : Toria nipalensis, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX, 164. 
(Thorya, quasi rostrata, of the Nepalese.) Green, yellowish below 
and towards the tail ; the crown of the head ash-coloured ; mantle 
of the male, deep maronne-red, and a faint tinge of fulvous on the 
breast ; primaries and their larger coverts, black, the latter margin- 
ed with yellow; middle tail-feathers green, the rest with a blackish 
medial band, and broad grey tips; lower tail-coverts cinnamon-coloured 
(more or less deep) in the male ; subdued white, marked with green, in the 
female. Bill, greenish- white, with a large vermillion spot occupying 
the membrane at the lateral base of the mandibles : legs also vermillion : 

* A partial exception to this occurs in Tr. nipalensis only, among the Indian species ; 
at least, the only two living specimens of this bird which 1 have 6een, had dark red- 
brown irides, with a blue inner circle. Mr. Hodgson describes them as— " outer circle 
of the iris orange-red, inner circle blue." 

848 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

irides deep red- brown, with a blue inner circle ; and orbital skin, bright 
green. Length, ten inches and three-quarters, by seventeen inches ; 
closed wing, five inches and three-quarters. 

This bird inhabits the central and lower hilly regions of Nepal, and 
more abundantly, those of Assam and Arracan, spreading southward to 
the Tenasserim provinces and Malay peninsula. It also occurs in the 
hilly districts of Bengal, but rarely strays into the plains, though spe- 
cimens are occasionally met with even near Calcutta. Mr. Hodgson 
states that — " It is not very gregarious ; adheres to the forests ; feeds 
chiefly on soft fruits ; and prefers the trees to the ground, but without 
absolute exclusiveness of habit in that respect." 

Most closely allied and hitherto confounded with it, is Tr. aromatica of 
Java, and I believe of the more eastern portion of the Malayan Archipelago 
generally, (the Col. curvirostris, and the female — C. tannensis of Gme- 
lin).* The latter differs by having a bright yellow beak, greenish at sides 
towards base, and the nude skin at the sides of its base is apparently blue, 
fading into a blackish tint in the dry specimen ; while in Tr. nipalensis the 
vermillion colour fades to amber ; the anterior half of the crown is much 
more albescent ; the fulvous tinge on the breast much stronger ; the 
maronne colour of the back is more extended ; the longest tertiaries 
are greenish- dusky, instead of green ; and the lower tail- coverts are of 
a deeper cinnamon-colour. Lastly, the corneous portion of the upper 
mandible scarcely extends quite so far back as in Tr. nipalensis ; and 
a curious and marked distinction consists in the Indian species, having 
the inner web of its third primary sinuated, as in the Hurrials of 
the next section ; while its closely allied Javanese representative ex- 
hibits no decided trace of such a character. In a third species which 
I refer to this section, the Tr. Capellei, Tem.f (common near the Straits 
of Malacca), the beak is lengthened by the prolongation of its soft and 
tumid basal portion, becoming, as remarked by Mr. Strickland, " almost 
vulturine in form ;" while the size of the bird is considerably larger, 

* Mr. G. R. Gray's figures of the beak, &c, of a species of Hurrial to which he 
applies the name aromatica, in his illustrated work on the genera of birds, refer 
to a species of the following section of this genus. 

f Treron magnirostris, Strickland, An. and Mag. N. H., 1844, p. I J 6, and doubt- 
less Vin. giganteus of Haffles, mentioned in the " Catalogue of Zoological specimens" 
appended to Lady Raffles's « Life of Sir St. Raffles,' p. 674 ; though not the bird 
referred to in the note attached, which is probably a Carpophoga. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 849 

and, it may be added, that the sinuation of the interior web of its third 
primary exists, but not to the same depth as in Tr. nipalensis. 

B. Typical Treron. Hurrials, with the beak moderately robust, much 
less so than in the preceding section, its corneous portion occupying 
the terminal half, or thereabouts. There is no bare space round 
the eyes ; and the tail is squared. Sinuation of the third primary well 
developed in eight species examined, and probably, therefore, through- 
out the group. 

Tr. ph,enicoptera : Col. phcenicoptera, Latham : C. militaris, Tem. : 
C. Hardwickii, Gray (figured in Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom,' VIII. 299) : 
Vinago militaris, Gould's ' Century', pi. LVIII.* Green. The neck all 
round, with the breast, bright yellowish-green, having a shade of 
fulvous ; cap, sides of base of neck, and the abdominal region, ash- 
grey, the belly, with generally some admixture of green, more or less 
developed, and there is a green tinge on the forehead ; shoulder of the 
wing lilach in the male, and a trace of the same in the female ; greater 
wing- coverts margined with pale yellow, forming an oblique bar across 
the wing ; terminal two-fifths of the tail, ash-grey above, albescent 
underneath, and its medial portion blackish underneath, and deeply tinged 
with green above ; tibial plumes (extending partly down the tarse) and 
central abdominal feathers between the tibiae, bright yellow ; vent 
mingled white and green ; and lower tail-coverts maronne, with white 
tips. Beak, whitish ; the feet, deep yellow. Length twelve and a half, 
by twenty-two inches ; and of closed wing seven inches to seven and 
a half. 

This is one of three closely allied species, each having its peculiar 
habitat, and it is intermediate in its colouring to the two others, — 
namely, Tr. viridifrons, nobis, of the Tenasserim provinces, and 
Tr. chlorigaster, nobis, of Peninsular India. Tr. viridifrons is distin- 
guished by having the anterior half of the head, and the medial portion 
of the tail, of the same (and as bright) yellowish-green as the breast, 
though somewhat less fulvescent ; that of the tail being well defined, and 
contrasting strongly both with the grey tip, and also with the grey 

* Mr. G. R. Gray identifies this bird with Col. Site. Thoma of Gmelin, to which 
name he assigns the precedence : but I decidedly think that he is mistaken in so 
doing.— I perceive also that in Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom,' Col. Sta>. Thoma is re- 
ferred to militaris of Temmink; this last named author having stated that C. 8U6. 
Thomce occurs in India. 

850 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

coverts impending the tail, so that this green appears as a very con- 
spicuous broad caudal band : the throat also is not weaker- coloured, as 
in Tr. phanicoptera. Tr. chlorigaster, on the other hand, has the whole 
under- parts green ; no trace of green upon the tail, except at its extreme 
base, and the whole cap and ear- coverts are ashy, devoid (in fine males 
at least) of the slightest tinge of green on the forehead. These are, in 
fact, three osculant races, which, if commonly inhabiting the same 
districts, would doubtless intermix and blend, like Coracias indica and 
C. ajfinis, and likewise certain of the Kalidge pheasants (Gallophasis) ; 
but within their own proper range of distribution, each continues true 
to the colouring which distinguishes it from the others. To term them 
local varieties of the same species, would not merely imply that the 
three are descended from a common origin, but also that such changes 
of colouring are brought about by difference of locality ; a notion which 
is inconsistent with the fixity and regularity of markings we observe in 
either race, over an extensive and diversified range of country. Tr. 
phcenicoptera is a very abundant species in Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, 
Nepal, and all Upper India, its range extending southward at least to 
the foot of the mountains of Central India, where it would seem to be 
equally common with the next, and intermediate specimens are met 
with even in Lower Bengal. In Arracan it does not appear to have been 
met with, but farther southward, in the Tenasserim provinces, it is 
represented by its other near aftine, Tr. viridifrons.* 

Tr. chlorigaster, nobis, /. A. S. 1843, p. 167 : Tr. Jerdoni, Strick- 
land, An. and Mag. N. H., 1844, p. 38: Vinago phanicoptera v. 
militaris of Southern India, Auctorum. Similar to the last, except in 
the particulars already mentioned. It replaces Tr. phcenicoptera in the 

* Capt. Hutton writes me word from Mussooree, that Treron phtsnicoptera is 
" common in the Deyrah Doon, but never mounts into the hills, where it is replaced 
by Tr. sphenura. Many of the Doon birds" he adds, "have come to be regarded 
as hill species, from their commonly occurring in collections made by residents at the 
different hill stations. Such collectors, however, entertain one or more shikarrees, who 
start off sometimes to the Doon, sometimes to the interior of the mountains, just as 
they happen to remember or to want any bright-coloured bird ; and when the col- 
lection is brought in, the collector never dreams of asking where the birds were shot, 
but puts them all down together as ' a collection from the hills.' Nepal being further 
to the south-east then Mussooree, a greater elevation may be required to produce 
the same temperature that we have; so that birds, which with us are found only in 
the warm valley of the Doon, may perhaps in Nepal rise to a certain elevation 
on the mountains !" 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 851 

Peninsula of India, and specimens are occasionally met with in the vici- 
nity of Calcutta. These three species have the feet of a deep yellow- 
colour ; whereas in all the other Asiatic Hurrials, they would appear to 
be bright red. 

Tr. bicincta : Vinago bicincta, J erdon, ///. Ind. Orn. PI. XXI ; Madr. 
Journ. 1840, p. 13, (the male) ; and V. unicolor, Jerdon, ibid, (the 
female) : V. vernans, var. Lesson's Traiti. (Chota Hurrial, Hind, — Ben- 
gal). Green : the forehead and throat, brighter and more yellowish, 
as are the whole under-parts of the female, passing in both sexes 
to bright pale yellow towards the vent ; occipital region, ash-grey ; a 
stripe of yellow along the wing, formed by the margins of the greater 
and outer coverts; tail, grey above, with a blackish medial band on 
all but its middle feathers ; beneath blackish, tipped -with greyish- white ; 
and its lower coverts, cinnamon- coloured in the male, and mingled 
dusky-ash and buffy-whitish in the female. The male is further distin- 
guished by having a large buff- orange patch on the breast, and above 
this a lilach band, broader at the sides. Bill, greenish-glaucous : 
and the legs deep pinkish-red. Length eleven or twelve inches, by 
twenty, or nearly so ; and of wing generally about six inches, rarely as 
much as six and a half. 

This beautiful species is common to all India, but would seem to be 
more numerous in Lower Bengal than in the Peninsula ; and it occurs 
plentifully in Nepal, Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah, Arracan, and the Tenas- 
serim Provinces. In Bengal, however, it is much less numerous than Tr. 
phamicoptera ; and the flocks of the two species do not commingle. I once 
found its nest, half-way up a small mahogany tree, in the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden. The eggs, of a somewhat less lengthened form than in 
pigeons generally, measured an inch and a quarter in the long dia- 
meter. I have also obtained the young, which resemble in colouring, the 
adult female. The voice is much the same as in Tr. phcenicoptera. 

Mr. G. R. Gray has erroneously identified this bird with Tr. vernans, 
(L.), common in the Malay countries. The latter differs in its smaller 
size, having the wing but five inches and a half ; in the male having 
the entire crown and throat grey, instead of green ; in the very much 
greater development of the lilach colour above the orange of the breast, 
this enveloping the whole neck, whereas in Tr. bicincta, it is confined to 
a band above the breast ; and in the tail being grey above, with a blackish 
terminal band, and slight greyish extreme tips to the feathers ; whereas, . 

852 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

Tr. bicincta has a broad whitish terminal band to the tail, as seen un- 
derneath, and which appears of a dull ash- colour above. No two species 
can be more obviously distinct. 

Tr. malabarica : Vinago malabarica, Jerdon, 77/. Ind. Orn. (Art. 
V. bicincta) : V. aromatica, apud Jerdon, catal. (the male) ; and V. 
affinis, Jerdon, ibid, (the female) : also V. aromatica of Southern India, 
Jardine's Nat. Libr., Columbidce. This bird exactly resembles Tr. 
nipalensis in size and colouring, except in having a yellower throat in 
both sexes ; but is at once distinguished by the very different form 
of its beak, and by having no naked space round the eyes ; the buff 
tinge on the breast of the male is also more decided ; and its legs are 
' lake-red.' The female may be distinguished from that of Tr. bicincta, 
by the ash-colour of its forehead and entire crown, and by its unspread 
tail being wholly green above. 

Mr. Jerdon's specimens of this bird were obtained on the Western 
Coast of the Peninsula, and at the foot of the Neilgherries. I have 
never seen it from Northern India ; but to the eastward it inhabits 
Assam,* Sylhet, Tipperah, and appears to be equally common with 
Tr. nipalensis in the island of Ramree, Arracan. 

There is a nearly allied species in the Nicobar Islands, Tr. chlorop- 
tera, nobis, which differs in its superior size, having the wing seven 
inches, instead of six to six and a quarter ; and in the male hav- 
ing a large portion of the fore- part of its wing green, instead of deep 
maronne ; its breast also is less tinged with fulvous, and the forehead 
more albescent. 

Columba pompadora, Gmelin, founded on PI. XIX and XX of Brown's 
Zoology (1776), should be another nearly allied species, inhabiting 
Ceylon : but as both figure and description represent the back to be 
green, instead of maronne, like the rest of the mantle ; and as it is also 
described as " smaller than the turtle-dove," it clearly cannot be Tr. 
malabarica, and is probably a sort of representative (as regards its di- 
minutive size) of Tr. olax of the Malay countries. 

C. Sphenurus, Swainson : Sphenocercus, G. R. Gray, Hurrials 
with cuneiform tail, of which the central feathers are, in some spe- 
cies, much elongated beyond the rest, and their prolonged tips at- 
tenuated ; with the basal two- thirds or more of the bill soft and 

* It is figured among Dr. McClelland's drawings of the birds of Assam. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 853 

tumid ; and with the soles of the toes narrow, whereas in the preceding 
sections they are particularly broad and flat : a nude livid space sur- 
rounds the eyes, but less developed than in the first section ; and the 
curious character observable throughout the preceding group, of having 
the inner web of the third primary abruptly sinuated, does not exist 
in the present one. These birds are exclusively mountaineers, inhabit- 
ing the hill- forests, and are remarkable for the music of their notes. 

Tr. sphenura : Vinago sphenura, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, 
p. 173 ; Gould's « Century,' pi. LV1I : Kokla, or Kokhela, H. (a name 
also applied to the next species). Very similar in colouring to Tr. nipa- 
lensis and Tr, malabarica, but larger, and at once distinguished by its 
cuneiform tail ; by the greater development of the soft basal portion of 
its bill ; also by the green colour tinged in the male with buff of its 
crown ; by the considerable diminution of the maronne colour on the man- 
tle of the male, especially on the back, the posterior scapularies, the 
tertiaries, and the great wing- coverts, being green ; and by having but 
a slight pale yellow margin to only the great coverts of the wing. Tail, 
green above, with an ill-defined subterminal dusky, band to its outer 
feathers, and uniform dull albescent- grey, underneath ; its lower coverts 
long, and of a pale rufous-buff hue in the male, yellowish- white with 
green centres in the female, as are likewise the short outer ones of the 
male : breast of the latter, deeply tinged with buff. In the female, the 
subterminal dusky band on the three outer tail-feathers, is much better 
defined. Irides, coloured as usual ; the bill, and nude skin around the 
eye, livid; and legs, coral-red. Wing, seven inches to seven and a quar- 
ter : middle tail-feathers, five and three-quarters. 

This species inhabits the Himalaya, and is, I believe, more abundant 
in the south-eastern portion of the chain, as in Nepal and at Darjeeling ; 
though it is also common at Simla. Capt. Hutton writes, from Mus- 
soorie, — " This species is very numerous in the hills from April to June, 
when, having reared its young, and the rains having set in, it becomes 
scarcer, and gradually disappears during the rainy season. The nest is 
in high trees, composed of dried twigs, a mere platform ; and the eggs 
are two, and white. I heard the first Kooklah this year on the 12th of 
April." It is greatly prized by the natives as a cage-bird, on account of 
its singularly prolonged and varied musical note, which is an improve- 
ment upon that of Tr. phcenicoptera and its allies. A few are even 
brought in cages to Calcutta, and sell at a high price, as song-birds. 

854 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

I have heard the notes of both this and the next species, which I think 
are absolutely similar: they bear some resemblance to the human 
voice in singing, and are highly musical in tone ; being considerably 
prolonged and modulated, but always terminating abruptly ; and every 
time the stave is repeated exactly as before, so that it soon becomes 
wearisome to an European ear. 

Tit. cantillans : Vinago cantillans, nobis, Journ. As. Soc. XII, 166: 
Col. aromatica, var. A, Latham. Size and proportions of last, but the green 
colour replaced by a delicate pearl- grey, with a slight tinge of green 
here and there, more especially on the under- parts : forehead and throat 
whitish ; the crown and breast of the male tinged with ruddy, or 
weak maronne ; and the mantle marked as in TV. sphenura, with 
deeper maronne : a slight yellowish-white outer edging to the greater 
wing-coverts. Irides, as usual in this genus, or having a crimson ring 
encircling a violet one : bill and bare skin around the eye, glaucous- 
blue : and legs and toes, reddish-carneous. The female I have not 
yet seen. Length, thirteen by twenty-one inches ; closed wing, seven 

This species occurs in the N. W. Himalaya, as about Simla ; and 
is, I believe, rare in Nepal. I kept one alive for some time, that was 
stated to have been brought from Agra ; whither it had no doubt been 
carried from the Hills. Can it be a variety only of the last ? 

Tr. apicauda, Hodgson (mentioned in Mr. G. R. Gray's Catalogue 
of the Ornithological Specimens in the British Museum). Nearly allied 
to Tr. oxyura of the Malay countries, from which it is at once dis- 
tinguished by the pale yellow margins of its great wing-coverts, 
forming two narrow longitudinally oblique bars on the wing. General 
colour green, more yellowish towards the tail, and on the under- parts ; 
and tinged in the male with russet on the crown and breast : primaries, 
dusky-black : tail with its middle feathers greatly prolonged beyond 
the rest, and their elongated portion much attenuated ; its colour, grey 
with a medial blackish band, obsolete on the middle pair of feathers, 
which at base are yellowish-green. Bill, evidently glaucous- bluish ; 
and legs red. Length of wing, six inches and a half, and of middle 
tail-feathers, eight inches or more, passing the next pair by about three 

Inhabits the south-eastern Himalaya and the hill ranges of Assam ; 
being tolerably common at Darjeeling, 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 855 

Genus CARPOPHAGA, Selby (1835): Ducula, Hodgson (1836). 
Dukul, or Dunkul, H. The Dunkals. 

These fruit pigeons are mostly of large size, with broad- soled feet and 
strong hooked- claws, much as in the typical Hurrials, and a slender, 
generally somewhat lengthened, bill, having the terminal third only of 
its upper mandible corneous, and the plumage of the chin advancing 
very far forward, underneath the lower mandible. In a few species the 
base of the upper mandible expands to form a fleshy knob. Wings, in 
all the typical species, adapted for powerful flight. The plumage of 
the head, neck, and under- parts, and in some species, throughout, is 
blent and glossless, and mostly of a delicate grey, or a vinous hue, with 
never the peculiar burnish on the sides of the neck, so general among 
ordinary pigeons ; but many species have the upper-parts, wings, and 
tail, shining metallic green, which in some is bronzed or coppery, in 
others varied with rich steel-blue ; hence, several are among the most 
shewy of the pigeon tribe ; others, however, being simply black and 
white, though all are alike handsome when viewed in the fresh state, 
from the delicate beauty of the irides, bill, feet, and any nude skin about 
the head, the exquisite colouring of which is lost in the dry specimen. 
These birds are more especially developed in the great Oriental Archi- 
pelago, where the species are very numerous, two only occurring in 
India, and others in Australia and Polynesia. They are gregarious, like 
the Hurrials, and keep exclusively to the great forests, more especially 
to those of upland districts : and it would appear that they do not 
generally lay more than a single egg, and certain species invariably but 
one ; in which respect they resemble the celebrated Passenger Pigeon of 
North America (Ectopistes migratoria). At least three sub-genera occur, 
at the head of which may be placed Lopholaimus, G. R. Gray, founded 
on the Col. antarctica, Shaw (v. ditopha, Tern.), of Australia ; then 
follow the ordinary Dunkuls, of which the two Indian species are cha- 
racteristic ; and finally a short- winged type, with bill and feet as in the 
former, and colouring as in the division Chalcophaps (of the next sub- 
family), to which I apply the appellation Dendrophaps. 

C. insignis : Ducula insignis, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX, 162: Carp, 
cuprea, Jerdon, Madr. Journ. 1840, p. 12, and subsequently referred 
by him to Col. badia, Raffles, ibid. 1844, p. 164. (Dukul, Nepal ; Dwn- 
kul, H). Head, neck, and under-parts, pale ruddy lilach-grey ; the 

856 Drajts for a Fauna Indian. [No. 168. 

throat, albescent ; and crown, pure cinereous in some specimens, in 
others tinged with ruddy ; back and wings, deep vinaceous-brown ; the 
rump and upper tail- coverts dusky- cinereous, and the lower tail-coverts 
buffy- white : tail dusky, with its terminal fourth dull-ashy above, and 
albescent as seen from beneath. Bill, circle of eye-lids, and legs, intense 
sanguine, except the tip of the bill and the claws, which are horn- 
coloured ; orbital skin, livid ; and irides, " hoary or blue-grey," according 
to Mr. Hodgson, — " red," as stated by Mr. Jerdon. Length, twenty 
inches, by two feet and a half (Hodgson) ; nineteen by twenty- 
six inches (Jerdon) ; of wing, nine inches and a half ; and of tail, eight 
inches. Weight, a pound and a half. " The female," remarks Mr. Hodg- 
son, " is a fourth smaller than her mate, wants almost wholly the rich 
vinous tint of the male, and is, generally, more obscurely coloured." 

This diversity of colouring of the sexes reminds us of the Hurrials : 
and it may be remarked, that the general tints are not very different from 
those of Treron cantillans. The species inhabits the Himalaya and the 
Neilgherries ; and Capt. Phayre has obtained it in the Ya-ma-dong 
mountains, which separate Arracan from Pegu. It appears to keep always 
to a more elevated region than the next species, as near the snow line 
of the Himalaya ; and Mr. Hodgson states that it is " almost solitary" 
in its habits. 

The CoL badia, Raffles, v. capistrata, Tem., of the Malay countries, 
would appear to be very closely allied in its colouring, but considerably 
inferior in size : the two are regarded as distinct by Mr. G. R. 

C. sylvatica : CoL sylvatica, Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. II. 581 : C. cenea 
of India, Auctorum ; but not of Raffles, Lin. Tr. XIII. 316. (Dunkul, 
H. ; Pyoon-ma-dee, Arracan.) Head, neck, and under-parts, pearl- 
grey, purer on the crown and breast, and tinged elsewhere (and occasion- 
ally on the crown) with ruddy- vinaceous : back, wings, rump, and tail, 
shining coppery-green, with a dash of grey on the large alars, and greenest 
upon the tail ; under tail-coverts, dark maronne : chin, and immediately 
around the base of the bill, white. " Irides and orbits, lake-red ; bill 
slaty, at base above red, at tip bluish- white ; legs lake-red." (Jerdon.) 
Another observer describes the irides to be M deep pink ;" but Capt. 
Tickell writes — " Eyes, orange ; feet, rose-coloured ; bill, horny, bluish 
over the nostrils." Length, eighteen or nineteen inches ; expanse, two 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 857 

feet and a half ; closed wing, nine inches to nine and a half; and tail, six 
inches to six and a half : sexes alike. 

" This fine species," remarks Mr. Jerdon, " is found in all the lofty 
forests of the west coast, single or in small parties of three or four. 
It has a single, low, plaintive note." Capt. Tickell, in his ' List of 
birds collected in the jungles of Borabhum and Dholbhum,' states that 
it is " common in some parts ; preferring the open and large- timbered 
tracts. They are wild and difficult of approach, and go generally in 
small parties of four or five. The voice is deep, and resembles groan- 
ing." I have never seen it from the Himalaya ; but it is very abundant 
in the hill regions of Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Arracan ; also in the 
Tenasserim provinces ; and the Asiatic Society has received it from 
Java. A writer in the ■ Bengal Sporting Review' (No. II. p. 89,) ob- 
serves — " The habits of this handsome bird are strictly arboreal ; it is 
seldom seen but in the depths of the jungle ; is gregarious, like the 
Hurrials, but is only a cold weather resident in the eastern districts 
of Bengal, and breeds elsewhere.* It makes its appearance in Novem- 
ber, and leaves towards the end of March. Its favourite food consists 
of the bijer plum (Ziziphus jujuba), and a jungle berry, called by the 
natives Anygootah. When wounded, it evinces more spirit than the 
Columbidce appear generally to possess ; erecting the feathers of its head 
«,nd neck, and buffeting with its wings the hand that captures it. The 
note is harsh, not unlike the croaking of a bull-frog." 

There are several closely allied species : C. tenea, as figured (i. e. the 
head,) by Mr. G. R. Gray, in his illustrated work on the ' Genera of 
Birds', has a large round knob at the base of its upper mandible, of 
which the Indian species never presents the slightest trace ; and a beauti- 
ful specimen before me, from Borneo (?), exhibiting this knob, differs also 
from the Indian species in several other particulars. f Another, from the 
same region, exactly resembles the Indian species, except in its inferior 
size, having the wing but eight inches, and the rest in proportion ; this is 
doubtless the C. eenea of Raffles's list, described as " exceeding fifteen 
inches in length" : so that, in Sumatra, there would appear to be closely 
allied diminutives of both the Indian species. C. perspicillata of Java 
and the Moluccas also approximates a good deal, but is readily enough 

* Mr. Frith found a nest of this bird in the Garrow hills. 

t It seems to be the " Sumatran Pigeon, No. 12/' of Latham. 

858 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

Of the third great genus of fruit-eating pigeons, Ptilinopus, also 
largely developed in the eastern Archipelago and Polynesian Isles, no 
Indian species has been discovered ; the Pt. Elphinstonii of Sykes 
(seemingly) appertaining to the same group of ordinary pigeons as the 
British Cushat or Ring-dove. 

Sub-fam. GouRiNiE, Ground Pigeons. 

The great series of ground pigeons and ground doves, presents a 
marked gradation in form and character, from genera allied (excepting in 
the form of the feet) to the Carpophagce and Ptilinopodes of the preced- 
ing sub- family, to others which exhibit a nearer relationship to the spe- 
cies of the next sub- family. The size also varies remarkably, as both 
the largest and smallest pigeons known, are comprised in this group ; 
some attaining the magnitude of a hen-turkey, while others are 
scarcely bigger than a sparrow. These birds are of a shorter, more 
full, and grouse-like figure, than that of other pigeons, having the wings 
more or less rounded, and even bowed or hollowed in some instances ; 
the tarsi comparatively elongated, and the toes long and adapted for 
ground habits. Some even much resemble partridges in their mode of 
life : but even these, for the most part, prefer the cover of low brush- 
wood (as do also many partridges), the haunts of different species vary- 
ing ; and other genera are completely sylvan in their abode, feeding on 
the ground, more especially on fallen fruits and berries. Such are the 
magnificent Gouras, or great crowned pigeons (Goura coronata and G. 
Stoursii,) of the Moluccas and New Guinea, which in their plumage 
and colouring approximate Treron cantillans and Carpophaga insignis ; 
and the elegant hackled ground pigeons (Catenas), one of which (C. 
nicobaricusj abounds in the forests of the Malay peninsula, and in the 
Nicobar, Andaman, and Cocos Isles, thus almost verging on the eastern 
boundary of the territory whose fauna we here treat of. The general 
resemblance of this bird to Ptilinopus is striking in the living specimens 
of both ; and from what I have observed of it in confinement, I have 
great reason to doubt the current statement that it ever lays more than 
two eggs, the number so usual in the pigeon family : indeed, I think 
there is present reason to be sceptical of the statements that any pigeon 
lays more than that number ; though it is certain that several of the 
Gourinm are clad with down at an early age, and follow their parents 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 859 

soon after they are hatched. The only Indian species is among the 
least characteristic of the tribe, so much so, that it requires some know- 
ledge of its various Australian affines to comprehend its classification in 
the present group. It ranks under 

CHALCOPHAPS, Gould, (apparently a sylvan sub-genus of Phaps, 
Selby, exemplified by the common Bronze- wing of Australia). 

Ch. indica : Columba indica, Lin. : C. pileata, Scopoli : C.javanica (?), 
cyanocephala, et albicapilla, Gmelin : C. cyanopileata, et griseocapilla, 
Bonnaterre : C. super ciliar is, Wagler. (Rdm-G'hoogoo and R'hdj-G'hoo- 
goo, Bengal ; Gyo-ngyo, Arracan.) Back and wings, emerald- green, 
glossed with aureous ; the feathers distinct and scale-like : neck, breast, 
and under-parts, vinaceous-brown, paler below, and of a duller hue in 
the female ; two broad dusky bars, alternating with greyish-white, on 
the rump : tail, dusky in the male, its outermost and penultimate fea- 
thers whitish- grey, with black subterminal band : primaries, dusky : 
forehead of the male, white, passing as a supercilium over the eye ; the 
crown of the head, ash-grey : a white bar near the angle of the wing ; 
and lower tail- coverts, ashy, the longest, brown-black : inside of the 
wings, reddish cinnamon-brown. The female has a greyish- white fore- 
head, much less developed than in the other sex, and a narrow whitish 
supercilium ; crown of the head, rufescent ; no white bar at the shoulder 
of the wing ; the tail tinged with ferruginous ; and the neck and under- 
parts are browner than in the male. Irides, dark : bare skin around the 
eyes, deep purplish- carneous, as are also the legs ; and the beak is bright 
coral-red, except towards the nostrils, where somewhat dusky. Length, 
ten inches and a quarter, by seventeen and a half : and of wing, five 
inches and a half to five and three-quarters. 

This beautiful ground- dove is common in thick jungly situations, and 
especially among dense bamboos, throughout the country ; and it is 
equally abundant in the Malayan Archipelago. A writer before cited, 
remarks, — " The rapidity of flight it exhibits, exceeds that of any bird I 
am acquainted with ; except, perhaps, the brief decisive swoop of some of 
the smaller Falconidce : as in the progress of the latter, there is no appa- 
rent motion of the wings, but gliding along a few feet from the ground, 
diverging or rising just sufficiently to clear intervening obstacles, the 
ground dove skims with an arrow- like swiftness, and is come and gone 
in an instant ; scarcely giving the eye time to detect what has crossed 
the field of vision. When settled on the ground, however, it shews no 

860 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

unusual degree of fear, and may be approached near enough to notice its 
motions and brilliancy of colouring. Bare spots about the roots of 
large trees, particularly of the tamarind, appear to be favourite resorts ; 
and a pair will be occasionally found sunning themselves, arranging 
their plumage and scraping up the earth, and beating up the dust with 
expanded wings, after the manner of the Rasores, upon an old b'heetah — 
the artificially raised mound of a deserted village. They soon become 
reconciled to confinement ; and the voice is plaintive and monotonous, 
like an oft-repeated low tone on a distant flute."* The nest of 
this species I have never seen, but am informed that it is built in 
low thorny trees, and often in bamboo jungle : the eggs are two 
in number; and one taken from the oviduct (April 30th,) measures just 
an inch long by three-quarters of an inch across, and is of a less pure 
white than those of ordinary pigeons and doves. 

There is a nearly allied species in Australia, the Col. chrysochlora, 
Wagler, which Mr. G. R. Gray conceives to be the true Col. javanica 
of Gmelin. One character by which it may always be readily distin- 
guished, is the total absence of white on the forehead of both sexes. 
The rapidity of flight so remarkable in the Indian species, as compared 
with our other Columbidce, is equally observable in other sub-genera of 
Phaps, which might include even Peristera of Swain son. t 

Sub-fam. Columbismb. 

This consists of the ordinary pigeons and doves, the characters and 
habits of which are familiar to all. They are mostly arboreal, though 

* " Columbidce of the Eastern Districts."—' Bengal Sporting Review', No. 
IV, 1845. 

f A curious pigeon, in the guise of a Pterocles, is figured among the drawings 
prepared under the superintendence of the late Sir Alexander Burnes and Dr. 
Lord, marked Fahktuk (i. e. Facktah or dove, Hind.), from Cabul, which should be 
sought for in the Scindian deserts. Total length about a foot, the wing six inches and 
a half, and tail pointed and Pterocles-Mke, extending nearly two inches beyond the 
lips of the wings : tarsi and toes, which, though rudely drawn, would appear to be 
those of an ordinary pigeon, naked, and of a pink colour. Bill dusky, being also appa- 
rently that of an ordinary pigeon, and rather slender. General colour light isabelline, 
with darker margins to the feathers of the mantle and wings ; neck, breast and under- 
parts, plain, the breast rufescent, and the belly and lower tail-coverts whitish ; the 
outer tail-feathers would appear to have black tips : irides crimson. Should this here- 
after be verified, and constitute (as seems probable) a new genus of sand-doves, 
having the habits of the Gangas or Sand-grouse, it might bear the name Psammcenas 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 861 

many of them feed much on the ground, chiefly on grain and oleaginous 
seeds ; some of the species also nipping the young sprouts of vegetables. 
They fall into two principal and nearly allied series, those of the pigeons 
and the doves ; the latter subdividing into several well marked groups. 

Genus COLUMBA, Lin. (as restricted). Pigeons. (Kubbooter, H. ; 
Pair a, B.) 

These are of comparatively large size, and generally more robust in 
make, with square or subquadrate tail. The Indian species fall into two 
subgenera, viz. — rock pigeons, and wood pigeons : the former exempli- 
fied by the common house pigeon, the latter by the common Cushat of 

Rock Pigeons. In these, the tarse is rather longer, and the toes are 
better adapted for walking on the ground. They rarely, if ever, perch 
on trees, except under peculiar circumstances, as when a dove-cot of 
domestic pigeons is placed near a tree, with large and conveniently shaped 
boughs, in which case the pigeons will commonly resort to the latter to 
sit and roost, but never to form their nests. In the wild state, it is 
probable that they never perch at all; retiring to roost and nestle in 
caverns and small hollows of rocks or sea- cliffs, in the absence of which 
they select buildings that offer suitable recesses, breeding in the capitals 
of pillars, and whatever other convenient nooks they find. Hence, 
when unmolested, these house pigeons soon become familiarized with 
man, and require little encouragement to merge into the domestic con- 

C. intermedia, Strickland, An. and Mag. N. H. 1844, p. 39 : 
C. anas of India, Auctorum : C. anas, var., from Tartary, Wagler. 
(Jalalaya, H. ; Parwa, Mahr. ; Golah, of the pigeon- dealers.) (Indian 
Rock Pigeon.) The common wild blue pigeon of India is most closely 
allied to the European C. livia, but is of rather a deeper slaty-grey, with 
invariably a deep ash- coloured rump ; whereas C. livia has, as constant- 
ly, a pure white rump : there appears to be no other distinction between 
them ; unless it be that the play of colours on the neck is finer in the In- 
dian bird. The same difference in the colour of the rump is observable in 
the domestic pigeons of the two countries, whenever these tend to assume 
the normal colouring ; for the tame Indian pigeons are as clearly derived 
from the wild C. intermedia, as those of Europe are from C. livia. 

Colour slaty-grey, darker on the head, breast, upper and lower tail- 
coverts, and tail, which last has a blackish terminal band not well 

5 Y 

862 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

defined; nuchal feathers divergent at their tips, and brightly glossed 
with changeable green and reddish- purple ; two black bars on the 
wing* ; the primaries tinged with brownish, and the outermost tail- 
feather having its external web gradually more albescent to the base. 
I rides, brownish- orange ; the lids bluish- white : bill black, with a white 
mealiness at the tumid base of its upper mandible : and legs reddish- 
pink. Length, thirteen by twenty- three inches ; of wing, eight inches 
and three-quarters. 

Mr. Jerdon rightly remarks — " The blue pigeon abounds all over In- 
dia, being occasionally found in the more open spaces of jungles, especi- 
ally in rocky districts, and in the neighbourhood of water- falls ; but 
more generally in the open country, inhabiting walls of villages, pago- 
das, wells, and any large buildings, and breeding chiefly in old walls." 
Another observer, writing of it in the eastern districts of Bengal, remarks, 
— " Large colonies of these birds inhabit every moogur, mhutf, and 
mass of ruins in the country, where, in company with the (house) 

* In some specimens, particularly among the semi-domestic, slight dusky streaks 
occur on the shafts of the lesser wing-coverts, which, in the latter, are often much more 
developed, spreading across the feathers and spotting the whole wing : such birds 
much resembling (except in the rump not being white) a race of wild pigeons that are 
abundantly brought at times to the London markets— all of them shot birds ; but the 
latter have not, in addition, the two black bands on the wing well defined, as seems to be 
regularly the case with this variety of C. intermedia. Moreover, in the English bird, 
the spotting of the lesser wing-coverts does not occur on the shafts of the feathers, but 
partly margins each web, excepting near the edge of the wing, where the feathers are 
unspotted. 1 suspect that the wild rock pigeons of the south of England are mostly of 
the kind alluded to, which may be designated C. affinis ; while those of North Bri- 
tain, and it would seem of Europe generally, are true C. livia. 

Here, again, we have three closely allied species, analogous to the three yellow- 
footed Hurrials, Treron viridifrons, Tr. phoenicoptera, and Tr. chlor ig aster ; and if 
they are to be regarded as mere varieties of the same, what limits can be assigned to the 
further variation of wild species ? Col. leuconota is but a step more removed, and I doubt 
not would equally merge and blend with the others in a state of domesticity. Equally 
allied are— Treron sphenura and Tr. cantillans ; Tr. apicauda and Tr.oxyura; 
and if we grant also some variation of size, we have Tr. bicincta and Tr. vernans ; Tr. 
malabarica and Tr. chloroptera ; Turtur chinensis and T. suratensis ; T. meena and 
T. auriius ; §c. <SfC, which might be regarded as local varieties of the same, and we 
might thus go on reducing species ad infinitum, with no useful definite result, but to the 
utter confusion of all discriminative classification. However closely races may resem- 
ble, if they present absolute and constant differences, whether of size, proportions, or 
colouring, and if they manifest no tendency to grade from one to the other, except in 
cases of obvious intermixture, we are justified in considering them as distinct and se- 
parate ; and more especially, if each, or either, has a wide range of geographic distribu- 
tion, without exhibiting any climatal or local variation, 
f Rude Hindoo temple. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 863 

mynah and (rose- ringed) parroquet, they multiply to a vast extent; and 
the more so, as being held in religious veneration by some, and in spe- 
cial favour by all natives, their destruction is prevented wherever there 
exists the power. They are so devoid of timidity, that even in the 
midst of crowded cities, they will build on the cornices in the open 
verandahs of inhabited houses. When this takes place in the dwel- 
ling of a native, their tenure is secure ; as their making such selection is 
looked upon as a happy omen, and their dismission as the sure fore- 
runner of evil fortune. Pairs frequently take up their quarters among 
the domestic pigeons of the dove-cot ; indeed, it is not an easy matter to 
prevent their doing so, and intermingling the breed. In the cold wea- 
ther, they flock and frequent the paddy-stubble in large numbers."* 
Capt. Hutton informs me that this bird " is found in Affghanistan, 
where, as in many parts of India, it builds in wells and ruined buildings : 
the kazeezes, or Artesian wells of Affghanistan, are sometimes crowded 
with them. They occur also in the Doon, and are known as the common 
blue pigeon. At Mussoorie, I have only seen them in the cultivated 
fields, low down on the sides of hills, in warm situations." 

Being the original stock of the domestic pigeons of India, some 
notice of the latter should here be introduced. I have not, however, 
paid much attention to the several varieties ; the more choice of which 
are, besides, kept chiefly by the Moguls in the Upper Provinces, and it is 
there that observations should be recorded of them. A chapter is devot- 
ed to the rearing of pigeons in the Ayeen Akbaree, and a number of breeds 
or races enumerated ; but nothing definite can be understood of their 
distinguishing characters. . The different kinds are chiefly esteemed for 
performing sundry aerial evolutions, and returning at once from any 
height at an accustomed signal. But to quote the work cited : — " There 
are also many other beautiful pigeons, which, although they neither 
wheel nor tumble in the air, yet perform many pleasing tricks ; amongst 
these are the following, — The Kowkh, which seems to say the words 
yak-roo. The Luckeh [f ant ail], whose cooing is very agreeable, and he 
carries his head with astonishing pride and stateliness. The Lowtun, who 
upon being shaken, and then put upon the ground, jumps about with 
strange convulsive motions." (This may be seen at any of the Calcutta 
bird-dealers ; shaken two or three times in the hand, and the head more 

* " India Sporting Review," No. IV, 121. 

864 Drafts for a Fauna I/idica. [No. 168. 

especially, the poor bird tumbles about in a fit for some seconds, when 
the owner recovers it by blowing hard in its face. They are chiefly black 
and white, and bare-legged, with a crested occiput ; but present no 
other marked distinction.) *• The Kehrnee, who has such amazing 
affection for his hen, that when he has flown out of [human] sight, if 
she is exposed in a cage, he instantly drops down upon it : they des- 
cend either with both wings spread, or with one open, or else with 
both shut. The Ruhteh, is a pigeon famous for carrying letters : but 
any pigeon may be taught to do this. The Heshwaree ascends in the 
air till he is out of sight, and remains so [i. e. absent ?] for a day 
or two, after which he alights on the ground. There are also many 
other kinds that are valuable only on account of their beauty, such as 
the Sherazee* the Shushtree, the Shashenu, the Jougeeah, the Rezehdehn, 
the Muggessee, the Komeree, and the Gowlah : the last [or interme- 
dia in its natural state] is a wild pigeon, of which, if a few are taken, 
they are speedily joined by a thousand others of their kind. There are 
people who obtain a livelihood by sending these pigeons to feed abroad, 
and making them vomit up the grain, by giving them water strongly 
impregnated with salt. A pigeon is said to live to the age of thirty 
years." * * * Among the kinds commonly bred about Calcutta, are fine 
Powters (Gulla-p 'hoola-fj ,both feather-legged and bare-legged ; Fantails 
(Luckah) of indisputable merit, but poor helpless monstrosities, except in 
the eyes of connoisseurs, some of which have at least thirty- six tail- 
feathers]: ; and races with an occipital top-knot (Nuns), are common : but 
I have seen nothing like the variety commonly bred by English fanciers, 
and the faces generally are less pure (at least in Lower Bengal), with 
their peculiarities not so strongly brought out ; unless in the instance of 
the fantails, and sometimes powters, which are as preposterous carica- 
tures of the wild race, as the most extravagant admirer of Nature's freaks 
of the kind could reasonably desire, and as undeniably curious in shew- 
ing what domestication can produce. 

C. leuconota, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 22; Gould's * Cen- 
tury,' pi. LIX. (Hooded Rock Pigeon.) Size and form of last, the wings a 

* Sarajoo, Beng. A large black pigeon, with white rump, quills, and under-parts 
from the throat; generally, very true to this colouring. 

f ' Swollen throat,' or, literally, full gullet (gula.) 

X While drawing up this notice, I visited the bird bazar, and counted thirty-four 
feathers in a tail which was obviously imperfect. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indie a. 865 

trifle longer : cap, comprising the throat and ear- coverts, ashy- black : neck, 
rump (as in C. livia), and the entire under-parts, white, with a faint shade 
of ashy, except on the rump, deepest on the lower tail- coverts : inter- 
scapularies, scapularies, and wings, light brownish-grey, purer pale ashy 
on the medial coverts of the wings ; the primaries dull- blackish towards 
their tips, the secondaries broadly tipped with dusky, and the tertiaries 
and their coverts having a subterminal dusky band, and broad greyish 
tips, producing a series of three short bars, successively smaller to the 
front, and a trace of a small fourth band anteriorly : tail and its upper 
coverts ashy- black, the former having a broad greyish- white bar, oc- 
cupying the third quarter from the base of its middle feathers, and nar- 
rowing and curving forward to reach the tip of its outermost feathers. 
Bill, black : legs, pinkish-red : and irides, yellow. Common on the rocky 
heights of the Himalaya, inhabiting near the snow line. 

According to Capt. Hutton, there are two races, if not species, con- 
founded under C. leuconota; viz. — the true leuconota, as figured by 
Gould, with the white of the hind-neck spreading a considerable way 
down the back, and which (he informs me) is found only " far in the 
mountains ;" and another, of which the description wholly corresponds 
with the Nepal and Darjeeling specimens which have served for the 
above description, and which Capt. Hutton states — " inhabits the Doon 
all the year, but is there called ' Hill Pigeon/ while the other is known 
to collectors as the ' Snow Pigeon.' The Doon bird flies in small flocks 
during summer from the hills to the Doon in the morning, and returns 
to the hills in the evening." If there be really any difference, however, 
between the birds adverted to, I suspect it must be merely one of age. 

Subgenus Palumbus, Kaup. Wood Pigeons or Cushats. These 
have feet well adapted for perching, and a shorter tarse than in the 
preceding section, which also is more feathered towards the knee. They 
nidificate and habitually perch on trees.* 

C. palumbus, Lin. (European Wood Pigeon.) Upper-parts brownish- 
grey, the head, cheeks, throat, rump, and upper tail-coverts, pure ashy, 
paler on the lower tail- coverts ; fore-neck and breast vinaceous- ruddy, 
weaker on the belly, and albescent towards the vent : nape, and sides of 

* It should be remarked, that the European C. anas is completely intermediate to 
these two groups, in its form, colouring, habits, and nidification : it breeding sometimes 
in the cavities of trees, sometimes in rabbit-burrows. 

866 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

the neck and shoulders, glossed with changeable green and reddish-purple, 
the former predominating above, the latter below ; and upon each side of 
the neck a great patch of subdued white, in general largely developed, 
very rarely reduced to a mere trace : coverts forming the edge of the 
wing, and impending the winglet, white, as is also the exterior margin 
of each primary : tail grey at base, becoming blackish at its tip. Bill 
orange, with a white mealiness at the tumid base of its upper mandible : 
feet red : and irides light yellow. Length, seventeen by thirty inches ; 
and wing nine inches and a half. 

This well known European species inhabits the north-western Hima- 
laya, as about Simla, and in the Alpine Punjab. 

C. (?) Elphinstonii : Ptilinopus Elphinstonii, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1832, p. 149 : a Carpophaga, apud G. R. Gray. (Neilgherry Wood 
Pigeon.) " Upper-parts fuscous-brown ; the head, neck, and lower-parts, 
ashy ; nape black, the feathers marked with a white spot at tip ; inter- 
scapularies ruddy ; neck and breast glossed with emerald-green, the 
rump with ashy; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th primaries, having their 
outer web emarginated. Irides ochre-yellow." Length, fifteen or six- 
teen inches. 

I have had no opportunity of examining this fine species, but from 
the above description of its plumage, translated from Colonel Sykes's 
brief Latin definition, I cannot help doubting exceedingly the propriety 
of arranging it as a Carpophaga, and as strongly suspect that the present 
is its true systematic station. Colonel Sykes describes it to be " a rare 
bird in the Dukhun, met with only in the dense woods of the ghauts. 
Not gregarious. Stony fruit found in the stomach. Sexes alike. Flight 
very rapid. The lateral skin of its toes is very much developed." Mr. 
Jerdon has only noticed it "in the dense woods on the summit of the 
Neilgherries, in small parties, or single. It is a retired and wary bird. I 
found various fruits," he adds, " and small shells, in its stomach." 

C. pulchricollis, Hodgson, (mentioned in Mr. G. R. Gray's catalogue 
of the specimens of Columbida in the British Museum). (Ashy Wood 
Pigeon.) Considerably smaller than the two preceding species ; and ge- 
neral colour dusky- grey, much paler and faintly tinged with lake below, 
more or less whitish towards the vent, and subdued white on the lower 
tail- coverts : tail blackish : head, cheeks, and ear- coverts, pure light 
ashy, passing to whitish on the throat ; the sides of the neck and breast, 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna lndica. 867 

brightly glossed with the usual changeable green and reddish- purple, 
the former predominating ; and above this the feathers are somewhat 
rigid, and black at base, with broad isabelline tips, whitish at the end, 
forming a large patch on each side confluent behind. Corneous portion 
of the bill, apparently pale yellow : and legs probably pink, but fading 
to amber in the dry specimen, of which colour are also the claws. Length 
of wing eight and a half to nine inches. Common in the wooded region 
of the eastern Himalaya. 

C. punicea, Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. XI, 462.* (Pompadour Wood 
Pigeon.) General colour deep vinaceous-ruddy, weaker below, and 
most of the feathers margined with glossy changeable green and amethys- 
tine-purple, the former colour prevailing on the neck and sides of the 
breast, the latter elsewhere : whole top of the head, including the occiput, 
whitish-grey : alars and caudals blackish ; the primaries tinged external- 
ly with grey : upper and lower tail- coverts nigrescent : bill yellow at 
tip, its basal half blackish in the dry specimen : " irides, orange with a 
red outer circle : feet dull lake." Length, about sixteen inches ; of wing 
eight inches ; and tail, seven inches. 

This handsome pigeon inhabits the hill forests of Central India, also 
those of Assam, and would appear to be tolerably common in the Island 
of Ramree, Arracan. I have never seen it from the Himalaya. 

C. Hodgsonii, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 16: C. nipalensis, 
Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. V, 122. f (Speckled Wood Pigeon.) Above, 
dark vinaceous-ruddy, with white specks on the medial coverts of the 
wing : head and upper- part of front of neck cinereous, with a vinous 
tinge in some specimens : rump, upper and lower tail-coverts, dusky- 
ash : tail ashy- black ; the great alars brownish -dusky, the first three pri- 
maries having a slight whitish outer margin in some specimens ; and the 
exterior wing-coverts are greyish: nape, sides of neck, and lower parts, 
vinaceous-ruddy at base of feathers, margined (more broadly on the side 
of each feather of the breast) with vinous-grey, which increases in quan- 
tity upwards, till the surface of the plumage appears solely of this hue ; 
while the dark vinous tint predominates more and more towards the 
belly; the red portion of each feather appears thus as an obtusely 
pointed spot upon those of the breast, and on the feathers of the neck 

* Type of Alsocomus, Tickell. 

f Type of Dendrotreron, Hodgson. 

868 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

is darker and acutely pointed, being there uniformly edged with the 
pale ashy margin. Bare orbital space livid : bill, purplish -black : " irides 
hoary, or grey-white : legs and feet black-green to the front, yellowish 
elsewhere ; claws clear lively yellow/' Length, about fifteen inches, by 
twenty- five or twenty- six inches in alar expanse ; wing nine inches to 
nine and a quarter. " Female," according to Mr. Hodgson, " rather less, 
and differing in having the bluish-grey of the head less pale and clear, 
and in wanting almost entirely the purplish tinge which adds so much 
beauty to certain parts of the plumage of the male, as especially the up- 
per part of his back, and the lower part of his belly." 

"This elegant species," continues Mr. Hodgson, "is found in the 
woods of the valley of Nepal. It is very shy, seldom or never entering 
the cultivated fields for the purpose of feeding, but keeping almost 
always to the woods, and living upon their produce, in the shape of 
grass, seeds, or berries." It would seem to be not uncommon near 
Darjeeling : and Captain Wroughton informs me, that it is also tolerably 
numerous about Simla and Mussooree, where it frequents the pine 
forests on the higher mountains, as Whartoo and the vicinity of Kotghur. 
They are generally seen in flocks of six or seven, which are particularly 
shy and difficult of approach. 

C. Hodgsonii is nearly allied to C. arquatrix of Southern Africa ; but 
is at once distinguished from that bird by its blackish bill, by the grey 
upon its head and neck, and by the reduced development of the nude 
space surrounding the orbits. Another allied African species, is the 
C. guinea, Lin. (v. trigonigera of Wagler). 

The DOVES — 

Are generally smaller and more delicately formed, with the tail com- 
monly more or less lengthened and graduated, this latter character at- 
taining a high degree of development in certain groups of them. The 
nearest approach to the wood pigeons is exhibited by the North Ame- 
rican passenger doves (Ectopistes, Sw.), which are especially charac- 
terized by having a long, much graduated, and sharp-pointed tail, and 
powerful wings, of which the first two primaries are equal and longest ; 
they have the true pigeon-like play of colours on the sides of the neck. 
The African JEna capensis has been generally placed near Ectopistes, but 
(so far as can be judged from drawings,) would appear rather to approx- 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 869 

imate certain of the Macropygice of the Eastern Archipelago, as M. 
Reinwardtii. To the last named group, one Indian species apper- 

MACROPYGIA, Swainson : Coccyzura, Hodgson. (Cuckoo-doves.) 

The species of this division are remarkable for their very broad, long, 
and much graduated, tail, and general Cuckoo-like figure. They chiefly 
inhabit the great Eastern Archipelago, a single species occurring in the 
Himalaya, and another in Australia. For the most part, they are con- 
fined to rocky upland forests, and subsist much on berries, often des- 
cending to the ground to pick up fallen mast and fruits : upon being 
disturbed, their great broad tail shews to much advantage, as they rise. 
The species of the Archipelago are very injurious to the pepper and 
other spice plantations ; and their flesh is highly esteemed for the table, 
from the fine flavour said to be imparted to it by the various aromatic 
berries on which they feed. 

M. leptogrammica. Col. leptogrammica, Temminck, pi. col. 248 : 
Coccizura tusalia, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. XIII, p. 936. (Rayed 
Cuckoo-dove.) Upper-parts dusky, with numerous narrow rufous bars 
on the mantle, wings, rump, and upper tail- coverts ; tail more obscurely 
barred in the male : forehead, chin, and throat, whitish, tinged with lake : 
the occiput, neck, and breast, dull pale vinaceous, glossed (less brightly on 
the breast) with changeable green and amethystine-purple : lower- parts 
yellowish-albescent, the under tail-coverts pale buff; all but the four 
middle tail-feathers ashy, with a broad black subterminal band ; and above 
this band, the exterior web of the outermost tail-feather is whitish. 
Female having the tail barred with narrow rufous cross-lines, like the rest 
of the upper- parts ; and the fore-neck and breast are similarly rayed with 
alternate dusky and pale buff. The tail-feathers, more especially of the 
female, have their inner webs rufous at base. Bill black : cere, orbits, 
and legs, red. Wings seven and a half to eight inches ; middle tail- 
feathers the same, the outermost four inches and a half. 

The above descriptions are taken from a fine characteristic male and 
female : considerable variation of plumage occurring, as many specimens 
are in different degrees intermediate. This bird inhabits the eastern 
Himalaya, and is common at Darjeeling. 

TURTUR, Selby. (The Turtle-doves.) (G'hoogoo, Bengal ; Fachtah, 
H. ; Gya, Arracan.) 

5 z 

870 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

Small and delicately formed tree-pigeons, with the tail moderately 
graduated, or merely rounded, having always broad grey, or greyish- 
white, tips to its graduating outer- feathers ; neck devoid of iridescent 
gloss. They feed chiefly on the ground, upon grain, small pulse, and 
oil-seeds ; assemble in small flocks except when breeding, and generally 
prefer groves and coppices which intersperse the open country, coming 
much into gardens, where sometimes they may be seen nearly as familiar 
as domestic pigeons. In such situations they breed abundantly, con- 
structing the slight platform nests common to all arboreal Columbidce ; 
and in warm climates, they have no special season for propagation, but 
produce alike at all times of the year, the same as domestic pigeons. 
As compared with the large true wood pigeons, these birds are certainly 
much more terrene in their habits* ; but they grade towards the wood 
pigeons in Turtur picturatus (V. DufresniiJ of the Isle of France, which, 
however, is a true turtle-dove, having merely a larger bill than its con- 
geners. Their geographical range is confined to the Old World, inclu- 
sive of Australia ; and the only Australian species (T. humeralisj is co- 
loured like the Geopelia ; which last are indeed but a sub-genus of the 
present group, consisting of smaller and more slender-formed species, 
with delicate rayed plumage, and which are confined in their distribution 
to the Malay countries and Australia. t 

T. risorius : Col. risoria, Lin. (Kalhak, Kahalak, Kahalaki, or Pdnr 
G'hoogo, Beng. ; Dhor Fachtah, S. India.) (Grey turtle-dove.) Uniform 
light grey- brown ; the edge of the wing, and lower tail- coverts, pure 
ashy, somewhat deeper on the latter ; head delicate pale vinous-grey, 
whiter on the forehead and throat ; the nape and under-parts less ashy, 
and more vinaceous, passing to light greyish towards the vent ; a narrow 
black half-collar on the hind-neck ; primaries dusky, with slight whitish 
margins bordering their tips ; and closed tail uniform with the back 

* They resemble the generality of more dove-like Gourince (as do also the Rock Pi- 
geons), in having the outer toe shorter than the inner ; which, accordingly, would indi- 
cate a terrene propensity. 

f G. striata (v. Col. sinica, malaccensis, bantamensis, fyc.), common in the 
Malay countries, appears also to inhabit the Mauritius. Living specimens are occa- 
sionally brought to Calcutta, where I have kept both it and T. humeralis ; and being 
thus familiar with both, 1 do not agree with Messrs. Gould and G. K. Gray in making 
a Geopelia of the latter. It serves, however, to show the immediate connexion of the 
two sub-groups. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 871 

above, all but its middle feathers successively more distinctly marked 
with black about the middle, passing into greyish on the basal half, 
and to white on the terminal, successively more strongly pronounced. 
Irides crimson ; bare orbital skin white ; the bill black ; and feet dark 
pinkish-red. Length thirteen inches by twenty or a trifle less ; wing six 
inches and a half, or sometimes rather more. 

Common and generally diffused, frequenting hedges and trees in the 
neighbourhood of cultivation, and even low bush-jungle : it inclines more 
to be gregarious than the other species. To the eastward, however, it 
seems to be unknown in Arracan. According to Mr. Strickland, the 
identical species occurs in Northern Africa ; and it is likewise stated to 
inhabit the south-eastern part of Europe, as Hungary, Turkey, and the 
Islands of the Lower Danube.* In Southern Africa, it is replaced by a 
nearly allied species, the Col. vinacea, Gmelin, to which Mr. G. R. 
Gray refers T. erythrophrys of Swainson ; while Mr. Strickland iden- 
tifies the latter with T. risorius, and considers T. semitorquatus of 
Swainson to be the vinacea "\ Mr. Gray, again, does not mention semi- 
torquatus of Swainson, but gives semitorquatus, Riippell, as distinct from 
either. T. vinaceus is distinguished from T. risorius, by its generally 
much darker colour, by having the under tail-coverts whitish instead 
of deep ash, by its much broader black nuchal semi-collar, and by its 
winglet and primary- coverts being dusky instead of pale ash-grey. It is 
also rather smaller than the Indian species ; in which respect, and in the 
breadth of the nuchal half-collar, the common tame cream-coloured (or 
pale buff- backed) doves, which are abundantly bred in captivity both in 
Europe and in India, agree with the South African, rather than with the 
wild Indian species. As for Swains'on's two alleged species, I can identify 
neither of them satisfactorily ; his figure of T. erythrophrys, is evidently 
faulty in the colouring ; but he speaks of " the belly, flanks, vent, and 
under tail-coverts, as " clear cinereous," which should distinguish it 
from T. vinaceus, while its " broad black semi- collar, margined by a narrow 
cinereous line," instead of a slight greyish-white one, should equally 

* Bull, de V Acad, des Sciences de Saint- Petersburgh, 1837, No. 46 ; as quoted in the 
Rev. Zool.par la SocieU Cuvierienne, 1838, p. 293. 

f Vide Strickland, in An. $ Mag. N. H. 1844, p. 38; Gray's illustrated ' Genera 
of Birds'; and Swainson's ' Birds of West Africa,' Vol. II., Nat. Libr. 

872 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

separate it from T. risorius ; again, " the orbits are naked and rich red," 
which applies to neither of them : his T. erythrophrys has the wing seven 
inches, and his T. semitorquatus only five inches and a half ; both the 
Indian and South African species being in this respect intermediate. T. 
semitorquatus has, further, " the belly, vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts, 
cinereous-white," which agrees sufficiently with some specimens, appa- 
rently females, of T. vinaceus, the (presumed^ males having at least the 
abdomen scarcely paler than the breast; but " above all, the inner toe is 
one- twentieth of an inch longer than the outer," whilst " in erythrophrys, 
this proportion is almost reversed, or at least the inner toe is not even 
equal to the outer." In both the Indian and South African birds, the 
inner toe is shorter than the outer. 

Besides the common cream-coloured domestic race, a small albino 
variety is frequently bred in cages, in different parts of India, with wing 
measuring five and a half to six inches ; but its form of tail and other 
proportions are as in T. risorius and T, vinaceus. This bird is often 
interbred with the cream-coloured race, producing offspring of intermedi- 
ate size, and shade of colouring.* The coo of T. risorius somewhat resem- 
bles the sound cuckoo, pronounced slowly, and with a pause between the 
syllables, the second being much prolonged and at first rolled. It may 
not unfrequently be heard in moonlight nights. 

T. humilis : Col. humilis, Temminck : Asiatic Pigeon, Latham. 
(Serotee Fachtah, Hind.; Golabee — or rose-coloured — G'hoogoo, Tdmd- 
hhiiree — or copper-cup, — and I'tkuiyd — or brick- coloured — dove, Beng. ; 
Goodko — G'hoogoo ? i. e. dove, — Scinde ; Gyo-leng-bya, Arracan.) (Red 
Turtle-dove.) Much smaller and of a less elongated form than the 
last ; and general colour fine vinous-red, weaker below ; the head 
ash-grey, paler towards the forehead, and whitish on the chin ; a 
black half- collar on the nape ; the rump and upper tail- coverts dusky- 
ash ; vent and lower tail-coverts white, the former tinged with ashy ; 
middle tail-feathers ash-brown ; the rest successively more broadly 
tipped with white, which spreads up the whole exterior web of the 
outermost feather, and their basal two-thirds (more or less) blackish ; 
margin of the wing grey for the anterior half; the primaries and 

* The "Jungle Pigeon" of Latham would seem to be merely a domestic variety 
of this kind. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 873 

their coverts dusky, and the secondaries greyish- dusky. Irides dark 
brown ; bill black ; and legs purplish-red. Length nine inches and 
a half ; and of wing five and a quarter. Female rather smaller. The 
young nearly resemble the adults of T. risorius, except in their much 
smaller size, their general darker colour, especially upon the head, and 
in wholly wanting the vinaceous tinge : in this state of plumage, they 
doubtless constitute the supposed small race of T. risorius, mentioned 
by Major Franklin. 

The Red Turtle-dove is generally diffused over the country, though 
much less numerously than the grey one. It also keeps more to 
cover, frequenting groves and high thick hedges. Its coo is short and 
grunt- like. 

T. senegalensis : Col. senegalensis, Lin. : C. cambaiensis, Gmelin , 
C. cegyptiaca, Latham; C.maculicollis, Wagler: — figured, but not well, 
and much over-coloured, in Denon's Egypt. (Tortroo Fachtah, RindJ 
(Necklaced Turtle-dove.) Brown above, the wing-coverts (except to- 
wards the scapularies) pure light grey ; winglet, primaries and their 
coverts, dusky, the secondaries tinged with grey ; head, upper-part of neck, 
and breast, pinkish-vinaceous, paling below, and passing to white on the 
belly and lower tail- coverts ; the sides of the neck anteriorly (and meeting 
imperfectly in front,) adorned with a large patch of furcate feathers, 
black at base, with a round rufous spot on each tip : in the living bird, 
these hardly appear at all when the neck is drawn in ; and unlike the 
preceding species, there is no bar or other marking on the nape : 
tail graduated to the depth of an inch, and its feathers attenuate a little 
towards their tips ; the middle tail-feathers are brown ; the rest white 
for the terminal half or nearly so, and black for the remainder. Irides 
dark with a white inner circle ; bill blackish ; and legs lake-red. Length 
ten inches or ten and a half, by fourteen inches ; closed wing five inches. 

This delicate little species abounds in most parts of the peninsula, 
also in Western and Upper India generally, and it inhabits the Rajmehal 
and Monghyr hills in Bengal ; but in Lower Bengal, I have never 
seen or heard of it wild, nor does it appear to occur in the Himalaya, 
or in the countries to the eastward. In the peninsula, according 
to Mr. Jerdon, "it abounds both in low jungles, and near villages and 
cantonments, being found especially towards the north in every garden, 

874 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

and frequenting stable-yards, houses, &c." Like T. risorius, it is 
common to India and North Africa; and Mr. Strickland states, that 
it "inhabits the Turkish burial-grounds at Smyrna and Constantinople, 
which are dense forests of cypress-trees. It is strictly protected by 
the Turks, and it was with some difficulty," he adds, " that I could 
obtain a specimen. It was perhaps originally introduced there by man ; 
but now seems completely naturalized."* The coo of this species is 
low, subdued and musical, a dissyllabic sound repeated four or five 
times successively, and of which its Hindoostanee name Tortroo is a sort 
of imitation. 

T. Suratensis : Col. suratensis, Gmelin, founded on la Tourterelle 
de Surate of Sonnerat : C. tigrina, Temminck : C. turtur, Lin., var., 
figured in Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom,' viii. 290. (Chitroka Fachtah, 
Hind, ; Chanral G'hoogoo, or Telia G'hoogoo, Beng. ; Kangskiri, Bhagul- 
pore ; Chitla, Upper Provinces ; Lay-byouk, Arracan.) (Speckled 
Turtle-dove.) Above blackish or dusky ; each feather having two pale 
rufous terminal spots, which latter enlarge, and spread up each side of 
the feather, upon the wing- coverts, the blackish contracting to a central 
streak, with broad pale vinaceous lateral borders ; edge of the wing 
light grey ; head greyish, tinged with vinaceous, which latter prevails 
on the breast and under- parts, passing to white on the belly and 
under tail- coverts ; a broad half- collar on the nape, consisting of black 
feathers divergent at the tips, each tip ending in a small round white 
spot : tail broad and graduated to the depth of an inch and a half 
or more, each feather attenuating towards its tip ; the middle tail- 
feather brown, the outermost greyish-white for nearly the terminal half, 
having the rest black, and the other tail-feathers successively inter- 
mediate in their colouring. Irides dark hazel, surrounded by a reddish 
schlerotica ; beak dull leaden-black ; and legs dark purplish-red. Length 
twelve inches by sixteen and a half ; of wing five inches and three- 
quarters : female rather less. 

A very familiar species, and generally diffused, both throughout India 
and in the Malay countries ; coming very much into gardens, even of large 
towns. It abounds even more than T. risorius, in the vicinity of Cal- 

* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1836, p. 100. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 875 

cutta, where it inhabits every patch of garden ; T. risorius keeping 
generally a little away from houses. Its coo is musical and pleasing. 
Mr. Jerdon mentions having " seen a nearly albino variety once or 
twice, of a pinkish-white colour throughout." This species has been 
erroneously identified with the T. chinensis (Col. chinensis, Scopoli, 
vel C. risoria, var. B, Latham), founded on la Touterelle grise de la Chine 
of Sonnerat, by whom it is correctly figured. The latter is distin- 
guished by its larger size, having the wing and tail respectively six 
inches long; by the deep ash- colour, instead of white, of its lower tail- 
coverts ; and especially by having the back and wings plain unspotted 
dark brown, with merely a slight tinge of grey at the bend of the wing 
only ; the spotting of the nape is precisely similar. This bird inhabits 
China, and the Society possess a specimen of it from Chusan. 

T. meena : Col. meena, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830, p. 149: C. 
agrkola, Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. II, 581 ; very closely allied to, if not 
identical with, C. orientalis, Lath., founded on la Tourterelle brune de 
la Chine of Sonnerat, which is certainly also C. gelastis, Temminck, pi. 
col. 550. (Kullah Fachtah, Hind. ; Sdm G'hoogoo, Beng. ; H'hulgah, 
of the Mahrattas; Gyo-pein-doo-ma, Arracan.) (Fox-coloured Turtle- 
dove). Vinaceous-brown, lighter on the belly; more or less ruddy, ashy, 
or even duskyish, above ; the rump and upper tail- coverts deep grey ; 
vent and lower tail-coverts lighter grey ; crown and forehead more or 
less ashy, passing to whitish towards the bill ; throat also whitish in 
some specimens ; on the sides of the neck a patch of black feathers, mar- 
gined with greyish-white, forming a series of three or four lines of the 
latter hue ; scapularies, and a greater or less proportion of the wing- 
coverts, black, broadly margined with rufous all round their tips ; coverts 
of the secondaries pale bluish-ash, at least in some specimens ; winglet, 
and primaries with their coverts, dusky, the primaries slightly edged 
with whitish ; tail dusky- ash, its outer feathers successively more broad- 
ly tipped with whitish-ash, whiter on the outermost and beneath ; irides 
orange. Length about eleven inches and a half ; of wing commonly 
seven inches. 

This bird is also pretty generally diffused throughout India, and occurs 
upon the Himalaya as a summer visitant, arriving in pairs towards 
the end of March, as I am informed by Capt. Hutton. Mr. Jerdon 

876 Drafts for a Fauna Indica. [No. 168. 

observed it to be tolerably abundant in the forests of Goomsoor, 
south of Cuttack, associating in flocks of various sizes. It is enumerat- 
ed by Mr. Elliot, he adds, as found in the Southern Mahratta country ; 
but was not observed by himself in the forest of Malabar. In the Hima- 
laya, and in the eastern countries of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan, it ap- 
pears to be plentiful, inhabiting alike the hills and plains ; and it is 
common in the Bengal Soonderbuns. A Javanese specimen is rather 
large, and very dull-coloured ; less vinaceous underneath, with more 
grey on the head, and less rufous margining the feathers of its mantle, 
than in any Indian specimen I have seen ; nevertheless, the species is 
probably identical.* It is nearly allied to T. auritus, Ray (Col. tur- 
tur, Lin.), of Europe, which it resembles in its manners, and in its coo : 
but is distinguished by its superior size ; " orange irides instead of 
yellow ; by the whole head (in some), neck, shoulders, breast and belly, 
being richer vinaceous ; in the back and rump being ash, and vent and 
lower tail-coverts light cinereous," &c. The specimens of T. auritus from 
India and China, mentioned by Latham, may accordingly be presumed to 
have been of the present species. Another nearly allied dove would 
seem to exist in la Tourterelle cendrie de VIsle de Luqon of Sonnerat, 
upon which are founded Col. cinerea, Scopoli, and C. turtur, var. C, of 
Latham. Living specimens of the present species, and of the Grey, 
Red, and Speckled, Turtle-doves, also of the Ground Dove, and of Tre- 
ron phanicoptera and Tr. bicincta, are almost always to be seen for 
sale at the shops of the Calcutta bird- dealers. 

Memorandum. — The only known Indian Pigeons now wanting to the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, are Columba Elphinstonii, and 
Himalayan specimens of C. palumbus ; also females of Treron cantillans, 
and of Carpophaga insignis ; and good specimens of Col. leuconota are ac- 
ceptable, as also of C. pulchricollis. Of species that require verification, 
there remain the Treron pompadora of Ceylon, and Psammanas Bur- 
nesii of the Western Deserts (?). Also Col. malabarica, Lath. {Colombe 
brame of Temminck), founded on la Tourterelle de la cdte de Malabar 
of Sonnerat. Size of Turtur risorius ; head, back, and wing, pale ash- 
grey ; the neck and breast weak vinous-grey ; belly white ; some oval 

* This Javanese bird is certainly T. orientalis, (Lath.), and gelastis, (Tem.) ; the 
former of which names, holds precedence for the species. 

1845.] Drafts for a Fauna Indica. 877 

black spots on the greater wing-coverts. Tail marked with white as in 
the other Turtle-doves. Bill, irides, and feet, red. Whether the Indian 
Carpophagce ever lay more than a single egg in each nest, is also a sub- 
ject for investigation. 

April 4th, 1846. E. B. 

Postscript. — Some notes on the Indian Colwnbidce, with which I have been oblig- 
ingly favoured by Capt. Tickell, arrived too late to be incorporated in the foregoing 
paper, but may nevertheless be advantageously appended to it. 

( < Treron phcenicoptera. These birds are very common throughout the high stony 
barren parts of Singbhoom, and in the Mautbhoom district, confining themselves to 
the hurgoolur and peepul trees. They breed in the thick damp forests to the south- 
ward, towards Sumbulpoor, during the rains ; at which time not a single specimen is 
to be found in these parts. The Oorias sell numbers of the young ones, which are taken 
to Calcutta.* 

" Tr. bicincta. I killed a